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+ ZP lb3b ^72 DDDS 



DATE DUE 




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WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 

REVIEW 




Volume V 



May, 1972 



Number 1 



RECEIVED 

P iblished By 

SEP 121972 

PERIODICALS uthHi\i,*i£NT 
WEST GqQEGnMC]HQMjEJ£EGE LIBRARY 
CARROLLTON, GEORGIA 



A Division of the University System of Georgia 



CARROLLTON, GEORGIA 



Published by 

WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 

Ward B. Pafford, President 
John M. Martin, Academic Dean 

Faculty Research Committee 

Thomas A. Bryson Doyle L. Mathis 

Jesse Burbage Roald Y. Mykkeltvedt 

Alex Corriere Carole E. Scott 

Donald Gibbons James A. Wash 
Benjamin W. Griffith 

Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon and William L. Lockhart, Assistant Editors 



The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of 
West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibHography includes doctoral dissertations, major 
recitals and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or ac- 
cepted are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive 
and this inventory appears as the first issue in any year. The abstracts 
of all master's theses and educational specialist's projects written at 
West Georgia College are included as they are awarded. 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 
REVIEW 



Vol. V, No. 1 



May, 1972 



TABLE 

of 

CONTENTS 



Page 
A Country Called Black: Some Observations 

on the Resilience of Coketown David Weaver 3 

Cholesterol- Methods of Control Jack L. Grogan 8 

and W.Glenn Esslinger 

"Operation Magic Fire": Germany's Involvement 

in the Spanish Civil War Melvin Steely 12 

What Are Those Clouds? Barium Gas! B.E. Powell 26 

The Sea in Four Romantic Poems C.H. Edwards, Jr. 29 

A Study of Value Judgements in a Sample of Adults 

From Two West Georgia Counties Pearl Nix 35 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 49 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty 

as of January 1, 1972 64 



Copyright © 1972, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 



Digitized by tine Internet Arcinive 

in 2011 witin funding from 

LYRASIS IVIembers and Sloan Foundation 



http://www.archive.org/details/westgeorgiacolle510unse 



A COUNTRY CALLED BLACK: 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

RESILIENCE OF COKETOWN 

By DAVID WEAVER* 



The recent spate of environmental crusades in the United States has 
made it tempting to assume that objectionable living conditions and at- 
tempted remedies are something new m the world, a space-time problem 
of only late twentieth-century and uniquely American dimensions. 
Nothing could be further from the truth. 

Geographers and other scientists with environmental concerns who 
are anxious to change social attitudes and to build a new order ought 
to be aware of the historical record. In the United States where the full 
impact of the Industrial Revolution on the habitat is only just being 
realized, this record is relatively short, but in many parts of Europe 
industrial urban transformations have been affecting the older rural 
order for several centuries. It is here perhaps more than anywhere else 
in the world that industrialization has taken toll of the environment, 
and it has done so in limited areas where its effects appear all the more 
striking. Among- these concentrated urban areas the English Black 
Country has vied with the German Ruhr to become the most infamous. 
It is the classic ground of industrialism, the original Coketown. 

The Black Country region and Birmingham its major city were built 
essentially on profits from iron and steel production. No other location 
in the world was blessed at any time with a more favorable combination 
of raw material sources. As an American consul in Birmingham 
reporting to the State Department observed, "Nature did for the Black 
Country all she could; indeed everything except literally building the 
furnaces themselves. She brought together all that was needed to set 
and keep them in blast. The iron ore, coal and lime— the very lining 
of the furnaces— were all deposited close at hand for the operation."^ 
On this physical base between 1800 and 1900 the Black Country and its 
metal-working society mushroomed to occupy an area of approximately 
200 square miles. It is true that coal and iron had been mined there for 
centuries, but it was steam power that gave the district its distinctive 
character, made it a phenomenon, and caused the populations of towns 
like Wolverhampton, Walsall, Tipton. West Bromwich and Smethwick 
to increase seven or eight times in three generations. By the late nine- 

*Assistant Professor of Geography, West Georgia College. 

^ E. Burritt, Walks in the Black Country and its Green Borderland. (London: 
Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1868), p. 160. 



teenth century the area was the major seat of pig-iron production and 
the hardware center of the country producing about one-quarter of the 
total British pig-iron output and one-third of the finished wrought iron. 
Since that time for a variety of reasons the primary metal industry has 
declined into insignificance, but the closing down of the multitude of 
blast furnaces and refineries left as its legacy a host of small metal-using 
factories which have provided the nucleus for continued industrial ex- 
pansion down to the late twentieth century. 

The rapid development of the Black Country converted an 
agricultural and handicraft society within a lifetime. There was a popu- 
lation explosion as job opportunities beckoned the dense rural popula- 
tion of surrounding areas. The in-migration was much greater than the 
ability of the construction industry to cope with it, resulting in the classic 
process of squatting and slumdwelling. The environment quickly de- 
terioted. The landscape became, according to Burritt "marred, scarred, 
and fretted and smoked to death, day and night, year and year, even on 
Sundays. "2 Pit head gear multiplied as did factory chimneys, while 
waste heaps, quarries, canal cuttings and rail viaducts one by one ob- 
scured the natural contours of the land and confused and dirtied its 
drainage. Exploitation by industry of resources and manpower outpaced 
the ability of the law to police it. The demands of the burgeoning pop- 
ulation for public services far outran the ability of government to provide 
them. Political power was in the hands of the few rather than the many. 

By the mid-nineteenth century the Black Country was a melting pot 
of social deprivation and in terms of its physical environment the exact 
opposite of Wordsworth's "natural piety." It was to all observers some- 
thing very new to the world. For some it was a phenomenon to be 
marvelled at, the ultimate in industrial progress. As such it was the 
mecca of the European and American business communities. It was a 
culture hearth exporting its valued technology around the globe and 
spawning in far away places like Alabama descendants in its own image. 
For more socially conscious observers, however, it raised different 
feelings. By the mid-nineteenth century expressions of distaste and 
disapproval were beginning to find their way into print, and thereby 
into the Black Country conscience. Throughout the nineteenth century, 
writers of greater and lesser prominence castigated the Black Country 
and those responsible for developing it. 

For Charles Dickens, as for many others, the Black Country was in- 
deed a new England, but it was new and different because it was 
frightening, an affront, and a threat. In conducting Little Nell and her 
grandfather through the Black Country, he wrote: 

Advancing more and more into the shadow of this mournful 

place, its dark depressing influence stole upon their spirits and 

2 Ibid., p. 164. 



filled them with a dismal gloom. On every side and as far as the 
eye could see into the heavy distance, tall chimneys crowding 
on each other and presenting endless repetition of the same dull 
ugly form, which is the horror of oppressive dreams, poured out 
their plague of smoke, obscured the light, and made foul the 
melancholy air.^ 

Some twenty years after Dickens wrote the Old Curiosity Shop, a 

more reflective and critical writer saw the Black Country for the first 

time. Henry Adams, on his way to join his father, the American minister 

at the Court of St. James, wrote of it years later in his autobiography: 

Then came the journey up to London through Birmingham and 

the Black District, another lesson which needed much more to 

be rightly felt. The plunge into darkness lurid with flames; the 

sense of unknown horror in this weird gloom which never existed 

before, except in volcanic craters: the violent contrast between 

the dense smoky impenetrable darkness, and the soft green 

charm that one glided mto as one emerged — the revelation of 

the unknown society of the pit — made a boy uncomfortable. . . 

the boy ran away from it, as he ran away from everything he 

disliked. 4 

Another American, J.G. Kohl, wrote of Birmingham in 1844 that: 
The town covers a space of about nine English square miles, 
the greater part of this space occupied by a mass of small, uni- 
form and mean looking houses inhabited by the work people. A 
large portion of Birmingham might be described as a wilderness 
of houses; all equally ugly, an ungainly mass, unbroken by a 
single building of pleasing exterior.^ 

The criticisms of these outside observers, as well as the disaffection 
of some Black Country inhabitants, were responsible after about 1880 
for attempts by industrialists to alleviate basic proble tis. The Black 
Country, and particularly Birmingham pioneered the concept of sub- 
sidized public housing for the poor and universal free education. It 
was from the beginning involved in the town and recreational planning 
movement of the early twentieth century, and accepted a number of 
changes in its political structure which were socially more equitable 
and economically more efficient. More attention was given to building 
design, to land reclamation, and to air and water pollution problems. 
In many ways the pressures of radical thinking helped to change 



^ Charles Dickens, The Old Curiositv Shop. (London: McMillan and Co.. 1892), 

p. 314. 

'^ Henry Adams, The Education of Henrv Adams. An Autobiography. (Boston 

and New York: Mifflin Co., 1918)', pp. 72-73. 

^ J. G. Kohl, England and Wales. (Reprint of 1844 edition; London: Frank Cass 

& Co., 1968), p. 8. 



the geography of the Black Country. In the late twentieth century, 
many aspects of the area seem a far cry from the nineteenth century 
image. Even so, it is doubtful if the desires of many of those who strived 
for change over the years have been nearly satisfied. The prevailing 
impression of a visitor to the Black Country is still of a derelict land, slag 
heaps and pit mounds, stagnant pools of brown water in hollows, aban- 
doned railways, murky canals that carry little traffic but are apparently 
without end, piles of scrap, squalid housing, black factory buildings 
that are sometimes half ruins, smoking chimney stacks set in seemingly 
waste spaces. In many locations, the Black Country still looks and smells 
like an enormous battlefield, the gashed and wounded earth of which 
has not healed. Socially, although there appears to have been material 
progress in living conditions, there is widespread poverty. Racial con- 
flict and discrimination are worsening problems. Since modern concepts 
of social welfare began to appear a century ago, some progress toward 
human well-being has been made in the Black Country, but it is a sober- 
ing thought that despite these concepts and their continual expression, 
there has been so little real change in many aspects of life. 

What are the reasons for this? The outstanding one seems to be that 
a social and economic landscape, once generated, has an inbred con- 
servatism, a veriety of geographical inertia. The better developed and 
more complex in function an area becomes, the less is its ability to 
accept extensive change. Decision makers proliferate as do the numbers 
of people who must accept decisions. Investments once made in land 
and physical structures can only be re-allocated at great costs to the 
general society. In the Black Country today, a number of industrial 
establishments date back in the same site to the eighteenth century and 
a multitude to the nineteenth. Houses which were built in the nine- 
teenth century are gradually being replaced, but much land has been 
proscripted to residential development by previous industrial activity 
and the high costs of land reclaimation. The communications network 
which binds the society together reflects the traffic requirements of 
the nineteenth century, despite great efforts to make it otherwise. All 
of these varied elements have been reshaped in varying degrees in re- 
sponse to social pressures, but none of them approximate a plan which 
might be generated from modern principles of social welfare. 

A lesser, but nonetheless significant, reason lies in the innate con- 
servatism of the region's occupants. For most of these people the cam- 
paigns which raised them above the economic and intellectual bread- 
line in the nineteenth century are forgotten. They have little time for 
anything outside their family lives, particularly intellectual debate on 
the improvement of their lot. The approximately three million people 
who live there do not expect anyone to come to the Black Country to 
admire the scenery, but it is the first place they think of when they think 
of England, and they are not unduly worried that it is black. The quality 
of environmental perception, as geographers have been keen to show, 



depends not only on what is to be seen but also on how well eyes have 
been taught to see. In the Black Country, there has been a great deal of 
teaching, but it appears not quite so much learning. The majority of 
the factory workers seem, from election evidence, to appreciate personal 
costs much better than they do projected public benefits. 

Added to this widespread lack of concern for radical change, there 
is a much smaller, but nonetheless significant, emotional preservationist 
attitude alive in the Black Country. This views the conventionally ugly 
industrial landscape as one of remarkable aesthetic beauty, a sentiment 
perhaps best expressed by the respected poet W.H. Auden. His view of 
the Black Country as expressed in his "Letter to Lord Byron" was that: 

On economic, health, or moral grounds 

It hasn"t got the least excuse to show 

No more than chamber pots or otter hounds 

But let me say before it has to go. 

It's the most lo.ely country that I know; 

Clearer than Scafell Pike, my heart has stamped on 

The view from Birmingham to Wolverhampton. ^ 
Like most preservationist attitudes, this one is a force to be reckoned 
with. 

What message does all of this hold for radical scientists and their in- 
tention to promote social welfare? First, it suggests that they need to 
recognize the innate resilience of the situations they are trying to re- 
form, an acceptance which may be alien to their natures. The existing 
industrial urban landscape is a panorama of fixed assets, costly to the 
public purse to manipulate, and often presenting considerable problems 
of reconstruction. The prevailing socio-cultural attitudes of an urban 
region reflect environmental perceptions which may be far removed 
from those generated by the logic of the social scientist. As such, they 
provide a sizeable communications problem between the salesman and 
his market. For these two reasons alone, the land use and environmental 
adjustments necessary for increased social comfort are extremely un- 
likely to be implemented overnight, and as cities continue to grow in 
size, the rate of internal change will probably become less. The present 
will likely be as stubborn as the past and unless they take regard for this 
fact, radical social scientists of all persuasions may experience more 
personal and professional frustrations than they bargain for. 



^ W. H. Auden. Collected Longer Poems. (New York: Random House, 1969), 
p. 46. 

7 



CHOLESTEROL: 
METHODS OF CONTROL 

By JACK L. GROGAN* 
W. GLENN ESSLINGER** 

Atherosclerosis, a lesion in medium and large sized arteries, is char- 
acterized by deposits of yellowish plaques containing cholesterol and 
fatty material. It is a pathological condition that gives rise to many 
coronary, cerebrovascular, and other vascular diseases. It is the leading 
cause of death in many countries, and in North America and Europe 
causes more death in middle-aged and elderly persons than all other 
diseases together.^ 

Atherosclerosis can cause vascular diseases in several ways: (1) it 
can corrode the arterial wall to the point of eruption from the pressure 
of the blood inside, leading to severe hemorrhage; (2) it can, when vas- 
cular wall damage has been done, stop blood circulation by a tremen- 
dous growth of repair tissue; or (3) it can, as a result of radical changes 
in the arterial walls, cause a sudden blood clot within a diseased artery, 
stopping blood flow through it.^ 

Hypercholesterolemia (a high cholesterol level in the blood) plays 
a significant role in atherosclerosis, as demonstrated by the accumula- 
tion of cholesterol in atherosclerotic aortas. Atherosclerosis has also 
been experimentally induced in animals on high cholesterol diets. ^ Con- 
sequently, this cause-and-effect relationship of high cholesterol levels 
to atherosclerosis has resulted in research attempting to influence tissue 
and blood levels of cholesterol. 

There are basically two methods for influencing cholesterol levels. 
The amount of cholesterol obtained in the diet can be decreased or 
the synthesis of cholesterol in the body can be inhibited to some degree. 
Cholesterol-lowering diets are currently the most popular means of 
decreasing cholesterol and presumably retarding atherosclerosis in 
man. The efficacy of this diet has not been universally accepted, because 
cholesterol is involved in the production of various hormones in man, 
and such a diet could conceivably affect the production of these hor- 

*Assistant Professor of Chemistry, West Georgia College. 
**Associate Professor of Chemistry, West Georgia College. 



^ Lewis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Thera- 
peutics (New York: The MacMillan Co., 1965), p. 754. 

2 Paris Constantinides, Experimental Atherosclerosis (New York: Elsevier 
Publishers, 1965), p. 1. 

3 David Kritchevsky, "Effects of High Cholesterol Diet on Animals," Lipid 
Pharmacology, edited by R. Paoletti (New York: Academic Press, 1964), pp. 
62-66. 



mones. However, no ill effects have ever been observed with cholesterol 
lowering diets. Dietary control of cholesterol is only moderately suc- 
cessful, for cholesterol is continuously produced in the body. If certain 
amounts are not present in the diet, the bodv increases its production. 

The low cholesterol diet^ currently prescribed involves: decreasing 
the total amount of fat, decreasing the amount of solid fat (ordinary fat 
in meat, butterfat, hydrogenated vegetable oils and hydrogenated mar- 
garines), and decreasing the amount of cholesterol-rich food (eggs and 
egg products, whole milk and liver). The diet also involves a slight in- 
crease in the amount of liquid fats [liquid (nonhydrogenated) vegetable 
oils, such as corn oil, cottonseed oil or safflower oil]. 

A typical low cholesterol diet should include skim milk (liquid or 
powdered), chicken, turkey, veal, lean cuts of beef, lamb, or pork (four 
times per week or less), fish and other seafood (ideally, five times per 
week), and liver no more than once per week. Fried foods should be 
avoided, along with butter, whole milk, ice cream, margarine, cheese, 
shortening rich foods, i.e., oily salad dressing, nuts, peanut butter (not the 
creamvor hvdroaenated type) and corn oil or cottonseed oil margarine. 
Vegetables, fruits, cereals, and starches are acceptable on a low-choles- 
terol diet. Even egg whites are allowed in angel food cake and whole 
milk in coffee in moderate amounts. 

Since dietary control of cholesterol is only moderately successful, 
other methods of control are being investigated. A number of com- 
pounds have been synthesized which have cholesterol-lowering effects 
in animals. Some of these compounds are of great interest in the medical 
profession and can be classified as follows:^ drugs favoring degrada- 
tion of cholesterol; drugs increasing the bile excretion of cholesterol; 
drugs increasing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol; and drugs that 
inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. 

Drugs favoring the degradation of cholesterol. The main pathways 
for the elimination of cholesterol are degradation to bile acids and ex- 
cretion of cholesterol in feces. If, through research, a compound could 
be found that would increase this rate of conversion of cholesterol into 
bile acids, an excellent way to treat hypercholesterolemia would be 
available. Unsaturated fats have been shown to increase the rate of con- 
version of cholesterol into bile acids resulting in a reduction of serum 
cholesterol. This lowering effect offsets the fact that unsaturated fats 
sometimes favor the intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Various thy- 



^ F.E. Abbo and P. Meyer, "Effect of Cholesterol Lowering Diet on Production 
of Adrenal Cortical Hormones in Man," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 
XIX (1966), 232. 

^ P. Preziosi, "Drugs Affecting Lipid Metabolism," Lipid Pharmacology, edited 
by R. Paoletd (New York: Academic Press, 1964), p. 415. 



I 



roid hormones^ and their analogs have also shown cholesterol-lowering 
effects due to increased stimulation of cholesterol degradation. 

Additions to the diet of metal ions such as iron (III), cobalt (II), and 
nickel (II) have also been reported to increase the rate of conversion 
of cholesterol to bile acids. '^ 

Drugs increasing the bile excretion of cholesterol. Cholesterol can 
be lowered if the bile flow is increased without dilution of bile constitu- 
ents, i.e. bile salts. Artichoke extracts [Cynara Scolymus) have been 
reported to lower serum cholesterol by increasing the bile excretion. 
Cynarin, the active constituent of artichoke extracts, has been shown to 
lower cholesterol without dilution of bile. Unlike all other known cho- 
lesterol lowering agents, pharmacological tests with Cynarin have shown 
no undesirable side effects. In every case the administration of Cynarin 
was followed by a decrease in total cholesterol levels. The action of 
Cynarin in atherosclerotic patients is a radical change toward the nor- 
mal serum cholesterol pattern. ^ 

Cynarin shows useful cholesterol lowering properties due to the in- 
creased excretion of cholesterol by way of bile. Unfortunately, Cynarin 
must be administered in high doses for long periods of time in the treat- 
ment of deranged cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis.^ This 
factor constitutes a distinct disadvantage. However, Cynarin could be 
useful as a model for analogous compounds which are both non-toxic 
and highly potent, and have few or no side effects. 

Drugs decreasing intestinal absorption of cholesterol. Some drugs 
lower plasma cholesterol by antagonizing the absorption of cholesterol 
from the intestinal lumen. The most important types of these drugs 
bind bile acids in the intestine and favor fecal excretion of cholesterol. 
MK-325, a resin, has been reported to bind bile acids in the intestinal 
tract and thus favor their fecal excretion, i'' A marked reduction of 
cholesterol levels has been observed. The required dosage is extremely 
high, about 25 grams per day, which constitutes a serious disadvantage. 

Drugs that inhibit the synthesis of cholesterol in the body. A large 
number of compounds have been reported that inhibit the synthesis of 



^ B. Blank, F. Pfeiffer, and C. Greenberg, 'Thyromimetics: The Synthesis and 
Hypocholesterolemic Activity of B-Diethylaminoethyl Esters of lodinated 
Tfiyroalkanoic Acids" Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, VI (1963), 560. 
■^ M. Whitehouse and D. Kritchevsky, "Effect on Cholesterol of Metal Ions in 
the Diet " Journal of Atherosclerotic Research, II (1962), 47. 
^ L. Preziosi, E. Marmo, and E. Miele, "Effects of Single or Repeated Treat- 
ment with Several Anti-Cholesterolemic Compounds on Biliary Excretion of 
Cholesterol," Biochemical Pharmacoloi>y, V (1960), 251-62. 
^ M. Mancine, P. Oriente and L. D'Andrea, Lipid Pharmacology, edited by R. 
Paoletti (Amsterdam: Elsevier Pubhshers, 1961), pp. 533-37. 
10 D. Tennent, H. Siegal, M. Zanetd, G. Guron, W. Ott, and P. Wolf, "Plasma 
Cholesterol Lowering Action of Bile Acid Binding Polymers in Experimental 
Animals" Journal of Lipid Research, I (1959-60), 469-73. 

10 



cholesterol in the body. Some of the most potent compounds such as 
SKF-525A11 gj^fj Atromid-S^2 have been shown to produce a lowering 
of plasma cholesterol. Serious side effects, however, have been ob- 
served with these compounds. Inhibition of cholesterol in the body can 
cause serious consequences in overall steroid metabolism and subse- 
quent hormonal balance. 

In summary, control of blood cholesterol or lipid le\els is now one 
of the main goals of therapeutic research. Dietary control of cholesterol 
is only moderately successful. Previous attempts ai chemotherapy 
(chemical therapy) have been empirical and confined lamely to the con- 
trol of cholesterol. There are few effective agents anil most of these 
produce marked side effects. Thyroid hormone analogs, agents capable 
of enhancing cholesterol breakdown, have to be discarded for that 
reason. Some agents are effective in animals but not in man. Ingestion 
of unsaturated fatty acids may actually increase fat absorption. Altera- 
tion of cholesterol levels by agents that bind bile acids is not of signifi- 
cant therapeutic value due to the large dosages necessary. Thus, a 
therapeutically valuable cholesterol lowering agent remains to be found. 
Increased excretion of cholesterol by way of bile acids would be of 
greater value in lowering cholesterol levels than inhibition of its syn- 
thesis since inhibition of cholesterol can cause serious effects on hor- 
monal balance. For this reason, analogs of Cynarin might prove useful 
as cholesterol lowering agents. 



^^ W.L. Homes, Lipid Pharmacology, edited by R. Paoletti (New York: Aca- 
demic Press, 1964). pp. 153-54. 

^2 J.M. Thorp and W. Waring, "Modification and Distribution of Lipids by 
Chlorophenoxyisobutyrate," Nature (London), CXCIV (1962), 948. 

11 



"OPERATION MAGIC FIRE": 

GERMANY'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE 

SPANISH CIVIL WAR 

By MELVIN STEELY* 

On July 24, 1936, the Foreign Ministry in Berlin received a telegram 
sent six days earlier from the German charge D'affaires in Spain, Hans 
Voelckers. The report described a series of revolts that had sprung up 
throughout Spain the previous day. The opening sentence of the brief 
description stated, "beginning yesterday, the expected mihtary revolts 
have broken out all over Spain." ^ The word "expected" leaves the door 
open to speculation concerning the extent of German involvement in 
the planning of these revolts. 

Were the Germans involved in the revolts themselves, or were they 
privy to information concerning the dates of the revolts and thus pre- 
pared to supply and aid the rebels upon the commencement of hos- 
tilities? Present available information would indicate that neither of 
these possibilities was the case. It is the purpose of this study to deter- 
mine why and how the Germans became involved in the Spanish conflict 
and to ascertain the extent of their involvement. 

One assumption, formed around the word "expected" in Voelckers" 
telegram, is that General Francisco Franco had reached an understand- 
ing with both Germany and Italy prior to the outbreak of hostilities on 
July 18, 1936. This understanding, seemingly reinforced by the activi- 
ties of rebel leaders and the German and Italian governments shortly 
after that date, would guarantee Nazi and Italian transport aircraft to 
Franco to enable him to ferry his troops across the Strait of Gibraltar 
in support of General Emilio Mola who would lead the revolt in North- 
west Spain. 2 

Certainly the aircraft, requested by Franco as early as July 22, were 
being supplied by the end of that month. ^ The problem, however, is 
whether the decision to supply the Spanish rebels was made by the Nazis 
before or after the revolts began. Furthermore, we need to ask what 
factors influenced such a decision. 

Germany had strategic and economic interest in Spain and had been 
active in stirring up various groups in that country for a number of 

*Assistant Professor of History, West Georgia College. 

^ Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1913-1945 (11 vols.; Washington: 

U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950), Series D, III, 3. 

^ Arthur H. Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement: Anglo-French Relations 

and the Prelude to World War II. 1931-1938 (Washington: University Press oi 

Washington D.C., 1960), p. 208. 

3 Ibid. 



n 



years. ^ German capital was widespread in the Spanish economy and 
a rearming Germany needed the mineral resources, especially mercury, 
zinc, copper, iron ore, and tungsten, that Spain could provide. The 
Spanish conservative press was used by the Germans in Spain to spread 
their ideas— ideas which, aided by numerous Nazi agents in the country, 
found a substantial following among the Spanish aristocracy, the large 
landholders, the Church leaders, the Carlists. and the Army officers.^ 

The Nazis presented more than ideas to these Spaniards. Five 
months prior to the July revolts General Jose' Sanjurjo visited Berlin 
and was escorted by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. Chief of Military In- 
telligence, on a tour of German arms factories. When this future rebel 
general left Germany he had a promise of Nazi support for the future 
insurrection against the Republic, although no mention of dates is re- 
corded. It was on this visit that the rebels received the promise of trans- 
port aircraft in the event that the Spanish fleet remained loyal to the 
Republic. Had the fleet joined the rebels, it would seem that neither the 
Spaniards nor the Germans desired Nazi support, since the assumption 
was that the revolt would be a "quick and easy success." The Spanish 
conspirators hoped and, seemingly, fully expected to be able to carry 
out the revolt by themselves because of the political apathy or incapaci- 
ty of the people.^ 

From the available evidence it would seem that the German govern- 
ment had a general awareness of a proposed military revolt in Spain in 
the near future, but was not informed of the specific details. Thus the 
telegram from Voelckers to the Foreign Ministry in Berlin probablv 
referred only to expectations held by the Nazis of such a revolt. It does 
not necessarily indicate that Berlin was involved in the planning and 
execution of the insurrection itself. 

The uprising was a purely Spanish affair that was basically an army 
revolt against the Spanish Popular Front. No foreign power was behind 
the insurrection, but when the government did not collapse as expected, 
each side sought supplies and aid from outside sources.'^ 

Once the revolts had begun, a decision had to be made concerning 



^ Dante A. Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers. 1936-1941 (New York: Colum- 
bia University Press, 1962), pp. 44-47. 

^ Ibid., p. 4. See also Emile Burns, trans. The Nazi Conspiracy in Spain (London: 
Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1937), pp. 24-57, and Patricia A.M. van der Esch, Prelude 
to War: The International Repercussions of the Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939 
(The Hague: MarUnus Nijhoff, 1951), pp. 25-26. 

^ Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, pp. 45-47. See also J. Alvarez del Vayo, 
Freedom's Battle. B.B. Brooke, trans, (New York: Knopf, 1940), pp. 10, 50-51. 
'^ C.H. Black and E.G. Helmreich, Twentieth Century Europe: A History (2nd. 
ed., re; New York: Knopf, 1961), pp. 501-2. See also David C. Cattell, Com- 
munism and the Spanish Civil War (Berkeley: University of Calitornia Press, 
1955), p. 44. 

13 



I 



the promise made to the rebels in February. Dr. Karl Schwendemann, 
Counselor in the German Embassy in Madrid, reported to the Foreign 
Ministry on the conditions in Spain as of July 23, giving a fairly balanced 
picture of the advantages and disadvantages of both sides. The report 
indicated that the civil war would probably be of long duration and 
warned against the possibility of a Marxist take-over of the Spanish 
government which would strengthen the Franco-Russian bloc.^ 

Under these conditions it would seem that German aid to the rebels 
would be desirable. Hans Dieckhoff, acting head of the Foreign Minis- 
try, and Constantin Neurath. the Foreign Minister, advised against such 
aid, indicating that it would be impossible to hide it. It would surely 
become known and then result in serious consequences for the German 
colony in Spain as well as for German merchant and naval vessels in 
the area since the Republicans controlled the Navv. Tt should be noted 
that the Foreign Office's influence on German policy was continually 
diminishinc during this period. Ribbentrop. the Fuehrer's Special Am- 
bassador, and Ernst W. Bohle, Nazi Gauleiter and head of the 
N.S.D.A.P.'s Auslandsorganisation (Foreign Organization), both enjoy- 
ed positions in reality superior to that of von Neurath. The Wilhelm- 
strasse had been declining in importance since the appointment of Franz 
von Papen as Minister to Vienna in 1934 following the murder of Aus- 
trian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss. The Auslandsorganisation, or AO. 
grew in importance since it served to bypass official diplomatic channels 
and was a clearing house for propaganda and information gained by 
Nazi agents stationed abroad. In fact. "It is not too much to say that 
the policv adopted by Germany in Spain was an /lO policv."^ 

The Nazi party in Spain and Admiral Canaris. head of the Military 
Intelligence Bureau agreed with the AO position. Canaris described 
Franco as a tested officer deserving full trust and support.!^ Canaris 
received support from Hermann Goering, chief of the Luftwaffe, who 
desired the Spanish conflict to be used as a testing ground for his air 
force. German aid was also necessary, he indicated to Hitler, in order 
to prevent the spread of Communism. ^^ 

Another motive behind the decision to aid Franco was that of stop- 
ping the spread of Communism in the West before it started. A Bol- 
shevik takeover in Spain would flank Germany and Europe with Com- 
munist countries and would result in a "shifting of the European 



^ Documents on German Foreign Policy. Ill, 5-7. 

^ Gordon A. Craig and Felix Gilbert, eds., Fhe Diplomats, 1919-1939 (Princeton: 

Princeton University Press, 1953). pp. 427-29. 

1° Hugh Thomas, Fhe Spanish Civil War (New York: Harper Colophon, 1963), 

p. 228. 

^^ International Military Tribunal, Secretariat. Frial of the Major War Crimi- 
nals Before the International Militarv Fribunal, Nuremberg. 14 November 
1945- i October 1946 (42 vols.; Nuremberg: m.p., 1948), X, 260-81. 

14 



equilibrium." 12 Por the first time the struggle between Fascism and 
Communism was brought into the open on the battlefield. The Spanish 
Civil War became a battleground of rival political ideologies. It is prob- 
able, however, that the ideological forces were more meaningful to the 
foreign volunteers and auxiliaries than to the Spaniards, or tor that mat- 
ter to the Nazis. Hitler again raised the "red scare" banner, a helpful 
device in times past, and presented himself as the bulwark against 
Bolshevism. 13 It would not be going too far to say that the Fuehrer 
considered ideology only a facade, albeit one he used very well.i'* His 
actions in August 1939 seem to support this contention. 

On July 24 two rebel officers arrived in Berlin accompanied by two 
German members of the AO with letters for the Fuehrer from General 
Franco. Franco requested ten Junker transports to move ^his African 
troops over to Spain. He was, of course, willing to pay for such aid. At 
this point Hitler did not seem to have made up his mind concerning aid 
to Franco. He sent for the two AO members, Johannes Bernhardt and 
Adolf Langenheim, to join him in Bayreuth. The two met with him on 
July 26. and after conferring with Goering and General Werner von 
Blomberg, War Minister and Commander in Chief of the Wehrmacht, 
the Fuehrer decided to back the rebels, and support was agreed on in 
principle.!^ It is significant that Neurath was absent from this meeting 
and that the decision to aid Spain took him completely by surprise. The 
Foreign Office did not object to activity in Spain but it did against a full 
commitment there. Exploitation of the Spanish situation was desirable 
but not if it sharpened the resistance of the Western Powers and led to a 
war. Neurath and his officers were backed up in this position by senior 
General Staff officers.!^ 

Despite this opposition Germany was committed to the support of 
the rebels. Goering listed two major factors influencing Hitler to make 
the decision for support: the isolation of France, and the establishment 

12 Van der Esch, Prelude to War. p. 12. The danger of a "red take-over" is highly 
questionable since there were only sixteen Communists in a Cortes of 473 and 
there were no Communists in the government. Communist strength grew as the 
war progressed but there was no strong threat of a take-over at its outbreak. See 
Herbert L. Matthews, The Yoke and the Arrows (New York: George Braziller, 
1957), pp. 11-12, and Cattell, Communism and the Spanish Civil War, pp. 208-10. 

13 Mary Ann Deren, Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War. 1936-1939 
(unpublished M.A. thesis, Dept. of History, Vanderbilt University, 1949), pp. 
89-90. 

1* Frederick L. Schuman, Durope on the Eve: The Crises of Diplomacv. 1933- 
1939 (New York: Knopf, 1939), p. 267. 

15 Documents on German Foreign Policy, pp. 10-11. See also Thomas, The 
Spanish Civil War. p. 228; Alan Bullock, Hitler, A Study in Tyranny. (New York: 
Bantam Books, 1961), p. 302: and Puzzo. S^^ain and the Great Powers, pp. 60-61. 
1^ Craig and Gilbert, The Diplomats, pp. 429. See also Walter Goerlitz, The 
German General Staff, 1657-1945, Brian Battershaw, trans. (New York: Praeger, 
1959), p. 306. 

15 



of bases on the Iberian Peninsula to further control the Mediterranean. ^^ 
The first would not be challenged, but there is some reasonable doubt 
regarding a Nazi desire to set up bases on Spanish soil. Such bases would 
have the effect of bringing Spain into a conflict on the side of the Axis 
and thereby open them up to invasion by Allied Forces. These bases 
would also require troops and materials for occupation, and further 
expense certainly was not to be sought. In the event of an Allied in- 
vasion and take-over of Fascist Spain, a moral blow would be suffered 
by the Axis Powers. 

It would have been much better for Germany if Spain, under Fas- 
cist control had maintained a position of benevolent neutrality, thus 
securing one front from invasion and at the same time being able to 
provide the Reich with needed iron and zinc ore. A neutral Fascist 
Spain on France's southern flank would have been valuable as a threat 
to that country if not as a militant ally of the Nazis. 

Some historians, however, feel that Hitler was depending on future 
naval and air bases in Spain and on the Canary Islands in case of war. 
Patricia van der Esch notes that Hitler had counted on the destruction 
brought on by the war which forced Franco into a neutral position and 
thus was enraged in 1941 when the Spanish dictator refused i > cooperate 
in a plan to take Gibraltar from behind. ^^ 

It is clear that the Nazis used the Spanish conflict a^ a proving 
ground to test their new weapons and to sharpen the team cooperation 
of the Luftwaffe and the artillery and Panzer units. This wis advocated 
by Goering on July 24 and put to good use in the training ol officers and 
non-commissioned officers of the various units. ^^ In his testimony be- 
fore Nuremberg Tribunal Goering describes the Luftwaffe's participa- 
tion thus: 

With the permission of the Fuehrer, I sent a large part of my 
transport fleet and a number of experimental fighter units, 
bombers, and anti-aircraft guns; and in that way I had an op- 
portunity to ascertain, under combat conditions, whether the 
material was equal to the task. In order that the personnel, too, 
might gather a certain amount of experience, I saw to it that 
new people were constantlv heinc sent and others recalled. ^o 
Two other reasons, closely connected, might be listed. The Civil 
War presented Germany with the chance to step into international af- 



" B.N. Dzelepy, The Spanish Plot (London: f.S. King and Son, 1937), pp. 6, 

10-11. 

18 Van der Esch, Prelude to War, pp. 11-12. See also Furnia, The Diplomacy of 

Appeasement, p. 207, and Thomas, The Spanish Civil War., p. 229. 

1^ Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement, p. 207. See also Thomas. 

The Spanish Civil War, p. 228, and van der Esch, Prelude to War, p. 12. 

20 Trial of the Major War Criminals. IX. y. 281. See also Robert G. Colodny, 

The Struggle for Madrid. (New York- Paine-Whitman, 1958), and The Spanish 

Civil War, pp. 229-31. 

16 



fairs as a world power for the first time since the end of World War I. 
Also, in future bargainings over colonial empires, control over Spain 
would be a valuable tool to be used to obtain for Germany a share of 
any colonial territory that might be divided or otherwise disposed of.^i 

Hitler, himself, gave a number of reasons for his decision. One of 
the first reasons in addition to the desire to stop the spread of Com- 
munism, was that conflict in Spain would serve to distract the demo- 
cracies" attention from the "center of peril" — the Danube Basin and 
Czechoslovakia. 22 If this be true, then it would certainly lend weight 
to the claim that the Fuehrer planned action in that area and that his 
policy was not guided simply by impulse. 

Another explanation Hitler gave, this time to his generals, was that 
intervention was a diversionary tactic to distract the attention of the 
Western Powers to Spain and thus enable Germany to continue her 
rearmament unobserved and unrestricted. ^^ This statement, however, 
seems odd since in the summer of 1935 the Anglo-German Naval Agree- 
ment had been signed, doing away with the Versailles restrictions and 
allowing the Germans a navy with tonnage set at 35% that of the British 
Navy. 24 In addition. Hitler had announced, via radio, on March 16, 1935, 
that the Third Reich was burying the Versailles restrictions on her 
military with a decree providing for universal military service, amount- 
ing to roughly half a million men. France and Britain had acknowledged 
this announcement with a protest and nothing more.25 Even Hitler 
could not have doubted that the Western Powers were aware of Ger- 
many's rampant rearmament program by 1936. 

It now seems clear that Hitler, did have his eye on the enemy across 
the Rhine when he made the decision to aid Spain. He hoped that such 
action would have the effect of isolating France. It would do harm to 
the Franco-Russian agreements; France would be faced with another 
Fascist power on her borders; the Anglo-French agreements might be 
upset, and the conflict in Spain was certain to accelerate the civil strife 
in an already unsteady France. 2^ 

It does not stretch the imagination to assume that the Fuehrer was 
considering the effect the Spanish war would have on his counter- 
weight to the south, Mussolini. At dawn on March 7, 1936, a small 



21 van der Esch, Prelude to War. p. 12. 

22 Arnold Toynbee, Survey of International Affairs. 1937 (London: Oxford 
University Press, 1938), II,' p. 186-89. 

23 Thomas, The Spanish Civil War. p. 228. 

24 William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon 
and Schuster, 1960), p. 287-89. See also Furnia. The Diplomacy of Appeasement. 
pp. 154-55. 

25 Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Thud Reich, pp. 282-85. 

26 Ibid., p. 297. See also Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement, p. 207 and 
Cattell, Communism and the Spanish Civil War, p. 76. 

17 



force of Nazi troops (30.000)27 marched across the border into the 
demilitarized Rhineland and reoccupied it for the Third Reich. This 
move had "emasculated at one stroke the Franco-Czech and the Franco- 
Russian alliances. "2^ Although the Abyssinian invasion had set up a 
breach between Italy and the Western Powers, the gap was not so wide 
as to prevent them from drawing closer when faced with this new threat 
on the Rhine. German-Italian relations in the Spring of 1936 were less 
than encouraging to Berlin. The Fascist troops guarding the Brenner 
Pass seemed as strong as ever, and it appears after the Rhineland coup, 
Mussolini had reinforced them in anticipation of another Nazi attempt 
to take over Austria. In fact, on May 18, the United States Ambassador, 
William C. Bullitt, was told by Neurath that "demonstrations of friend- 
ship between Germany and Italy were mere demonstrations without 
basis in reality." He also indicated the possibility of future conflict with 
Italy over Austria when he stated that 

... at the present time he could see no way to reconcile the 
conflicting interest of Germany and Italy over Austria. For the 
moment Germany would not encourage the Austrian Nazis 
because 'until the German fortifications have been constructed 
on the French border, an involvement of Germany in war with 
Italy might lead to a French attack on Germany'. ^9 

It was in Hitler's interest to seek some sort of alliance with Musso- 
lini and further to do everything possible to keep Italian troops occupied 
in areas other than the Brenner Pass. By keeping // Duces forces away 
from the Austro-Italian border and tied down in an expensive and con- 
suming campaign in Spain, Hitler would be in a much stronger position 
vis-a-vis the watchdog to the south, ^o The Abyssinian venture had turn- 
ed Mussolini's interests to the Mediterranean rather than to Central 
and Eastern Europe; now Italy might be turned, or at least distracted 
from the danger to the north. 

Hitler, fearful of a rapprochement of England and France with 
Italy, was able to persuade Mussolini that Italy's future lay with her 
ideological brother to the north. Indeed, Mussolini had taken the first 
steps toward seeking joint German-Italian assistance to the rebels, even 
before the revolt broke out in July. In May he had telegraphed his Am- 
bassador in Berlin, Bernardo Attolico, to inform the Wilhelmstrasse 
that Rome was ". . .gravely concerned to observe that Spain was inclin- 

27 Lecture by Dr. Charles F. Delzell at Vanderbilt University, February 23, 1962. 
Walter Gorlitz. History of the German General Staff. 1657-1945. Praeger: New 
York. 1959), pp. 304-5. 

28 Elizabeth Wiskemann, The Rome-Berlin Axis (New York: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1949), p. 56. 

29 Ibid., See also Bullock, Hitler, p. 303, and van der Esch. Prelude to War 
pp. 14-15. 

30 Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement, p. 207. See also Wiskemann, Rome- 
Berlin Axis, p. 57, and Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, p. 297. 

18 



ing more and more to the Left." The Nazis took Httle interest at the 
time, but their interest increased in July when it appeared certain that 
Mussolini had committed himself to Franco and would indeed furnish 
the Spanish rebels with Italian troops and supplies, including airplanes, 
artillery and other weapons. ^^ 

Hitler now stated that German-Italian aid to Spain demonstrated 
the Third Reich's ideological solidarity with Italy. It was a demonstra- 
tion to aid "an unhappy land and support a heroic man who, as a living 
patriot, wanted to save his people from destruction and did gloriously 
rescue them."32 Thus through this "ideological solidarity" Hitler moved 
closer to the Rome-Berlin Axis. 

The last, and possibly the most vital, motive for German aid being 
given to Franco was an economic one. Hitler was certain that a left- 
ist government in Madrid would not be likely to supply Germany with 
the mineral exports she needed, or at least she would not supply them 
on reasonable terms. ^^ 

The Fuehrer was in no position to risk the loss of Spanish mineral 
exports since, in addition to a lack of sufficiently strong fortifications 
in the west and adequately trained reserves, his rearmament program 
had not produced enough material to equip and sustain the Wehrmacht 
in case a general war broke out in the near future. ^4 

For a variety of reasons, then. Hitler decided to aid the Spanish 
rebels under General Franco. The question now arises, how much aid 
was given and how much did it help the insurgents" cause? The first 
German aid came in the form of a Lufthansa transport placed at the 
disposal of Franco and in which he made his historic flight from the 
Canary Islands to Tetuan, thus signaling the start of the revolt. ^^ As 
mentioned above, Franco had appealed to Hitler via two representa- 
tives of the AO io send transports to enable him to move his Spanish 
Legion troops from Morocco to the Spanish mainland. Hitler responded 
on July 26, and the following day thirty Junker 52"s arrived in Africa 
via France and Pyrenees to begin ferrying thousands of Legionaires 
and Moorish troops across the straits to Seville. ^^ This German effort 
was the first great airlift in history. 



^^ Wiskemann, Rome-Berlin Axis, p. 57. 

^ Deren, Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, p. 118. See also Norman 

M. Baynes, ed.. The Speeches of Adolf Hitler April 1922— August 1939, two 

vols. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1942), I, 702-5. 

^ Van der Esch, Prelude to War. p. 13. See also Thomas, The Spanish Civil 

War, p. 229. 

** Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, p. 98. 

^ United Nations Security Council: Official Records. First Year: Second Series; 

Special Supplement; "Report on the Sub-committee on the Spanish Question," 

(New York: Hunter College. June 1946). p. 7. Hereafter UNSC Records. 

^ Thomas, The Spanish Civil War p. 229. See also UNSC Records, p. 7, and van 

der Esch, Prelude to War, p. 29. 

19 



About the same time a small squadron of German ships (the pocket 
battleship Deutschland and the torpedo boat Luchs) were dispatched 
to Morocco and arrived at Ceuta the morning of August 3. 1936. ^'^ That 
afternoon Rear Admiral Carls maneuvered the Deutschland between 
the city and a Republic battleship. Jaime I, which had arrived to bom- 
bard the city. The Jaime J left without firing a shot.^ German and 
Italian airplanes provided the margin needed by the rebels to gain con- 
trol of the strait and prevent the Republican forces, which still con- 
trolled the greater part of the navy, from interfering with the traffic 
between the African and Spanish coasts. At one point the Deutschland 
maneuvered itself between Franco's convoys and the Spanish fleet. 
By August Italy had her planes bombing and strafing Republican ships 
and submarines and forcing them to take shelter at Malaga and 
Gibraltar. 3^ 

On July 31 the first of the German ""volunteers" (85). commanded 
by General Hugo von Scheele. sailed from Hamburg in the guise of a 
tourist group. The same ship carried the first six Heinkel fighters as 
well as bombs and anti-aircraft guns for use by the rebels. They arrived 
in Ca'diz on August 5.**^ Four days later eighteen German Junker tri- 
motor bombers, mostly new. arrived in Seville accompanied by six pur- 
suit planes and an equal number of anti-aircraft guns of the latest model. 
These planes were accompanied by about thirty German pilots. "^^ 

About the last of July two holding companies were set up to channel 
war material to Spain and in exchange to despatch payment or raw ma- 
terials back to Germany. In the event a German businessman had goods 
to sell to Spanish buyers he had first to sell them to the German holding 
company, which in turn would pass them on to the Spanish holding com- 
pany that would market the products in Spain. Along with the holding 
companies a department in the German War Ministry. COS "W. was 
detailed to supervise the recruitment of '"volunteers" and the despat- 
ching of war material. *2 

In August the German Navy started assigning mine and radio special- 
ists to serve with the Spanish artillery. These men were later transferred 
into the Condor Legion under the title "North Sea Group. '"^ These 
transfers were followed by engineers, military and civilian, technicians, 

^ Documents on German Foreign Policy, p. 26. 

^ Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, p. 64. 

^ Van der Esch. Prelude to War. p. 20-30. 

'^ Thomas. The Spanish Civil War, pp. 229-30. See also Deren, Non-intervention 

and the Spanish Civil War, p. 127. 

*^ Puzzo. Spain and the Great Powers, pp. 64-65. 

^ Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, p. 229. Thomas states that the Foreign 

Ministry was taken by surprise by this action but acquiesced without protest. 

p. 230. 

^ Deren, Non-intervention and the Spanish Civil War, p. 128. 

20 



more fighter planes, two tank companies, a battery of heavy anti-aircraft 
guns and some observation planes. The heavy equipment was under the 
exclusive control of the Nazis and their crews. "^^ 

Hitler, pushed by Goering and Canaris to aid Franco as much as 
possible and at the same time faced with cautious generals who doubted 
the value of "Operation Magic Fire" (the code name for the Spanish 
enterprise), outlined his program to Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg 
as follows: "Although German air support would be substantial, Ger- 
man aid on the ground would consist only of armament and sufficient 
personnel to train Spanish troops in its use."^^ 

Around the first of September, 1936, Lieutenant General Karl 
Warlimont and Italian General Mario Roatta met with Franco at 
Caceres where each promised him three companies of fully equipped 
troops. In October the German companies arrived. ^^ In keeping with 
the promise of substantial air support four transport aircraft were dis- 
patched to Spain every week from the first of August, in addition to 
cargo boats leaving Germany, mainly from Hamburg, every five days.^'^ 

On November 18, 1936, Hitler and Mussolini simultaneously pro- 
claimed their recognition of the Franco regime as the de jure Spanish 
government. By this act they showed their intention to act together to 
see to it that a Fascist government recognized by them would succeed, 
since its failure would in turn reflect on them. 

On November 30 Admiral Canaris arrived in Salamanca, Franco's 
headquarters, to inform the rebel leader that the Nazis were sending 
the Condor Legion under the command of Field Marshal General Hugo 
Sperrle to aid in the conflict. '^^ General Sperrle was already in Spain 
commanding an air force corps that had arrived around November 7.*^ 
The completed corps consisted of 6,500 men and was to see action on 
every front in the war.^° 

The "Drone Group", two German tank companies, and one trans- 
port company and staff formed the nucleus of Franco's tank forces. ^^ 
The Germans served as instructors and fighters. They designed and built 



^ Ibid. See also Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, p. 230, and David Cattell, 
Soviet Diplomacy and the Spanish Civil War (Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1957), p. 'l51. 

45 UNSC Records, p. 7. 

46 Ibid. 

4'^ Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, p. 230. 
48 UNSC Records, p. 7. 
4^ Van der Esch, Prelude to War. p. 38. 

^ Deren, Non-intervention and the Spanish Civil War, p. 128. The cost to Ger- 
many for the Condor Legion alone, between November 7, 1936, and October 31, 
1938, was well over 190 million reichsmarks. See Documents on German Foreign 
Policy, p. 786. 
51 Ibid., p. 129. 

21 



the rebel field fortifications, excellent by any standards. They also or- 
ganized and conducted the officer and noncommissioned officer train- 
ing schools for the Spanish Fascists and supervised the rebel naval 
operations, such as mine-laying, and the cartographic headquarters at 
Vitoria. The Germans, through the Condor Legion, supplied the rebels 
with almost all their heavy artillery and trained artillerists. The Ger- 
mans guarded their artillery and anti-aircraft batteries so well that even 
the Spanish and Italian officers were not able to examine them at close 
range. They also supplied the heavy bombers and pilots, navigators, 
and bombardiers. ^2 In addition to training some 50,000 Spanish of- 
ficers, the Germans instructed numerous tank, anti-tank, flame thrower, 
and communications troops. ^^ 

In one way, however, German aid never approached that of Italy. 
Though the two dictators made their intervention something of a joint 
effort, the quantitative aid rendered by the Italians was much greater 
than that supplied by the Nazis. Mussolini provided about four divisions 
of infantry, field artillery, light tanks and fighters, as well as some 
bombers and naval craft. Hitler provided similar items in smaller quanti- 
ties. The Nazis' greatest contribution to Franco came in large amounts 
of heavy equipment and in organizing, supplying, and manning those 
highly technical services "without which modern war cannot be 
waged. "^^ The German contribution, then, was qualitatively superior 
to that of the Italians. 

In assessing the aid given Franco by Germany and Italy, Dante A. 
Puzzo states that it was the high quality of Germany's aid to the rebels 
and the swift efficiency with which it was delivered that saved the day 
for Franco's forces. Italy, he feels, could never have accomplished this 
alone. ^^ 

German aid to Franco amounted to over 500,000,000 reichsmarks 
of war material (over $199,000,000 U.S.). Salaries and expenses, a gift 
from Hitler to Franco, amounted to 88,000,000 RM, while 124,000,000 
RM were used on direct deliveries to the rebels, and 354,000,000 RM 
were spent on the Condor Legion. Germany reached peak troop strength 
in Spain in the autumn of 1936 with about 10,000 civilian technicians 
and military men stationed there. Because of the rotating system that 
Goering explained in his trial at Nuremberg, the total number of Ger- 
mans who aided Franco probably reached 16,000. Of these, approxi- 
mately 300 were killed. Sperrle's Condor Legion always numbered about 
6,000 men, who were supported by thirty anti-tank companies and two 
tank companies under the command of Colonel Ritter von Thoma, who 



^2 del Vayo, Freedom 's Battle, pp. 54-55. 

^ Deren, Non-intervention and the Spanish Civil War. p. 129. 

^ Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, p. 65. 

55 Ibid., pp. 65-66. 



22 



was later to replace Rommel as commander of the Afrika Korps.^*^ 

German aid to Franco from July 1936 to May 22, 1939, was ex- 
pensive; naturally Hitler expected dividends on this investment. His 
troops had served well and had provided the margin needed for a Nation- 
alist victory. Now was the time for the payoff. ^'^ 

The Nazi investment brought immediate and handsome dividends 
in the form of iron ore deliveries from rebel-held territory. ^^ The Ger- 
mans made sure they would gain these dividends by using the threat of 
withdrawing the Condor Legion or withholding supplies from Franco. 
With this bargaining point they were able to obtain economic con- 
cessions from the Nationalist government. This was especially true after 
April 1938, when Franco's army had already reached the east coast of 
Spain and the Nazi High Command was becoming less enthusiastic 
about involvement in Spain while international tension was mounting 
in eastern Europe. ^^ 

As early as December 31, 1936, a protocol was signed between Ger- 
many and the Nationalists stating that "preference in supplying such 
goods as are of special interest to the two parties shall be mutually 
guaranteed." A further trade agreement was signed at Burgos in July 
1937. By applying pressure, as noted above, the Nazis were able to gain 
more mining concessions in Spain and thus supplant French and British 
interest there. Between 1937 and 1938 the value of Spanish exports to 
Germany increased from 57,000,000 RM to 65,000,000 RM.^o 

The real winner in the German-Italian-Spanish alliance was Gen- 
eralissimo Franco. He received invaluable Axis aid in overthrowing the 
Republican government and in gaining power for himself. In addition, 
in the protocol signed July 16, 1937, he received a promise that Ger- 
many would assist in the reconstruction of the Spanish economy after 
the Civil War ended. ^^ Franco was also able to obtain aid and con- 
cessions from the Western democracies by playing them against the 
Axis. ^2 



^ Thomas, The Spanish Civil War. p. 634. 

^^ The Nazis faced in Spain many of their fellow countrymen serving in the 

International Brigades (Edgar Andre and Thaelmann Battalions). Thomas, The 

Spanish Civil War. pp. 638-39; Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, pp. 140-41; 

and Colodny, The Struggle for Madrid, pp. 59-60. 

^ Documents on German Foreign Policy, p. 566. 

^ van der Esch, Prelude to War, p. 39. The General Staff was not by itself in 

being dissatisfied. The Spanish enterprise was generally unpopular with the 

German people and cloaked in secretiveness most of the time. Deren, A''o77- 

Intervention and the Spanish Civil War. p. 118. 

60 Ibid., p. 13. 

6^ Puzzo, Spain and the Great Powers, p. 205. 

^ Charles Foltz, Jr., The Masquerade in Spain (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 

1948), pp. 141-46. 

23 



Germany benefited greatly from the economic dividends paid to 
her by the Spaniards, but just as valuable, if not more so, were the 
strategic and political advantages she received. She now had a nucleus 
of trained and battle-experienced officers and non-commissioned of- 
ficers to lead her columns into Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and 
France. Hitler's hope that conflict in Spain would cause internal turmoil 
in France became a reality. The French, threatened more than any 
other state by a Fascist take-over in Spain, instead of becoming united 
in a common defense against the threat, became more disunited and 
continued their class and political conflicts to the point that 
some Frenchmen were willing to support Franco as a means of striking 
out against their own government. Foreign affairs were subordinated 
to internal factional bickering and Hitler was the winner. ^^ 

In addition, collective security was dealt a body blow. The Soviets 
began to sense the appeasement attitude of England and France and de- 
cided that if the Western Powers would not act in Spain to counter the 
Fascists, then Russia would. Russia did not abandon the idea of col- 
lective security at this time, but remained suspicious of the Western 
Powers.^'* 

Any hopes the British and French held for a rapprochement with 
Italy were killed by the Spanish conflict. England and France again 
faced Italy as they had during the Abyssinian War. The sanctions 
against Italy were dropped, but the League of Nations' non-intervention 
committee replaced them. The conflict generated between Italian inter- 
vention and British and French attempts to prevent this kept Mussolini 
separated from the West.^^ 

Due to the struggle in Spain, Hitler gained a new ally. // Duce had 
approached the Nazis in May 1936 with his concern about the leftist 
elements in Spain. It would seem from this time on that he felt more 
could be gained from cooperation with the Nazis than by a revival of 
the anti-German Strese Front with England and France. Although he 
did not trust the Germans, especially in Eastern Europe, Mussolini 
thought this cooperation would be a marriage of convenience more 
beneficial to Italy than Germany. 

The Rome-Berlin Axis, informally established by cooperation in 
aiding Franco, was formally acknowledged in Berlin on October 25, 
1936. This alliance, in reality, permitted Hitler whether Italy liked it 
or not, to carry out his Austrian Anschluss and to eliminate Czech in- 
fluence in Central Europe, the latter being of as much interest to Mus- 
solini as to Hitler. 66 



63 Bullock, Hitler, p. 303. 

64 Cattell, Soviet Diplomacy and the Spanish Civil War. pp. 32-34. See also 
Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement, pp. 214-15. 

65 Documents on German Foreign Policy, p. 157. 

66 Furnia, The Diplomacy of Appeasement, pp. 216-18. 

24 



Though Franco was the winner in the long run. Hitler reaped im- 
portant and substantial benefits from his intervention on the Nationalist 
side. For 500,000,000 RM worth of aid he obtained another hostile 
power on the French border, sowed dissension within France, estranged 
Italy from the West and pulled her closer to Germany, received valu- 
able exports from Spain needed for a continued rearmament program, 
tested his armed forces and trained his troops, paved the way for the 
seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia, and created tension between the 
West and the Soviet Union. All of this, of course, was invaluable to 
him in his planning and preparations for the coming war. Thus the 
Spanish Civil War, in addition to being a proving ground for the Second 
World War, was indeed one of the primary milestones on the road to 
that war. 



25 



WHAT ARE THOSE CLOUDS'? 
BARIUM GAS! 



By B.E. POWELL* 



My telephone rang about 7:00 p.m. on January 20, 197L The caller 
asked, Have you seen how strange the moon looks tonight?" This was 
the first of a series of calls concerning several luminous objects which 
were located in the southern sky. When I went outside to see the lights I 
recognized the clouds as being gaseous discharges from rockets This 
Identification was based on my having seen motion pictures of the move- 
ment of such clouds and having read articles in several periodicals i 
I saw the clouds three times in 1971. On January 20, 1971 three 
clouds were visible at 7:00 p.m. The largest was violet, another was 
green, and the smallest was whitish. Other observers in Carrollton 
Georgia, reported additional smaller clouds and described the color 
of the largest cloud as ranging from pink to red. On Jaunuary 26, one 
green cloud and one violet cloud were visible. On February 1 at 6-45 
p.m., observers saw a bright green cloud from which a violet cloud 
emerged. The clouds were 20°above the horizon. A simple trignometric 
calculation indicated the clouds were 350 miles away if the gases were 
released at an altitude of 125 miles as reported in newspapers Although 
the colors of these clouds changed rapidly, remnants were visible 30 
minutes after the mitial siehtine. AM of these clouds were formed from 
gases released from rockets launched from Santa Rosa Island near 
Eghn Air Force Base. Florida. 2 

Two green clouds were formed on November 16, 1971, at approxi- 
mately 6:08 and 6.15 p.m. These clouds were different from thos'e'seen 
n January and February, since they did not separate into clouds of dif- 
fering colors and appeared to drift under atmospheric winds. 

These gaseous discharges are used to study the earth's atmosphere 
as part of a program which began in the 1950's. In the early experin^ents 
gases were released close to the earth's surface.3 Scientists who tracked 
*Associate Professor of Physics, West Georgia College. 

1 "Preliminary Results of Electric Field^^easurements in the Auroral Zone " 
H. Foppel. G. Haerendel. L. Haser. R. Liist, F. Melznei !'. Meyer. H Neuss 

LXXin'No"',^,Q^Jfr;; ?f .>^. 'r'^'''' •'■ '""^ °^ Geophysical Research, 

Haerende^^nH R \ ^ ^c -^'^'^^^^^^ ^'"™^ ^'°"^^ '" ^pace," Gerhard 
Haerendel and Reimer Lust, Scientific American. CCXIX, No. S (1968) 80-92 

Expenmental Investigation of Electric Fields Parallel to the Magnetic Fields 

Lxk^^^^3^l%^59^97.'•'• "^^"'^^ ^^--^^^ ^^ ^^-^'^--^ ^--^- 

2 ;-Flying Saucers? Weird! What are those Lights?", Atlanta Journal and Con- 
stitution, January 31, 1971, p. ISA. 

^ ihe Upper Atmosphere. H.S.W. Massey and R.L.F. Boyd, (Lor ion- Hutchin- 
son, 1960), pp. 172-74. 



26 



the clouds through telescopes obtained information about the atmo- 
sphere by observing the movement of the clouds and the distortion of 
the clouds from their spherical shape. The experiments have become 
more sophisticated and are yielding information about higher regions 
of the atmosphere, such as the ionsphere. 

The ionosphere is the part of the earth's atmosphere which extends 
from about 50 miles to several hundred miles above the earth's surface. 
Constituent gases are ionized by ultra-violet radiation. These ions (free 
electrons and positively charged atoms) give the zone its name and some 
of its properties, such as the reflection of radio waves back to the earth's 
surface. The ionosphere is not a static medium; its height, thickness, 
density, and degree of ionization fluctuate. The tidal actions of both 
the sun and the moon induce movement of the gases in the region. 
Solar activity (such as flares and sunspots) affect ionization. 

Electric and magnetic fields are present in the ionosphere. In order 
to understand the ionosphere, information about these electromagnetic 
fields is needed. By measuring variations of these fields (especially at 
particular times such as periods of intense sunspots), the effects of 
extra-terrestial influences on the ionosphere can be determined. 

Electromagnetic fields may be studied by observing the influences 
of these fields on charged particles. An electric field will exert a force 
parallel to the field on a positive charge. A magnetic field acts on charges 
which are moving. If a charge initially travels perpendicular to the mag- 
netic field, its subsequent trajectory wil be a circle. If a charge moves 
in a magnetic field and electric field, its motion will be determined by 
the vector sum of the forces exerted by each field acting individually. 
In particular, for a positive charge initially moving perpendicular to an 
electric field and a magnetic field, its motion will be spiral. Hence, the 
electric field acting on the particles can be determined by studying the 
drift of charged particles in a known magnetic field. The magnitude and 
direction of the magnetic field in the atmosphere has been measured by 
instruments carried in balloons and rockets. 

The artificial cloud method is the only reliable technique for mea- 
surement of the electric field. In a typical experiment, several kilograms 
of barium are vaporized and released at altitudes of 90-150 miles, which 
is the range of relatively inexpensive rockets. Barium gas is used because 
it is easily ionized by ultra-violet radiation and because the spectral 
emissions of the neutral gas and barium ions have wavelengths in the 
visible spectrum. Since the intensity of the emitted light is low. the ex- 
periments must be performed at twilight to make the cloud distinguish- 
able from the scattering of light by the dense portions of the atmosphere. 
At twilight, the clouds will be illuminated, but the observers on the 
ground will be in darkness. The experiment is observed from two or 
more tracking stations in order that the position of the clouds may be 
determined by triangulation.^ 



^ "Artificial Plasma Clouds in Space," pp. 80-92. 

27 



The color, shape, and motion of the neutral and ionized particles 
are different. When barium gas is released, the cloud is green, because 
the radiations from neutral barium are strongest in the green region of 
the spectrum. Barium ionized by ultra-violet light radiates violet, blue, 
and red spectral lines; the resultant color is violet. The charged parti- 
cles can be distinguished from neutral atoms because of the difference 
in color. The neutral, green cloud is spherical and moves under the 
influence of atmospheric winds. The barium ions interact with the 
electromagnetic fields and produce an elongated, violet cloud which 
moves under the combined forces of the wind, magnetic field, and elec- 
tric field. Since the magnetic field is known from earlier experiments 
and the effects of the wind are measured from the neutral cloud, the 
characteristics of the electric field may be inferred from these experi- 
ments. Bluish clouds are sometimes seen during these experiments. 
These clouds are strontium gas, which is an impurity in barium.^ 

Since the gases are released at a high altitude, the clouds are visible 
over a large part of the earth's surface. The clouds emitted by rockets 
launched from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, have been seen as far away 
as Kentucky.^ Many people have formulated their own explanation 
about the origin of these clouds, such as reflections of moonlight from 
clouds, omens from God, and unidentified flying objects. Perhaps the 
green cloud might have caused some people to speculate that the 
Martians had arrived. 



5 Ibid. 

^ "Flying Saucers?", p. 18A. 



28 



THE SEA IN 
FOUR ROMANTIC POEMS 

By C. H. EDWARDS, JR.* 

One can hardly think of Romantic poetry without thinking of poems 
that deal memorably with the sea. These range in method and mood 
from Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" with its highly imagi- 
native Gothic experiences to the horrifying or satiric realism of sections 
of Byron's "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" and "Don Juan." The four that 
I have chosen for discussion below have in common a certain symbolic 
use of the sea that became an archetypal pattern for Romantic poets. 
The four poets— Wordsworth, Poe, Whitman, and Lanier— insofar as, 
they knew each other did not care for each other's poetry. Poe's judg- 
ment of Wordsworth is integral to the interpretation of Poe's poem be- 
low and will be discussed later. It will do to mention here that 
both Whitman and Lanier were quite aware of each other's presence 
and that each had serious reservations about the poetry of the other. 
Whitman characterized Lanier as "florid" and "gushing." and a critic 
who knew both poets said that "Whitman evidently did not put a high 
value on him."^ Lanier on his part admired Whitman's large rhythms, 
his strength, and his manliness: yet he excoriated Whitman for much of 
his content, especially his literary exposure of the human body. He 
called Whitman "poetry's butcher. Huge raw coUops slashed from the 
rump of poetry, and never mind gristle, is what Whitman feeds our souls 
with. "2 Lanier had a high regard for Poe but felt that "The trouble with 
Poe wash, he did not know enough. He needed to know a good many 
more things in order to be a great poet."^ Whitman's attitude toward Poe 
was similar. He had read Poe's poems, "of which I was not an admirer," 
and felt that they had a "limited range of melody." He felt womewhat 
better about Poe's criticism, but only because Poe denied the existence 
of long poems.* That four such widely differing personalities with such 
*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College. 

^ Charles Downer Hazen, ed.. The Letters of William Roscoe Thayer (New 
York: Houghton-Mifflin, 1926), p. 34. 

^ Poem Outline Number 104. See Charles R. Anderson et al, eds.. The Cen- 
tennial Edition of the Works of Sidney Lanier. Vol. I of 10 vols. (Baltimore: 
The Johns Hopkins Press, 1945), p. 240. Lanier also made random comments 
about Whitman throughout parts of The English Novel (Centennial Edition. 
Vol. IV). 

3 Quoted by William Hayes Ward in Poems of Sidney Lanier (New York: Scrib- 
ner's, 1884, 1916), pp. xxxv-xxxvi. Facsimile reprint of the 1916 edition by the 
University of Georgia Press, 1967. 

* Quotations are from "A Backward Glance O'er Travel'd Roads": see Harold 
W. Blodgett and ScuUey Bradley, ed?,.. Leaves of Grass: Comprehensive Reader's 
Edition (New York: W.W. Norton, 1965), p. 569. It is quite ironic that the author 
of "Song of Myself" could find value in Poe's dicta about long poems. 

2^) 



differing personalities with such disparate theories of poetry could ar- 
rive at the same symbols for the same things indicates that they shared 
a quality common to the romantic imagination. 

In Section IX of his "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recol- 
lections of Early Childhood" Wordsworth argues that the memory of 
the spiritual or idealistic basis of our life in early childhood serves as 
a compensation for our loss of childhood happiness. In earlier sections 
of the poem he shows at length how we come into the world "trailing 
clouds of glory" (1. 64), how we gradually lose our vision of the spiritual 
pre-existence of our souls, and finally, a"^ v. c arc overcome by the mun- 
dane affairs of the world and lose ihis vision completely, how worldly 
custom lies upon us "Heavy as frost, and deep almost as life."^ Only 
our brief periods of recollection of our childhood can assure us of the 
immortality of our souls. He concludes Section IX with the following 
lines: 

Hence in a season of calm weather 

Though inland far we be. 
Our Souls have sight of that immortal sea 
Which brought us hither, 
Can in a moment travel thither. 
And see the Children sport upon the shore. 
And hear the mighty waters rolling evermore. 
It requires no great imagination to realize that in these lines the sea 
symbolizes the mysterious eternity from which our souls came; that 
the shore symbolizes childhood, which has not moved so far from its 
spiritual origin that it cannot see directly and intuitively the spiritual 
world; and that locations "inland" symbolize adulthood that can gain 
only brief glimpses of the sea and the children and of the relationship 
between them. Wordsworth is chronologically the first of the 
four poets to use these symbols and also the most explicit in their use. 
For this reason their easily decipherable meaning can be used as a key 
to the meaning of the poems which follow. 

One cannot read far into the criticism of Edgar Allan Poe without 
realizing that Poe had little admiration for the poetry of Wordsworth. 
In his "Letter to B — " Poe held Wordsworth ". . .to blame for wearing 
away his youth in contemplation with the end of poetizing in his man- 
hood."^ A brief recapitulation of Poe's view of the mind and its func- 
tions, especially in the writing of poetry, will help to explain his position 
on Wordsworth. According to the phrenological fashion of his time, 
Poe divided the mind into three faculties — Intellect, Taste, and the 



^ Quotations from Wordsworth's poem in this paragraph, come from Russell 
Noyes, ed., English Romantic Poetry and Prose (New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1956), pp. 327-29. 

^ Quotations from Poe are taken from Eric W. Carlson, ed., Introduction to 
Poe (Glenview, III.: Scott, Foresman, Co., 1967). p. 427. 

30 



Moral Sense. ^ The function of the Intellect is to apprise us of factual 
truth: it is the province of the scientist. The function of the Moral Sense 
is to apprise us of our duty; it is the province of the preacher and the 
teacher. The faculty of Taste gives us "a sense of the beautiful": it is 
"an immortal instinct, deep within the spirit of man." And this is the 
fair field of the poet: he must be concerned directly only with "Super" 
nal Beauty," never with truth or duty. Insofar as these enter an imagi- 
native work, story or poem, at all, Poe felt that they should be "a very 
profound under-current so as never to interfere with the upper one with- 
out our own volition, so as never to show itself unless called to 
the surface . . . ."^ What Poe disliked about Wordsworth was his at- 
tempt to be philosophical, to preach a doctrine or argue a case in his 
poems. The doctrine should have been deeply hidden within the poem 
and only vaguely hinted at through poetic symbols. 

In his own works Poe used symbols in this vague, nebulous way. One 
of his favorites was the dead beautiful woman, which he called "the most 
poetical topic in the world. "^ Richard Wilbur has pointed out that in 
almost every case Poe's beautiful woman is his svmbol for supernal beau- 
ty, dead because her proper abode is in the spiritual world, not in the 
physical.^'' All the symbols under discussion work together in Poe's 
"Annabel Lee." The narrator and Annabel were companions only in 
childhood V'She was a child and / was a child"). Annabel was "the beau- 
tiful Annabel Lee" (italics mine). They lived "In this kingdom bv the 
sea" — that is, on the shore, the symbolic point of disembarkation from 
the spiritual world into the physical. But their relationship here did not 
last long before Annabel died, retreating from the physical world. In 
this poem, as in Wordsworth's, we have the sea symbolizing the eternal 
and the shore symbolizing early life. Poe adds to these the dead beauti- 
ful woman to symbolize the vision of the ideal beauty which exists onlv 
in the spiritual realm. In both poems the soul of the poet loses its vision 
of the ideal by being born into this world. In other words, Poe's poem 
means exactly the same thing that the lines quoted from Wordsworth's 
poem mean. The difference is that the meaning of Wordswbi-th's svm- 



^ Poe's clearest exposition of this matter occurs in his lecture "The Poetic 
Principle." See Carlson, pp. 456-57. Further quotations in this paragraph come 
from this source unless otherwise noted. 

^ From "Tale-Writing: Nathaniel Hawthorne." See Carlson, p. 495. 
^ From "The Philosophy of Composition.'" See Carlson, p. 446. 
^^ Wilbur's explications of Poe's symbols are in his "Introduction" to Poe in 
Perry Miller et al. eds.. Major Writers of America (one-volume edition), (New 
York: Harcourt. Brace and World, 1966).' pp. 177-89 and in "The House of Poe," 
Robert Regan, ed., Poe: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: 
Prentice-Hall, 1967), pp. 98-120. Wilbur also wrote the "Introduction" for the 
Laurel Poetry Series edition of Poe's poems, but the two previous articles are 
more fruitful for a study of Poe's symbols. Carlson also discusses Poe's use of 
symbols in his "Introduction" to the work mentioned above. 

31 



bols lies on the surface: the meaning of Poe's symbols can be arrived 
at only after concentrated intellection: it does not "show itself unless 
called to the surface." "Annabel Lee" may be facetiously regarded as 
Poe's attempt to show Wordsworth how it should have been done. 

The third poem to be considered is Whitman's "Out of the Cradle 
Endlessly Rocking." The complex time structure of this poem adds a 
new dimension to the old symbols. Wordsworth's lines contrasted the 
view of the adult with the view of the child; Whitman's poem does es- 
sentially the same, but the greater length allows a more complex involve- 
ment at both time levels. The poem develops in this fashion: the poet 
as a child has an experience with two birds which he is unable to under- 
stand at the time. One of the birds dies, and its mate sings a dirge which 
is incomprehensible to the child. The experience occurs on the shore: 

Yes my brother I know. 

The rest might not, but I have treasur'd every note. 

For more than once dimly down to the beach gliding. 

Silent, avoiding the moonbeams, blending myself with the 
shadows. 

Recalling now the obscure shapes, the echoes, the sounds 
and sights after their sorts. 

The white arms out in the breakers tirelessly tossing, 

I, with bare feet, a child, the wind wafting my hair, 

Listen'd long and long.^^ 
The song the bird sings adds force to the symbolic relationship of the 
sea and the shore. In his grief he recognizes the polar contrast between 
the two: 

O madly the sea pushes upon the land, 

With love, with love. 
He seems to see his beloved against the background of the sea: "O night! 
do I not see my love fluttering out among the breakers?" Clearly the sea 
here, as in the two previous poems, symbolizes eternity, the abode of 
the soul after death and before life (in other poems— "Crossing Brook- 
lyn Ferry," for instance — Whitman makes clear his belief in the pre- 
existence of the soul). After the poet matures, he is able to interpret 
the bird's song, which becomes an inspiration for his own song. He 
finds in it a hint of the meaning of life and eternity, coming to a full 
understanding of the meaning only after he returns to the sea as a man 
and hears the lesson it teaches: 

Are you whispering it, and have been all the time, you sea- 
waves? 

Is that it from your liquid rims and wet sands? 

Whereto answering, the sea. 

Delaying not, hurrying not, 

Whisper'd me through the night, and very plainly before day- 



1^ Quotations from Whitman's poems come from Blodgett and Bradley, pp. 
246-53. 

32 



break, 

Lisp'd to me the low and delicious word death. 

And again death, death, death, death. 

Hissing melodious, neither like the bird nor like my arous'd 
child's heart. 

But edging near as privately for me rustling at my feet. 

Creeping thence steadily up to my ears and laving me softly 
all over. 

Death, death, death, death, death. 
Thus life, represented by the child, the man, and the symbolic shore, 
becomes meaningful onlv when it sees through death to eternity and 
mystically merges with it for the moment. Whitman's handling of this 
theme and these symbols parallels both Wordsworth's and Poe's. 

In "The Marshes of Glynn" Sidney Lanier used four major symbols 
to record the progress of the soul toward its perfection. The poem opens 
with a scene in the woods, which symbolizes the healing effect of Na- 
ture. ^^ This scene occurs "While the riotous noon-day sun of the June- 
day long did shine," during the greater part of the day. i3 After the woods 
have completed their ministrations, the poet moves to a sandy beach 
separating the woods from the marsh, a vantage point from which he can 
observe the marsh and the sea. The "firm-packed sand" of the beach 
SNinbolizes the spiritual foundation that the poet gained from the mini- 
si lations of the woods, and the marsh symbolizes the concomitant 
leedom of his soul from spiritual disease, "From the weighing of fate 
ind the sad discussion of sin." During the time that it takes- the poet 
lo achieve this state, the sun sets. Thus by the time that he is ready to 
consider the sea in the last quarter of the poem, another common poetic 
symbol, the use of the day for the progress of life, has run its course. 
The metaphorical point of death, then, is the point where Lanier comes 
to use the main symbol that we are concerned with. The poet stands 
on the shore, contemplates the meaning of the sea, and bids farewdl 
to the sun. The coming of the tide that floods the marsh represents the 
merging of the poet's soul with eternity. That the experience is only 
metaphorical is shown by the fact that the knowledge obtained is not 
absolute or complete. Some questions that are left unanswered will 
remain unanswerable until the final actual merging of the soul with 
eternity that occurs in death. But in the mystical experience that occurs 
in the poem the poet does become convinced that there is an eternity 
that lies beyond death, and like the other three poets above, he uses 
the sea to svmbolize it. 



^2 The best critical discussion of "The Marshes of Glynn" is Robert H. Ross's 
"The Marshes of Glynn': A Study in Symbolic Obscurity." American Literature, 
XXXII (Jan. 1961). 403-16. However, Ross's article has a major flaw in that it 
overlooks one of the primary symbols in the poem, the strip of sand that lies 
between the woods and the marsh. 

1^ My text for "The Marshes of Glynn" is in Vol. I of the Centennial Edition. 
pp. 119 22. 



A major philosophical tradition that became a significant part of 
the intellectual content of Romanticism among the better Romantics 
was the Platonic and neo-Platonic view of the soul and its relation- 
ship to the world of ideals. Many are aware of the acknowledgment 
that Wordsworth made of his use of it in the "Intimations Ode." Briefly, 
according to Plato the soul before its birth into a human body had its 
own pure existence in an intellectual realm, knowing intuitively and 
directly the perfect forms of things. In order to live well, the human 
being, consisting of an awkward combination of soul and body, must 
spend its life trying to regain through recollection the perfect know- 
ledge that the soul had before its traumatic entrance into this world. The 
only way it can do so is by denying the comforts of the body in order to 
increase the comforts of the soul. The soul must continuously strive to 
escape its earthly prison. Life in this world is simply a testing ground 
for the soul; and if it proves its strength here, it is freed at death to live 
forever in the intellectual realm, happy in its perfect knowledge of the 
ideals. Three of the poets discussed above — Wordsworth, Poe, and 
Whitman— posit the pre-existence of the soul in a world of ideals as 
Plato does, and they all use the sea to represent this world symbolically. 
Lanier, who was not as deep a thinker as the other three and who was 
probably not so well aware of his place in intellectual tradition as they, 
never granted the soul any form of pre-existence. But when he con- 
sidered its post-existence, he used the same symbol as the other three 
for the ideal world to which it journies. The foregoing brief discussions 
of four poems shows that the use of this symbol did become an 
archetypal pattern in romantic poetry. The discussion is in no sense 
complete. Further search and study would undoubtedly uncover other 
interesting aspects of the archetype. For instance, Poe's "The City in 
the Sea" would produce very interesting, if not insurmountable, arche- 
typal problems; and close scrutiny of all the poems in Whitman's Sea- 
Drift (to which "Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking" belongs) would 
certainlv produce qualifications of the archetype as it applies to Whit- 
man. My purpose here has been only to establish the pattern. There is 
wide room for further study. 



34 



A STUDY OF VALUE JUDGMENTS 
IN A SAMPLE OF ADULTS FROM 
TWO WEST GEORGIA COUNTIES 

By PEARL NIX* 

Understanding the motivation underlying behavior involves more 
than dipping into the past; one must dip below the surface into the 
spring from which actions flow— to the core of being called one's value 
system. With reference to this study, a value system is a hypothetical 
construct or function of one's mind enabling the person to weigh the 
relative merits of a successive stream of thoughts coursing through his 
consciousness. Although each person's system of values is unique, it 
reflects ^he collective consciousness of his culture. Through the pro- 
cesses of learning, the individual acquires a value system, having some 
of the character'stics of his parent culture but stamped by his own in- 
dividuality. Thi:i system includes the criteria by which the individual 
evalui tes forrrially or informally the alternatives which appear to him 
at an) choice point. In a specific instance, a value can be construed as 
the 1 iie an individual uses to choose which of the mutually exclusive 
courses of action he will undertake. These values monitor the person's 
actions. The more harmonious, compatible and internally consistent 
the individual's value system, the less mental conflict and frustration 
he is likely to experience. 

Since value systems may be considered hypothetical constructs, 
they cannot be measured directly any more than can intelligence; they 
can only be inferred from the behavior of the individual as he faces a 
choice point. In this case his decision may be referred to as a value 
judgment; in other words, he has chosen one alternative over otie or 
more possible choices. From his judgment one may infer which of the 
alternatives he values most at the moment. 

The more stable one's value system is the more likely he is to be 
consistent in his value judgments. Thus it is assumed that older people 
are more consistent; however, it is entirely possible for the person who 
continues to learn to have a fluid value system. He will likely maintain 
a basic framework which lends predictability and a degree of consist- 
ency to his behavior; yet he may make progressively finer discrimina- 
tions and weigh alternatives with a more sensitive scale; in other words, 
he may move from the use of the more common "'grocery scales" to the 
greater precision of the "gold scales." 

The purpose of this study is to focus upon the value judgments of 
individuals of different ages and professional orientation to discover some 
of the things that really matter to them and to determine whether there 

*Professor of Psychology, West Georgia College. Assisted by Virginia Cham- 
bers, Stella Jones, Sue Jordan, Carrie Mae McElroy. Nelle Smith, members of 
the Research Committee of Delta Kappa Gamma Society. 

35 



are differences between the sexes and between groups of different ages 
and professional orientation. 

The sample was obtained from two West Georgia counties and con- 
sists of the following groups: 



173 



Class 


Sex 


Average Age 


Numt 


High School Seniors 


Male 


17 


78 




Female 


17 


95 


Parents 


Male 


47.3 


16 




Female 


43.5 


66 


Teachers 


Male 


36.8 


28 




Female 


35.2 


51 


Teachers (members of 
Delta Kappa Gamma 
Society) 


Female 


56.3 


32 



82 



79 



32 
366 



The members of the Research Committee of the local chapter of 
the Delta Kappa Gamma Society (an honorary society for women teach- 
ers) developed a questionnaire, "Study of Value Judgments", composed 
of ten multiple-choice items, twenty agree-disagree items and six open- 
ended questions which presented the respondent with opportunities 
to make decisions, calling into action his value system. These question- 
naires were distributed to the sample. Both rural and urban school 
communities were included from which whole classes of seniors were 
chosen. In most instances classes in the core curriculum such as English 
and social studies were used. Both high school and elementary teachers 
were included and the parents were drawn from the school communi- 
ties. A total of 366 people completed the questionnaire. 

The Research Committee tabulated the responses to each alter- 
native of each item. Then the numbers of responses were converted to 
per cents of the total subgroup. All groups were divided by sex: hence 
the total sample was treated as seven subgroups. In each subgroup the 
per cent of members responding to the alternatives for each item did 
not always equal 100 per cent; for, in a few cases persons chose more 
than one answer even though they were instructed to choose only one; 
in other instances some people omitted one or more items. In each 
table the per cent cited is of the total subgroup in question; for example, 
for the 28 male teachers, each per cent represents a proportion of 28 
even though in some cases only 25 of the 28 responded to a given item. 
The tables do not indicate the per cents who responded in some way. 

36 



Contingency tables were used to compute chi-square"s to determine 
whether the differences in responses between groups were significant. 
The .05 level of significance was accepted. 

The responses of the entire sample to the questionnaire, "Study of 
Value Judgments," are reported in Tables I, II, and III which show the 
per cent of each group responding to each alternative. 



TABLE I. 

RESPONSES TO THE ALTERNATIVES TO 
TEN MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 

(In Percentages) 



















DKG 


Test Items 




Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 




Sex 


M 


F 


M 


F 


IVI 


F 


F 




Number 


78 


95 


16 


66 


28 


51 


32 


1. My ideal job gives me op- 


















portunity to: 


















a. Associate with popular 


















people. 




4 







2 


4 


2 




b. Make a high salary. 




36 


22 


25 


15 




4 




c. Find expression for abilities 


















interests 




46 


45 


50 


32 


36 


34 


13 


d. Contribute to the welfare 


















of others 




14 


31 


25 


51 


61 


60 


87 



2. Thing most essential to per- 
sonal happiness 

a. Personal and economic 
security. 

b. Lx)ve of family and friends. 

c. Challenging work 

d. Peace of mind 

3. I prefer to spend my leisure 
time 

a. Being entertained by others 

b. Pursuing my own hobbies 

c. Expanding interests and 
abilities— study travel 

d. Engaging in group activ- 
ities—sports 

4. Primary reason for not cheating 

a. Danger of being caught 
and punished 

b. The Bible says it is wrong 

c. Violates property rights of 
others 



17 9 13 4 4 4 6 

39 58 50 54 32 52 37 

9 7 25 4 32 12 28 

23 25 19 41 43 36 28 



10 16 13 4 7 4 3 

31 21 50 45 43 42 22 

17 22 25 43 40 56 71 

50 45 19 21 25 18 3 



27 14 

14 14 31 46 4 14 



8 10 



43 11 



37 



Test Items 



Students 
Sex M F 

Number 78 95 



DKG 
Parents Teachers Members 
M F M F F 

16 66 28 51 32 



d. Violates own sense of hu- 
man dignity 

5. To me freedom is 

a. Privilege of choosing 
within democracy 

b. The right to do just as I 
choose 

c. Opportunity for rule by ma- 
jority with dissent by minority 

6. Current tendencies most 
disturbing 

a. materialism 

b. Self-indulgence 

c. Flabby-minded apathy 

d. Lack of self-control 

e. Tendency to herd together 
f. Inconsistency between 

saying and doing 

7. Religion is 

a. Total life orientation re- 
lating one to highest value 

b. Response to God's revelation 

c. Being concerned about one's 
being. 

d. System of beliefs relating 
one to world 

8. Major aim of church should be 
a. Help members live Christ- 



9. Major responsibility of public 
education 

a. Prepare young tor vocational 
success 

b. Prepare young for respons- 
ible citizenship 

c. Prepare young for full, pro- 
ductive life in changing 
society 

d. Prepare young for parent- 
hood and family life 



46 58 69 21 



53 45 
13 12 
32 30 



56 63 68 74 
13 3 2 

31 33 32 36 



36 19 19 25 



14 20 





like life 


49 


33 


50 


51 


32 


34 


b. 


Solve social problems: 
















poverty, etc. 


4 


9 






7 


6 


c. 


Foster spiritual development, 
















communion with God 


42 


62 


57 


52 


50 


60 



90 



75 



22 



9 


26 


19 


15 


14 


16 


12 


12 


16 


6 


12 


7 


10 


22 


25 


26 


25 


19 


43 


34 


16 


14 


16 


25 


21 


14 


18 


19 


5 


8 


6 


7 


4 


8 





24 



12 


2 


13 


12 


32 


30 


22 


56 


71 


81 


75 


40 


44 


65 


10 


1 


6 


3 


7 


6 




22 


25 




10 


21 


20 


9 



22 



78 



16 


9 




6 


11 


4 




22 


20 


19 


21 


11 


14 


28 


60 


66 


61 


64 


75 


88 


71 


4 


6 


13 


4 


4 







38 



Test Itons 



Students 
Sex M F 

Number 78 95 



DKG 

Parents Teachers Members 
M F M F F 

16 66 28 51 32 



10. Most likely way to decrease 
poverty 

a. More social-minded cor- 
porations 

b. More governmental control 
of social welfare 

c. More general education 

d. A better way to distribute 
wealth 



18 13 



13 



AGREEMENT AND DISAGREEMENT 
WITH TWENTY STATEMENTS 

(In Percentages) 



12 



13 26 


6 


6 


4 


6 




58 40 


61 


79 


68 


72 


78 


9 21 


13 


4 


18 


6 


6 


TABLE II. 













Statements 









DKG 


Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 


Sex M F 


M F 


M F 


F 


Number 78 95 


16 66 


28 51 


32 



1. American security and well- 
being demand individual support 
of local police and other law- 
enforcement officials 

2. It is wrong and unfair not to 
pay one's full share of income 
tax on actual income. 

3. Living by moral principles of 
honesty, truthfulness and respect 
for the life and property of others 
is essential to my own personal 
welfare. 

4. All members of the community 
have the right to the protection of 
life against physical violence even 
if they cannot pay for protection. 

5. Provisions for decent housing 
and the elimination of slums is 
not a problem for individuals and 
communities but should be dele- 
gated to federal government. 



Yes 


82 


82 


81 


93 


96 


94 


97 


No 


18 


16 


19 


3 


4 


6 


3 


Yes 


77 


82 


88 


95 


92 


92 


97 


No 


22 


18 


12 


5 




8 


3 



Yes 


87 


91 


94 


97 


100 


No 


13 


7 


6 


2 


4 



Yes 

No 



97 
3 



91 

7 



94 
6 



97 

2 



96 
4 



96 
4 



97 



100 



Yes 


26 


26 


31 


9 


4 


14 


9 


No 


73 


74 


69 


80 


96 


86 


91 



39 



Statements 



Students 
Sex M F 

Number 78 95 



DKG 

Parents Teachers Members 
M F M F F 

16 66 28 51 32 



6. Management and labor should 
share the power in determining 
conditions, tenure and salaries or 
other rewards of employment. 

7. Beautifying the natural and 
social environment is both a per- 
sonal and social responsibility. 

8. Some form of meaningful work 
is essential to every person if he 

is to live a significant life of 
abiding satisfactions. 

9. Adequate medical protection 
and care should be contingent up- 
on a person's ability to pay for 
them. 

10. God has shown Himself to 
mankind in the person of Jesus 
Christ. 

11. God continues to move 
through His creation and reveal 
Himself to honest seekers. 

12. The Bible as a whole is a 
spiritual revelation of God. 

13. A beautiful church or cathe- 
dral inspires within me reverence 
and a desire to worship. 

14. One can be a Christian with- 
out embracing a religion. 

15. Parents should see that their 
children consistently experience 
the natural consequences of their 
conduct. 

16. Permitting the child to suffer 
the natural consequences of his 
action is a system of pure justice 
which will be considered by the 
child as fair. 



Yes 


83 


76 


88 


81 


79 


88 


81 


No 


16 


17 


12 


16 


14 


12 


16 


Yes 


96 


99 


100 


95 


100 


100 


97 


No 


3 


1 




2 






3 



Yes 
No 



86 92 
14 5 



100 95 92 96 100 

4 4 



Yes 


26 


31 


31 


39 


29 


32 


37 


No 


74 


64 


69 


53 


69 


70 


63 


Yes 


93 


89 


94 


97 


90 


98 


100 


No 


7 


6 


6 


3 




2 




Yes 


86 


44 


88 


95 


83 


92 


100 


No 


12 


10 


12 


2 


4 


4 




Yes 


83 


87 


88 


93 


79 


84 


100 


No 


12 


7 


6 


2 


18 


14 




Yes 


36 


59 


44 


60 


47 


64 


81 


No 


61 


41 


56 


36 


47 


32 


16 


Yes 


68 


70 


31 


56 


79 


56 


62 


No 


30 


25 


69 


41 


21 


36 


34 



Yes 79 71 88 78 86 78 93 

No 19 27 6 12 11 22 7 



Yes 45 43 63 55 68 46 65 

No 52 51 25 36 21 40 31 



40 



















DKG 


Statements 




Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 




Sex 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


F 




Number 


78 


95 


16 


66 


28 


51 


32 


17. Sex education is a family 


















responsibility which should not 


















be assumed by school. 


Yes 


21 


32 


69 


55 


18 


40 


56 




No 


76 


68 


31 


38 


72 


60 


39 


18. Moral values should be a 


















responsibility of the school as 


















well as of the family. 


Yes 


78 


76 


88 


84 


86 


88 


100 




No 


20 


24 


12 


11 


11 


12 




19. Censorship of motion picture 


s 
















is an unnecessary abridgment of 


















personal freedom. 


Yes 


58 


31 


25 


14 


25 


26 


3 




No 


40 


57 


75 


80 


68 


70 


97 


20. One should obey only those 


















civil laws which he considers 


















good or right. 


Yes 


16 


17 


19 


3 


7 


2 






No 


84 


82 


81 


92 


90 


98 


100 



TABLE III. 

RESPONSES TO SIX OPEN-ENDED ITEMS 

(In Percentages) 



















DKG 


Items and Responses 


Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 




Sex 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


F 




Number 


78 


95 


16 


66 


28 


51 


32 


1. What is the one thing most 
















essential to your happiness and 
















well-being? 
















a. 


Loving and being loved by 


















family and friends. 


21 


39 


31 


33 


11 


38 


19 


b. 


Money and social security. 


13 


7 


31 


8 


7 


10 




c. 


Freedom 


11 






3 








d. 


Making something of self 


9 


3 












,e. 


Living own life and doing 
thing 


9 


6 












f. 


Peace of mind and har- 


















monious relationships 


6 


5 




24 


29 


18 


16 


g- 


Happiness 


6 


5 












h. 


Living a Christian life- 


















faith in and approval of God 


8 


13 


31 


15 


7 


6 


19 


i. 


Getting along with people 


6 


9 












J- 


Helping others— service 




9 




6 


22 


12 


9 


k. 


Meaningful work, reaching 


















goals 




6 


19 




14 


12 


31 


1. 


Graduation 




5 












m. 


Health 






12 


4 


6 







41 



Items and Responses 











DKG 




Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 


Sex 


M F 


M F 


M F 


F 


Numb 


er 78 95 


16 66 


28 51 


32 



2. From your observation what 
appears to be the major reason 
causing most teachers to enter the 
field of education. 

a. Social service — helping 
youth develop 

b. Characteristics of job — 
salary, convenient hours, 
summer vacations 

c. Personal fulfillment 

d. Way to make living- 
comfortable 

e. Lack of better vocation 

f. To avoid draft — men 

g. Interest in subjects— en- 
joyment 

3. As you view the current scene 
what do you believe the average 
American's primary goal in life 
to be? 

a. Economic security 

b. Success in something useful 

c. Social acceptance, prestige, 
popularity 

d. Happiness and personal 
fulfillment 

e. Pleasure 

f. Freedom and independence 

g. Peace in the world 

h. Comfortable home and 

good family life 
i. Making country a better 

place to live 
j. Power 

4. What do you consider Ameri- 
ca's number one problem? 

a. Poverty and pollution 

b. War in Viet Nam 

c. Lack of concern for others 

d. Breakdown in law and order 

e. Distorted values and moral 
decay 

f. Inability to get along with 
others 

g. Racial tension 
h. Selfishness 

i. Drugs 

j. Lack of peace — violence 

'k. Pollution 

1. More and better leadership 



49 45 44 51 65 40 



14 8 44 18 22 40 
4 9 



5 6 
6 

13 



12 



71 



15 



39 


29 


82 


57 


58 


52 


37 


10 


26 




9 




20 


12 




3 




9 


18 




22 


8 




6 


8 


14 

7 


12 


16 



14 



33 


14 


13 


9 








16 


8 




6 




10 


6 




6 




24 


14 


18 


6 




6 






18 








5 


38 


26 


25 


38 


12 


20 


10 






40 






13 


10 

7 


19 


5 
5 








9 


2 








4 




13 


12 




2 









42 



















DKG 


Statements 


Students 


Parents 


Teachers 


Members 




Sex 


M 


F 


M 


F 


M 


F 


F 




Number 


78 


95 


16 


66 


28 


51 


32 


m. 


Lack of respect for authority 














22 


n. 


Lack of desire to follow 


















God's laws 


3 






2 




10 


9 


o. 


Crime 








3 






9 


P- 


Breakdown of communica- 
tion in family 












6 


9 


q- 


Lack of education 












4 




r. 


Communists in American 
government 






13 










5. What is the greatest unmet 
















need 


n your community? 
















a. 


Lack of recreational facilities 


20 


19 


6 


21 


11 


16 




b. 


Better and more education 


9 


5 


6 


6 


25 


10 


22 


c. 


Poverty and care for 


















underprivileged 


4 


8 


13 


3 


11 






d. 


Concern for others and 


















better relationships 


10 


13 


6 


24 


14 


18 


6 


e. 


Pollution of the environment 




3 




2 


14 


6 


6 


f. 


Oneness of purpose 






6 




7 






g- 


Poor housing 


4 


3 




3 






9 


h. 


Respect for God and par- 
ticipation in church 
More capable men on po- 
lice force 
Better race relations 


5 


3 

3 
3 


6 


5 








k. 
1 


Strengthening family re- 
lationships 
Higher standards of morality 


3 




13 






8 




m 


Leadership 








3 








n 


Better roads 


7 















6. Name three best ways to im- 
prove life in your community 

a. Better communication and 
understanding 

b. Higher quality education 
for all 

c. Election of leaders who are 
concerned 

d. More faith in God and par- 
ticipation in church — draw- 
ing people closer to God. 

e. More people involved in 
solving problems 

f. More recreational facilities 

g. More love and concern 
shown for all 

h. More civic pride and will- 
ingness to serve 
i. More emphasis upon val- 
ues—character 



29 23 

23 14 

4 6 



33 50 46 



4 9 25 15 22 12 

8 

29 23 19 27 22 22 

10 31 45 36 48 

9 21 18 

10 11 



31 
39 
16 

34 

12 
12 

22 

19 

6 



43 



DKG 

Statements Students Parents Teachers Members 

Sex M F M F M F F 

Number 78 95 16 66 28 51 32 



j. Better trained police and 

law enforcement 9 9 31 46 12 

k. Eliminate pollution 8 6 18 

1. Less racial discrimination 8 

m. Decrease poverty — more 

employment 8 11 11 14 

n. Improved housing and roads 14 25 12 

o. Stronger homes 11 8 12 

p. Clean-up slums 8 

Chi square tests revealed that the following groups differed signifi- 
candy from each other on the multiple-choice items: 

Item Groups Differing Significantly 

1. Ideal job Students — Teachers 

Male — Female Students 

parents— Teachers 

Teachers — Delta Kappa Gamma Members 

2. Thing most essential for happiness Male — Female Parents 

Students— Teachers 

3. Preference for spending leisure time Students— Parents and Teachers 

4. Reason for not cheating Students— Parents 

Male — Female Parents 

Male Parents — Male Teachers 

5. Concept of Freedom Students— Teachers 

7. What religion is Male — Female Students 

Students— Parents 
Parents— Teachers 
Students— Teachers 

8. Major aim of Church Male — Female Students 

Students— Parents 
Parents — Teachers 
Female Teachers — Delta Kappa Gamma 

9. Major responsibility of public education. . . Students— Teachers 

10. Most likely way to decrease poverty. . . . Male — Female Students 

Students — Parents and Teachers 

The following significant differences were noted on the agree-disagree items: 
Item Groups Differing Significantly 

1. Support of law enforcement officials. . . . Male — Female Parents 

2. Paying income tax Male — Female Parents 

5. Provisions for decent housing Female Students — Female Parents 

8. Meaningful work Male — Female Students 

9. Adequate medical protection Male Students— Female Parents 

12. The Bible as revelation of God Female Teachers— Delta Kappa Gamma 

13. Worship and a beautiful church Male — Female Students 

14. Being a Christian without embracing a 

religion Students— Parents 



44 



16. Permitting child to suffer natural con- 
sequences of actions Students— Parents 

17. Sex education in school Students — Parents 

Parents— Teachers 

18. Moral values in school Female Teachers— Delta Kappa Gamma 

19. Censorship of motion pictures Male — Female Students 

Female Teachers— Delta Kappa Gamma 
Students— Teachers 

20. Obedience to Civil Laws Male — Female Parents 

From the data presented, the following trends were observed in the 
sample studied: 

1. Making a high salary and expressing one's abilities through his 
work seem to be more important to the youth, whereas the 
adults seem more concerned with contributing to the welfare 
of others. 

2. Both the youth and adults consider love and peace of mind 
essential to their happiness with youth leaning more strongly 
toward love. 

3. For leisure time youth prefers group activities and sports where- 
as adults choose hobbies, study and travel. 

4. Both youth and adults indicate that cheating violates their sense 
of human dignity, but youth also considers the danger of being 
caught and punished. 

5. Youth and adults alike tend to define freedom as the privilege 
of choosing within a democracy or rule by the majority with 
dissent by a minority. 

6. Youth and adults tend to agree that religion is a response to 
God's revelation, that the church should be primarily concerned 
with the spiritual development of members, and that the Bible 
is a spiritual revelation of God. 

7. Both youth and adults tend to consider the preparation of the 
young for a full life as the major function of education. 

8. Although youth sees education as a solution to poverty, they 
lean more strongly toward governmental responsibility than 
do the adults who strongly favor education. 

9. Youth appears slightly less supportive of laws and taxes than 
do adults. 

10. Youth and adults seem equally concerned about living by moral 
principles, respecting the rights of others and protecting the 
environment. 

11. Both youth and adults appear to share a need for meaningful 
work, a desire to extend medical protection to everyone regard- 
less of his ability to pay, and the belief that management and 
labor should share the power exercised. 

12. The males from both the youth and adult groups appear to be 

45 



less influenced by the beauty of a church than the females. 

13. Youth and teachers favor the schools assuming responsibility 
for sex education, whereas parents tend to think the responsi- 
bility lies in the home. 

14. Adults are more inclined to favor censorship of motion pic- 
tures than are the youth. 

To what extent does the sample reflect prevailing attitudes and 
values characteristic of American citizens in general? The most com- 
prehensive summary may be one by Thomas Griffith in his article, "Put- 
ting It Back Together" {Life, Jan., 8, 1971) from which the following 
contrast between youth and adults was presented: 

As Mr. Griffith observed, these are the qualities of youth which- 
might be expected to survive in a synthesis: 

1. Honesty and outrage over violations of morality in business, 
advertising, and personal conduct. 

2. Belief that materialistic values hold too much sway and that 
corporations should be answerable to social responsibilities as 
well as profit. 

3. Better understanding and relationships especially between 
blacks and whites. 

4. Desire to be in tune with nature rather than to conquer it. 

5. Desire to live life in such a way that its humanity is evident 
every day. 

6. Less competitive interest in living in a good neighborhood. 
And these are the values he identified in the older society: 

1. A stubborn belief in accommodation as an essential element 
of democracy, recognizing that previous social changes were 
hammered out by earlier generations. 

2. A conviction that rank, hierarchy and structure are function- 
ally necessary in society even when overdone. Coupled with 
this conviction is the belief that gradations of experience, com- 
petence, and effort should be accorded differing rewards. 

3. A deeper awareness of the contrariness of human nature re- 
flected in skepticism toward exhortation, impatience with 
sweeping moral solutions, and shrewd appraisal of malarky and 
inflated reputations. 

4. A pride in a hard-won past against the onslaughts of those who 
have not had to fight for what they have and thus too easily 
reject it. 

5. A conviction that order is a surer guarantor of justice in the 
long run than disorder. 

The responses of the students suggesting that they have several of 
the characteristics of the youth described by Mr. Griffith include the 
following: 

46 



For the thing most essential to their happiness the majority Usted 
love, freedom, making something of self, service, living a Chris- 
tain life rather than money and social security. Only about one- 
third of the group indicated that the average American's primary 
goal in life is economic security, whereas about two-thirds listed 
other goals. Thus it appears they are deemphasizing materialistic 
values. 
The students' views of America's number one problem are also re- 
vealing in that about 46% of the males and 26% of females considered 
poverty and pollution the major problem and 33% of the males and 
20% of the females listed inability to get along with others and racial 
tensions. These responses convey a concern for improved living and 
environmental conditions as well as better human relationships. 

Their concern about honesty and consistency in behavior is reflect- 
ed in these responses: 36% of the males and 19% of the females listed 
"inconsistency between saying and doing" as the most disturbing cur- 
rent tendency; about one-fourth of the students listed flabby-minded 
apathy as most disturbing. 

When considering ways to improve community life, about one-third 
of the student group suggested understanding, better communication 
and relationships with others. A desire to decrease poverty and improve 
housing was reflected in a number of their responses; they also seemed 
to favor more governmental intervention in solving these problems. 

Although the sample of students was not evaluated explicitly by 
Mr. Griffith's list of characteristics of youth, it can be observed from 
their responses that a significant number possess several of the quali- 
ties he identified, including: desire for honesty and consistency in be- 
havior, decreased acceptance of materialistic values, desire for better 
human relationships, concern for environmental quality and a willing- 
ness to share the better things with all people. 

The responses of the adult groups studied also suggest they possess 
some of the characteristics of Mr. Griffith's older society. For example 
the things they listed as most essential for their happiness include: 
meaningful work, love of family and friends, social service and peace 
of mind, suggesting a deep appreciation of basic human needs. More 
than half the sample considered economic security and a comfortable 
home as the primary goal of Americans. As America's number one 
problem the thing mentioned by the greatest number was distorted 
values and moral decay. Others mentioned the break-down in law and 
order, lack of respect for authority and lack of concern for others. To 
improve community life they strongly favored higher quality education, 
better communication and civic pride, more faith in God and love and 
concern for others, and better law enforcement. 

Thus it appears that at least many of the adults in the sample possess 
qualities characteristic of Mr. Griffith's older society. They tend to be 
hopeful about finding solutions to present problems and to have faith 

47 



in thre democratic way of life. Their responses reflect pride in their 
economic achievements and a belief in law and order. 

From a synthesis of their responses these are the qualities which the 
students responding to the West Georgia questionnaire appear to share 
with American youth in general: a desire for honesty and consistency 
in behavior, decreased acceptance of materialistic values, desire for 
better human relationships, concern for environmental quality and a 
willingness to share the better things with all people. 

Although the adult groups shared many of views of the students, 
they tended to reflect other attitudes and values which have been as- 
sociated more with the older society. They tend to be hopeful about 
finding solutions to present problems, to have faith in the democratic 
way of life, to reflect pride in their economic achievements and to have 
a rather strong belief in law and order. 



48 



ABSTRACTS 

of 
MASTER'S THESES 

and 
SPECIALIST IN EDUCA TION PROIECTS 

Allen, John A., Jr. (Biology. March, 1971)* 

PATTERNS OF CORTICOLOUS MOSSES ON THE 
TRUNKS OF SELECTED SPECIES OF TREES 

This study attempts to demonstrate the growth pattern and fre- 
quency distribution of some corticolous mosses found on the trunks of 
several species of trees. The growth patter is mapped and described. 
The frequency distribution of mosses on three species of trees selected 
for varying bark pattern and surface texture is determined, and their 
distribution in relation to bark pattern and surface texture is discussed. 

Browne. Richard A. (Psychology, March, 1971) 

AN EXPLORATORY SURVEY OF THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL 
ASPECTS OF 100 MALE AND 30 FEMALE TRANSSEXUALS 

This survey is designed to reveal the social, cultural, and family 
backgrounds of a sample of 100 male and 30 female transsexuals. The 
male sample contains 55 post-operative and 45 pre-operative cases, the 
female sample is inclusive of 12 post-operative and 18 pre-operative 
cases. Both samples were obtained from Benjamin's population of 
transsexual patients. 

The purpose of the study is to add factual knowledge where now 
there exists much speculation, and to provide some data which may 
lead to a further understanding of the transsexual as an individual and 
the problem of transsexuality. The analysis of the case histories of the 
130 transsexuals yielded the following major findings: transsexualism 
exists in all ethnic groups, social classes and educational levels; con- 
ditions indicative of transsexual conditioning is evident in some of the 
family histories; religious affiliation may be an influential factor and is a 
subject for further inquiry. 



*"Biology" is the awarding department and "March, 1971" is the time of com- 
pletion of all requirements for the degree. Specialist in Education research 
projects are listed as "Guidance and Counseling, August, 1971." 

49 



Cotton, James John (Psychology, March, 1971) 

HUMAN GROWTH AS A FUNCTION OF THE BASIC 
ENCOUNTER GROUP MARATHON 

This thesis reports the phenomenological description of the author's 
involvement as a facilitator-participant in a twenty-four-hour basic 
encounter group marathon. The dimensions of participating in and 
facilitating such a marathon are intimate relationships as experienced 
by the author and the eleven other participants. The matrix for the 
phenomenological investigation is identified as the basic encounter 
process, a synergic model of human growth, and the interactions. 

To begin with an overview of the encounter group phenomenon is 
presented. The levels of consideration are psychological, sociological, 
and methodological. The subjective dimension of experiential data is 
of primary consideration in a review of some of the literature. Then the 
basic encounter group marathon process, the special demands of a pro- 
fessional facilitator of such a schedule, and a model of human growth are 
considered. The marathon group is described as a social interaction 
laboratory uniquely concerned with facilitation of human growth po- 
tential. 

Later the author reports his personal involvements gleaned from 
tape recorded for research purposes. Some of the interaction is re- 
ported verbatim. 

Finally the phenomenological content within the context of pro- 
cess, faciliatat^on and human growth needs is summarized. The human 
potentials aspects of the humanistic psychology movement is viewed as 
movement toward fulfillment of personal growth. 

Bucknei; Betty R. (Biology, June, 1971) 

A STUDY OF VARIOUS PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS IN 

RELATION TO BODY POSITION AND IMMERSION 

OF THE FACE IN WATER 

Slowing of the heart rate, is a response to apneic diving which man 
has in common with many other vertebrate species. In the present 
study, bradycardia was observed in ten subjects during simple breath 
hold tests and in eight subjects during immersion of the face in water. 
There were no observable differences in mean blood pressure. While 
pulse patterns were irregular, the amplitude of the pulse wave was re- 
duced to one-half its original size during breath holding and one-third 
its original size during face immersion. Skin resistance response stopped 
immediately upon immersion of the face in water. Position of the body 
did not have a detectable effect on bradycardia. 



50 



Burkhalter. Albert Floyd (Psychology, June, 1971) 

ATTITUDE CHANGE AS A FUNCTION OF COMPARATIVE 
METHODS OF INDUCING COGNITIVE DISSONANCE 

This study investigates the problem of the concomitant existence 
of conflicting attitudes within the individual due to the temporal ex- 
periencing of these conflicting attitudes. It was hypothesized that a 
communication which would force the individual to experience an 
attitude toward pollution, concomitantly with other conflicting attitudes, 
would result in a shift in attitude toward pollution. 

Forty-three subjects in the experimental group were shown a set 
of sixty slides of pollution accompanied by a narrative contrived to 
conflict with the visually presented stimuli. Forty-seven subjects in the 
control group were shown the same set of sixty slides accompanied by 
a narrative contrived to agree with the visually presented stimuli. 

Attitudes toward pollution were measured by means of an assess- 
ment instrument adapted after the Likert scale (1932). Attitudes of 
both groups toward pollution were measured six weeks before presen- 
tation of the stimuli and again one day after presentation of the stimuli. 
The data were analysed using an analysis of variance design. Results 
showed no significant differences (F=.028, P^.05) between the two 
groups. These results failed to reject the null hypothesis at the 0.05 
level of significance. 

The Student's "t" test computed using the before-and-after design 
was computed for the experimental and control groups. The results 
showed significant differences to exist for both groups. 

Dejamette, James Edward (Psychology, June, 1971) 

HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE 

The Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic SusceptibiUty was adminis- 
tered to 185 volunteers for hypnosis research at West Georgia College. 
Twenty three students scoring between 0-4 and 26 scoring between 10- 
12 were given a questionnaire designed to elicit information regarding 
their religious background and experiences, and follow-up interviews 
were conducted with students who professed to have undergone a sal- 
vation or conversion experience. Low hypnotic susceptibility 
was associated with perceiving one's mother as slightly religious or 
not religious (p.<.05), and with being either a Roman Catholic or a 
"saved" Protestant (p.<.01). When interviewed, all of the high-suscepti- 
ble group who professed having been "saved" reported that the exper- 
ience had been characterized by profound experiential phenomena, 
while changes of a similar magnitude were reported by none of the low- 
susceptible group. 

51 



Grant. Daniel Hicky (Psychology, June, 1971) 

AN EVALUATING SURVEY OF THE CENTER, 

A TAX-SUPPORTED DRUG REHABILITATION FACILITY 

IN SAVANNAH, GEORGIA 

The purpose of this research was to evaluate The Center, the only 
tax-supported drug rehabilitation facility in Georgia. A history of The 
Center is given describing incidents which affected change as well as 
programs and how they have transformed into the present approach 
to drug abuse. A questionnaire survey provided a history of the clients 
as well as obtain a client evaluation of The Center. The survey also gave 
a descriptive breakdown of the family situation including socio-eco- 
nomic level, parents use of drugs, family cohesiveness and other impor- 
tant factors. Weaknesses of the Center were pointed out and 
recommendations were made to strengthen the program. 

Odom. James Childs. Jr. (Biology, June, 1971) 

THE EFFECT OF BLUE WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT 
ON ALTERING THE SEX RATIO OF HAMSTERS 

The purpose of the investication was to determine whether or not 
blue wavelengths of light are effective in altering the sex ratio of ham- 
sters from normal. To this end two environmental chambers, or en- 
vironators, were used. In one, the experimental chamber, a blue filter 
was used which transmitted light in the range of 420-555 nanometers 
(nm) with 64% transmission. The other, the control chamber, was fitted 
with a plastic nondeteriorating filter, which transmitted 76% of the 
light without peaks from 300 nm past far red. The photoperiod was 
set in both chambers at 10 hours of darkness and 14 hours of light. 
Into each environator was placed four brother-sister pairs of virgin 
hamsters which were chosen in a random fashion from litters having 
at least two males and two females. Each pair of hamsters in the ex- 
perimental chamber were litter-mates with a pair in the control 
chamber. The experiment ran from late summer until December 31, 
1970. Statistical analysis of the results was carried out using the G-ad- 
justed test for goodness of fit and a two by two test of independence 
using the adjusted G-statistic. The results of the test for goodness of 
fit indicated that the sex ratio of the experimental chamber hamsters 
deviated significantly from that of the control chamber hamsters. The 
test of independence, however, revealed no relationship between treat- 
ment and sex. On the basis of this last test the null hypothesis that 
light has no effect on sex ratio in hamsters was accepted. 



52 



Smith, Gerald Judson (English, June, 1971) 

THE AGRARIAN THOUGHT OF JOHN DONALD WADE 

John Donald Wade, a member of the Nashville Agrarians, a contrib- 
utor to the 1930 symposium I'll Take My Stand: The South and The 
Agrarian Tradition, author of the definitive biography of Augustus 
Baldwin Longstreet and a number of other items, had distinctive ideas 
about the relation of the South to the modern world. This thesis delin- 
eates Wade's ideas about the South and the modern world: He felt that 
modern industrialism had become a quasi-religion, lauding two demi- 
gods. Speed and Mass. He thought that these gods were rushing the 
nation into complete mechanization and ruin. Wade believed that the 
agrarian, while unable to proscribe industry totally, must keep alive 
the amenities of life in the face of these dehumanizing demi-gods; a 
perpetuation of the Southern or Agrarian tradition would serve as a 
barrier to such an eventuality. 

Cooper, Sidney Ross (Psychology, August, 1971) 

LOWERING THE AUDITORY THRESHOLD WITH HYPNOSIS 

Forty-eight subjects scoring six or above on the Harvard Group 
Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility were administered a Beltone Audio- 
gram as an initial base-line measure of hearing acuity. They were then 
randomly divided into four groups of twelve. Group I was given no 
experimental treatment before being re-tested. Group II was given only 
a standard hypnotic induction. Group III was hypnotized and requested 
to "try to hear better" before being re-tested under hypnosis. The sub- 
jects in Group IV were hypnotized and given suggestions to the effect 
that their hearing acuity on the post-test measure would be greatly en- 
hanced under hypnosis. 

All groups manifested a significant decrease in post-test auditory 
thresholds as an effect of practice. Groups III and IV manifested a 
greater decline in threshold than did Groups I and II: and this decline 
was greater for Group IV than for Group III. Group II, however, mani- 
fested a significantly greater post-test auditory threshold than 
did Group I. 

The results support the conclusion that the auditory threshold may 
be lowered by means of hypnotic suggestion. Implications of the present 
findings for hypnotic theory are discussed, and suggestions for future 
research are indicated. 



53 



DePhillippo. Samuel M. (Psychology. August. 1971) 

THE PROCESS OF A GROUP MAKING ITS OWN UNCONSCIOUS 

The creating of a group unconscious is a phenomenon which occurs 
whenever a group fails to observe and notice its own patterns of par- 
ticipation which, nevertheless, shape and affect the future movement 
of the group process. The process of a group which creates its own 
unconscious is neither a theory nor a belief, but rather, is a pro- 
cess which is directly observable in a group's patterns of participation. 
As the group creates its own unconscious, everything in the group con- 
text feeds into the unconscious, imprisoning the group in its very 
patterns which it is not noticing. The group unconscious as an on-going 
process is a new dimension for exploration of an area that is in great 
need of simplification and refinement. 

A number of examples will be presented which will signify the pro- 
cess of the group unconscious. An elaborate description of gossip in 
relation to the process of the unconscious will illustrate a more univer- 
sal process operating in groups. The effects of the group unconscious 
upon our individual lives outside the group are far-reaching and influ- 
ential when the individual fails to observe his group participation. The 
personal unconscious may be the results of the group unconscious which 
has affected us without our awareness. 

Downing. Theodore Douglas (Psychology. August, 1971) 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MUSIC AS ENTERTAINMENT 

This thesis examines 81 popular songs chosen by the listeners of 
an AM radio station in Atlanta as the most popular songs of 1970. As 
a means of examining the communication of the songs, special attention 
is given to the values expressed in them. The relationship of values to 
pleasure and pain is explored, and the nature of suffering reflected in 
the songs is examined. Two processes of listening — listening for pleasure 
and listening to learn — are examined, and the nature of entertainment 
is questioned. Attention is paid to the concept of morbid and healthy 
suffering in relation to music, and it is questioned whether the songs 
have potential to promote good health in the listener. Finally, an exam- 
ination of the healthy and the unhealthy songs is enlarged to include 
the entire realm of music. 
Forsyth, Charles Frederick (Psychology, August, 1971) 

COGNITIVE HETRODYNING 

Twelve female subjects who were highly hypnotizable and capable 



.S4 



of attaining an age regression with revivilication of previous experi- 
ences under hypnosis were utilized in this experiment. The purpose 
was to determine whether by the use of a special hypnotic technique 
called cognitive hetrodyning, the subjects would be able to improve 
their scholastic achievement. 

Under deep hypnosis, the subjects were given suggestions aimed 
at producing a state of extremely pleasant affect. This was then related 
to the attainment of a specific, previously agreed upon scholastic goal, 
such as attaining the dean's list or graduation with honors, by telling 
the subjects that they would feel just this good again when the goal 
was achieved. 

Pre-test and post-test measures were obtained on the French Test 
of Insight, a projective test designed to measure achievement motiva- 
tion, and the 16 P.F. Test, a comprehensive factor-analytic personality 
profile. The results of the experiment indicated no significant increase 
between pre-test and post-test scores on the French Test of Insight. 
However, there was a significant increase in the ego strength factor of 
16 P.F. Test (p.:=.005), and a significant decrease in the ergic tension 
factor on this icst (p. =.005). A follow-up investigation of the subjects' 
scholastic performance is planned. 

Fountain. Howard W. (History. August. 1971) 

PRINCE ALBERT AND THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851 

The British people turned their attention to Hyde Park on May 1, 
1851. Great Britain had invited the nations of the world to a festival 
of peaceful competition called the Great Exhibition. Prince Albert, 
a man of pre-eminent wisdom, of philosophic mind, and with the power 
of leadership, had placed himself at the head of the enterprise and led 
it to a triumphant success. 

The Great Exhibition was a success because its purpose meant many 
things to many people. It reflected the main influences upon mid-Vic- 
torian Britain in 1851: prosperity, progress, national pride, and trust 
in British institutions. The Exhibition unified such divergent under- 
currents as the Free Trade Movement, concern for the working classes, 
educational reform and the world peace movement into a solid base 
of support. Many of the Victorian ideas seem guileless by today's stan- 
dards, but in 1851 anything seemed possible. A decade of monumental 
progress gave a prince and his subjects the confidence that they could 
do the impossible. 

Joseph Paxton was entrusted with the design and construction of 
the Exhibition building. He and his contractors created a miracle in 
Hyde Park. The Crystal Palace, as it came to be called, was an archi- 
tectural wonder. It was the first large structure ever built from pre- 
fabricated parts of iron and glass. 

55 



The fascinating exhibits drew such numbers of visitors that the 
Great Exhibition became a success beyond the wildest dreams of its 
promoters. It proved the predictions of critics to be totally wrong. Over 
6,000,000 visitors came to the Crystal Palace during its 140 admittance 
days. Every exhibit seemed to please, astonish, and bewilder the visitor 
by its range and magnificence. Few visitors went away disappointed. 

The Great Exhibition was more than a public and financial success. 
It made genuine contributions to industrial technology, architectural 
and artistic design, technical education, and the welfare of the laboring 
classes. The Great Exhibition was more than a show. It was a unique 
event, the first of the world's fairs. Its imitators are little remembered 
because they left little that was lasting whereas the Great Exhibition 
continued to benefit Great Britain. All things considered. Prince Albert 
had done well by his adoptive country. 

Hobgood. Larry Gene (Biology, August, 1971) 

A STUDY OF HETERCHROMIA IN THE SYRIAN HAMSTER 

Heterochromia was studied in the amber-gold belted Syrian ham- 
ster (Mesocricetus auratus auratus). Specific phenotypic crosses were 
made and the inheritance of heterochromia was investigated. These 
crosses yielded 267 progeny of which 72 were heterochromic. A genetic 
model was proposed for the inheritance of heterochromia based on both 
recessive and dominant epistatic relationships among four gene pairs. 
In addition, structural observations revealed a severe reduction of 
choroidal pigmentation in the affected eye of the animal showing 
heterochromia. 

Kennedy, William D. (Biology, August, 1971) 

NUTRIENT AND SUBSTRATE CONDITIONS 
FOR THE GROWTH OF ANABAENA IN VITRO 

Since Anabaena is frequently a problem in water supplies and ground 
waters, a study of its growth requirements was considered desirable. 
Anabaena wisconsinense Prescott was cultured in Bold's Basal Me- 
dium. Subsequent modifications of the nutrient medium and the pro- 
vision of a solid substrate on which it could grow supported more 
vigorous growth of the alga. Variations in nitrate and phosphate con- 
centration did not influence growth. 



56 



Maddox, Jerry M. (Biology, August, 1971) 

ULTRASTRUCTURAL VARIATION IN LIVER MITOCHONDRIA 
OF THE HOMOZYGOUS GREY-LETHAL (gl/gl) MOUSE 

An electron microscopic study was carried out on liver tissue from 
six normal and four homozygous grey-lethal (gl/gl) mice to determine 
if ultrastructural differences existed in mitochondria and other cell 
features. The mean sizes of mitochondria from mutant mice were larger 
than those of normal mice of the corresponding age. Glycogen content 
appeared less in grey-lethal mouse liver than in normal mouse liver. 
Significance of these findings is discussed in relation to parathyroid 
hormone, calcium and the pleiotropic activity of the gl gene. 

Norris, Trudy Peterson (English, August, 1971) 

A STUDY OF REGIONALISM AND FLANNERY O'CONNOR: 
TWO SOUTHERN CHARACTER TYPES 

Regionalism, a literary movement long in maturing, began early in 
the history of America and evolved through several literary stages, con- 
tinually broadening its scope to encompass America's hopes for a com- 
prehensive national literature. The ascendancy of regionalism 
has passed from one section to another to have now established its 
center in the South, the home of some of the most penetrating twentieth- 
century writers in America, almost all of whom have aligned themselves 
with this movement in their use of the concrete particulars of the life 
around them to penetrate the mysteries of mankind. One of these is 
the Georgia author. Flannery O'Connor. 

In her two volumes of short stories, A Good Man Is Hard to Find 
and Everything That Rises Must Converge, and her two novels. Wise 
Blood and The Violent Bear It Away. Miss O'Connor has succeeded in 
transmitting her theological vision of reality through using the actuali- 
ties of her region, particularly through the use of two Southern char- 
acter types: the backwoods prophet and the Southern matron. The 
backwoods prophet in his religious obsession and the Southern matron 
in her gentility are Southern character types. Their basic regional 
quality is their dialect through which their social class, prejudices, and 
indeed the condensed history of the South is presented. However, 
through these two character types Miss O'Connor presents more than 
the South: she presents mankind — mankind in relation to God. 

Reese, Anna Eller (Biology, August, 1971) 

THE FLORAL MORPHOLOGY AND EMBRYO SAC 
DEVELOPMENT OF N AND IN A DOMESTIC A 

An examination of the gross morphology of floral parts together 
with a microscopic study of the pistil and ovule of Nandina domestica 

57 



Thunb. revealed that the flowers are complete, actinomorphic and 
hypogynous. The perianth is composed of thirty to thirty-six caducous 
sepals and six petals. The anthers are basifixed and four-celled, form 
tetrahedral microspore tetrads, and dehisce longitudinally. The pistil 
has a two- or three-lipped stigma, a style with canal containing trans- 
mission tissue, and an ovary with a single parietal placenta containing 
two to three anatropous ovules. The ovules are bitegmic and crassi- 
nucellar and contain a Polygonum embryo sac. The presence of a 
hypostase and endothelium in the ovule was noted. The paraffin em- 
bedding technique was utilized for microscopic study and sections were 
microtomed at 12 microns. 

Shapiro, Harvey Lee (Psychology, August, 1971) 

AN EXPERIMENTAL MATHEMATICS 
PSYCHOLOGY PROGRAM 

This paper is a study of an experimental mathematics psychology 
program taught by two professors during the Fall 1970 at West Georgia 
College. The purpose of this curriculum was to help students adapt 
and live in our rapidly changing world. The professors used several 
techniques. First, they proposed to break down the compartmentaliz- 
ing of subjects by jointly teaching mathematics and psychology. Second, 
they expected to apply psychology practically to mathematics; to be 
able to discuss and gain understanding as to why people are afraid of 
mathematics. Finally, they planned to use psychological techniques 
to help students learn mathematics. They then discussed the psycho- 
logical techniques and why they did or did not work. Both professors 
remained in the classroom for a two hour period each day. A mathe- 
matics graduate student and a psychology graduate student assisted 
in the teaching and grading. The students were expected to master the 
materials to a point of confidence where if it were taught in the tra- 
ditional way they would have received an "A" in the course. 

The results of the mathematics psychology experiment are mixed. 
Since this was an experimental program, much time and energy was 
spent in preparation of the material and in discussions as to how it 
should be presented. The professors involved felt that the teaching of 
an experimental mathematics psychology, or any science area with 
psychology, is an extremely good idea but that only one professor need 
teach the two classes and that the students should have the goals and 
aims of such a program clearly explained. This type of program could 
be advantageous to both the faculty member and to the students. Un- 
fortunately there is no known way to measure accurately the advan- 
tages gained by both. 



58 



Siilh Jimoon (English, August, 1971) 

STATUES AGAINST THE SKY: 

VIRGINIA WOOLF'S CONCEPT OF LIFE AND INDIVIDUALITY 

AS SHOWN IN THE WA VES 

Virginia Woolfs The Waves is not an incoherent and illogical ex- 
periment in a new form, as has been supposed by some. Instead, it is 
a sincere attempt to understand human life from its very source. The 
descriptive passages in italics provide parallelism between human life 
and the universal cycle of cessation and continuation, thus enlarging 
the horizon from a man-centered world on to the cosmos. The mono- 
logues by six characters, which make up the body of the book, reveal 
the characters" personalities and their relationship to each other and 
the world. The form, though rigid, is a fitting vehicle for the content. 
Through the highly regulated monologues of her fictional characters, 
Mrs. Woolf explores the cause of individual isolation from the core of 
the problem. 

The six characters, Neville, Louis, Bernard, Susan, Jinny and Rhoda, 
each have different sensitivities, different ideas about and reactions 
to the world and different modes of personal fulfillment. Since the char- 
acters thus differ, isolation is inevitable for them. However, when people 
are willing to sacrifice a portion of their insistent ego, they can have 
a moment of complete union. The significance of the silent seventh 
character, Percival, is that he is a unifying force because, being a "nat- 
urally truthful" person, he has no ego to indulge in or insist upon. His 
influence, therefore, is creative. The six characters represent the variety 
of human personalities, and their isolation and union are symbolic of 
those of all men. The Waves, however, is not a lamentation for the sepa- 
ration of human beings but a penetrating study of the cause and result 
of men's isolation, which is the condition of all human existence. 

Wash. Lee W. (Biology, August, 1971) 

BIOCHEMICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF A PIG- 
MENT-DEFICIENT MUTANT OF SOYBEAN, GLYCINE MAX (L.) 

MERRILL 

Comparison was made of ultrastructural and pigment differences 
among the three phenotypes of the Yn locus in soybean. Glycine max 
(L.' Merrill. 

The heterozygote, Ynyn. had about 35% of the normal chlorophyll 
content: the homo/vaous mutant, VnVn. had about 4% of the normal. 
Etiolated plant cells showed normal prolamellar body structure in all 
phenotypes, while the light-grown plants showed sharply decreasing 
grana formation or stacking in the lamellae. The Yn locus is apparent- 
ly involved in the conversion of protochlorphyll (ide) to chlorophyll a. 

S9 



McMichael, Herbert Walter (Psychology, December, 1971) 
TOWARD A PSYCHOLOGY OF LISTENING 

This paper is concerned with the phenomenon of the inner voice 
of wisdom and the way in which we listen to it. The paper explores the 
psychology of listening through a poem and an artistic expression and 
shows that within the clear statement of a problem lies the solution. It 
also shows that the inner voice makes this statement in order to provide 
oneself with the necessary avenues to understand the problem and facili- 
tate psychological balance. Lastly, the paper claims that the way we 
listen to ourselves is the way we listen to others. This state of conscious- 
ness, therefore, shapes the world within and outside of us. 

Nielsen, Roger Knight (Psychology, December, 1971) 

CREATIVITY AND INNOCENCE 

This thesis was an experiential one, which means that the author 
relied primarily upon his insights and observations in his examination 
of creativity and innocence. Innocence is fundamental to creativity; 
to be innocent means to die to the past and to the future. When one 
understands the obstacles to his innocence, he can get in touch with 
it. In this way we can understand and break free from conditioning. 

Insights are also fundamental to creativity. The cultivation of one's 
insights leads one to a state of freshness and innocence. Each of us is 
born with innocence, therefore each of us has the ability to be creative 
simply by getting in touch with our innocence. 

Payne, John Lewis, Jr. (Psychology, December, 1971) 

TEACHER-COUNSELOR CARING: ITS EFFECT 

ON THE ACHIEVEMENT AND GROWTH OF 

HIGH-RISK JUNIOR COLLEGE STUDENTS 

The influence of personal interest and attention on the academic 
performance of 49 first semester low-achievinc iunior coUeize freshmen 
was measured bv comparinc GPA's, before and after the test period, 
with a control group of 49 students who had a comparable initial aca- 
demic standing. Students in the test group were given individual coun- 
seling, tutorial and remedial study help, encounter group experience, 
and participation in cultural exposure opportunities. The investigation 
hypothesized that all of these forms of attention would be experienced 
by the student as care and concern both for his life and for his success 
in college, and that he would improve in his academic standing and show 
signs of personality growth. Results show a positive relationship. 



60 



Barker. Nancy L. (Guidance and Counseling. August. 1971) 

GROUP GUIDANCE WITH EIGHT DEAF STUDENTS 

Eight deaf teenage girls from the Georgia School for the Deaf 
participated in six weeks of group guidance. The objectives of the group 
were: 

1. To keep students from being suspended because of behavior 
problems. 

2. To keep students" names on the honor roll so that privileges 
would not be lost. 

3. To help students realistically evaluate themselves. 

4. To help students become more co-operative in the classroom/ 
dormitory. 

5. To help students have a better relationship with their parents. 

6. To help students develop more socially acceptable behavior. 

7. To aid students in money management. 

8. To help students increase understanding on subjects of their 
interest. 

The results were that all eight students were in school, were not 
suspended at the end of the six weeks, and were on the honor list. It 
was concluded that the students did not realistically evaluate themselves 
and there was little improvement in the area of co-operativeness. It 
was difficult to evaluate whether students had improved their relation- 
ship with their parents since all of the parents lived a great distance 
from the school. There was improvement in the area of socially ac- 
ceptable behavior and monev mana-jement. 

In case studies done on each of the group members it was evident 
that behavior problems can easily be detected in the primary grades. 
These problems should be dealt with by a qualified counselor in these 
formative years. Group work with deaf teenagers should be limited to 
not more than five members. 

Chapman. Thomas J.. Jr. (Guidance and Counseling. August. 1971) 

THE EFFECTS OF USING ROLE PLAY IN A GROUP TO IMPROVE 
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND SELF-ESTEEM 

This study examines the relationship of one"s self perception (actual- 
ideal) before and after participation in group sessions using role-play. 
Eight junior high school students reported their perceived self and ideal 
self concepts using the Self-Ideal Ordinary Sort. The students per- 
ceived themselves with increased self esteem after the sessions, and 
there was significantly less incongruence between the self and ideal- 
self concepts. 



Hodges. Coy L. (Guidance and Counseling, August, 1971) 

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE STATE BOARD 

EXAMINATION SCORES FOR PRACTICAL NURSES AND 

LEARNING ABILITY SCORES ON THE GENERAL APTITUDE 

TEST BATTERY 

This study established a correlation coefficent between State Board 
Examination Scores and Learning Ability Scores (G) on the General 
Aptitude Test. Battery (GATE) among practical nursing graduates of 
an area vocational-technical school. A significant correlation of .56 was 
found. A regression table was formulated to predict State Board Scores 
from the (G) Scores on the GATB. 

McClure, Barbara K. (Guidance and Counseling, August, 1971) 

HELPING TEACHERS BECOME AWARE OF 
THE DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS OF CHILDREN 

This study sought to sensitize teachers (subjects) to the relationship 
between a child's development and his readiness for learning by pre- 
senting and discussing the developmental stages of children and how 
these stages can enhance or impede a child's readiness for learning. 
To reinforce these concepts each subject was taught, through demon- 
stration, how to administer and evaluate a developmental readiness 
test. The subjects administered and evaluated three hundred tests and, 
in follow-up discussions, vocally expressed increased awareness and 
understanding of child development. 

Webb, Martha G. (Guidance and Counseling, August, 1971) 

THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF READING, DEVELOPMENTAL 

ENGLISH, AND GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL GUIDANCE ON THE 

SELF-CONCEPT OF NINTH-GRADE COMMUNICATION-SKILL 

DEFICIENT STUDENTS IN A RECENTLY INTEGRATED 

HIGH SCHOOL 

The short-term effect of group and individual guidance on four 
classes of 71 ninth-grade communication-skill deficient students in a 
recently integrated school was explored, with the Piers-Harris Self 
Concept Scale as a pre- and posttest to determine, with t tests, the dif- 
ferences between the means of the control and experimental groups, 
at the critical value of .05. Although no significant differences existed 
in original permutations, there were indications (confirmed by subse- 
quent t tests with increase, no increase or decrease scores) that reading 
affected change in some students, leading to the conclusion that a fail- 
ure to affect a student positively had a negative effect on self-concept. 

62 



ANNUAL FACULTY BffiLIOGRAPHY 
AS OF JANUARY 1, 1972 



Arons. Myron M. 

"Psycho-Ecology from Dr. Stockman to Present." Paper read at 
Notre Dame — St. Mary's Universities. South Bend. Indiana, Mar., 
1971. 

"Creativity and the Non-Radical Revolution." Paper read at Univer- 
sity of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown. Prince Edward Is- 
land, Canada, Apr.. 1971. 

"Culture and the Humanistic Explosion." Paper read at the Second 
International Invitational Conference of Humanistic Psychology, 
Wurzburg, Germany, Jul., 1971. 

"Philosophical Basis for Educational Changes in Psychology." Paper 
read at the Meeting of Icelandic Psychologists and Educators 
Panel on Humanistic Psychology and Education, Revkjavik. Ice- 
land, Jul., 1971. 

I, 

"Humanistic Psychology: Applied Education." Paper read at the 
International Conference of Applied Psychology, Liege, Belgium, 
Till 1Q71 

The followint? four papers were read at the Ninth Annual Confer- 
ence of Humanistic Psvcholoev. Washington. D.C.. Sep., 1971. 
"Virtue, Necessity and Fortune." '"Questioning Our Assumptions." 
"Comments on the University Without Walls." "Humanistic Pro- 
gram in Process: West Georgia College." 

Auble, Joel M. 

"Two Concepfiof '^blieation." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation (phi- 
losophy , Northwestern University, 1971. 

Axelberd. Frederick J. 

"Attitudes of Elementary School Teachers toward Counselinc am' 
Guidance in the Elementary Schools." Journal of Experimental 
Education. XXXVII. No 3 (I9h9'. 1-4. 

"One Man's Viewpoint." Athens Magazine. III. No. 2 (197U. 17-18. 

"Effects of Growth Groups on Self Concept as Measured by the 
Tennessee Self Concept Scale." Paper read at the American Per- 
sonnel and Guidance Association. New Orleans, Louisiana, Sprine, 
1969. 

"Prologue to Micro-Lab Experiences in Positive Health." Paper read 
at the American Personnel and Guidance Association, Adantic 

63 



City, New Jersey, Mar., 1971. 
"Fantastic Group Experiences: Fostering Personal Growth Through 

Fantasies." Paper read at the American Psychological Association, 

Washington, D.C., Sep., 1971. 
"Risking My Craziness: Letting Go." Paper read at the Association 

for Humanistic Psychology, Washington, D.C., Sep.. 1971. 

Belt. Bobby D. 

"Radiative Capture of Deuterons by Protons: Evidence for a T='/2 
Resonance in ^He." With M.L. Halbert, A. van der Woude, and 
C.R. Bingham. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, II, No. 4 
(1971), 138. 

"Evidence for a T='/2 Resonance in the ^He System," With A. van 
der Woude, M.L. Halbert, and C.R. Bingham. Physical Review 
Letters, XV, No. 15 (1971), 909-12. 

"Observation of a T='/2 Resonance in 3 He by H (d, ^He) 8." With 
A. van der Woude, M.L. Ha.bert, and C.R. Bingham. Paper read 
at the Symposium on the Nuclear Three Body Problem and Re- 
lated Topics, Budapest, Hungary, Jul., 1971. 

Blue, Edwin M. 

Desegregation and Superintendent Turnover. With J.C. Walden, 
Auburn, Alabama: Auburn University, 1970. (Pamphlet) 

Byron. Dora 

"Brash and Bumptious College at Carrollton." The Atlanta Journal- 
Constitution Magazine, Nov. 14, 1971, pp. 12, 14, 16, 62. 

Blumenthal, Warner 

"Placement Testing in Foreign Languages at West Georgia College." 
Paper read at the Sixth District Georgia Association of Educators, 
Griffin, Georgia, Oct., 1971. 

Bowdre, Paul H. 

"Eye Dialect as a Literary Device." A Various Language: Perspec- 
tives on American Dialects, ed. by Williamson and Burke. New 
York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1971, pp. 178-86. 

"The Iliad and Veblen's Quasi-Peaceable Barbarian Culture." Paper 
read at the Georgia-South Carolina College English Association, 
Statesboro, Georgia, Mar., 1971. 

Brisbin. Charles D. 

"An Experimental Application of the Galvanic Skin Response to 
the Measurement of Attitudes Towards Blacks." Unpublished 
EdD dissertation (education), Wayne State University, 1971. 

64 



Bryson. Thomas A. 

"A Note on Jefferson Davis's Lawsuit." Journal of Mississippi His- 
tory. XXXIII (May. 1971*. 149-65. 
Editor, Journal of a Journey to the Near East by Walter George 
Smith. Armenian Review. XXIV. Part I (Spring.' 1971). 3-34. 

"The Armenia-America Society: A Factor in American-Turkish 
Relations. 1919-1924." Records of the American Catholic His- 
torical Society. LXXXII (Jun.. 19711. 83-105. 

"A Note on Near East Relief: Walter George Smith and Cardinal 
Gibbons and the Question of Catholic Discrimination." Muslim 
World. I.XI (Jul., 1971*. 202-9. 

"A Lawsuit Concerning the Publication of Jefferson Davis's The 
Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government. " Georgia Historical 
Quarterly. LIV (Winter, 1971), 540-52. 

Review of The Higher Realism of Woodrow Wilson by Arthur Link, 
Journal of Southern History. XXXVII (Nov. 1971), 681-82. 

"William Brown Hodgson's Mission to Egypt. 1834." Paper read 
at the Georgia Historical Society, Carrollton, Georgia. Oct., 1971. 

C ha I fan t. Fran C 

"Ben Jonson's London: The Plays, the Masques, and the Poems." 
Unpublished PhD dissertation (English). University of North Caro- 
lina. 1971. 

"Mirror of Vanities and Virtues: A Reappraisal of Gone With the 
Wind." West Georgia College Review. IV. No. 1 (1971), 15-26. 

Chard. George E.H. 

"Oral Interpretation: A Basis for Performance and Criticism." 
Georgia Speech Journal. II (Spring, 1971), 17-21. 

Coe. Robert M. 

Invitational Recital: Pro-Mozart Society, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar., 
1971. 

Public Recital: Violin and Piano, Carrollton, Georgia, Apr.. 1971. 

Chamber Music Recital: Inaugural Concert for President and Mrs. 
Ward Pafford, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. Oct., 
1971. 

Crawford. Thomas J. 

"The Georgia Piedmont West of Atlanta." With Jack H. Medlin. 
Geological Societv of America. Southeastern Section Program, 
'1971), 306. (Abstract) 

63 



"Petrology of the Brevard Fault Zone Rocks in Western Georgia 
and Eastern Alabama." With Jack H. Medlin. Geological Society 
of America, Southeastern Section Program. (1971), 331. (Abstract). 

"Geologic Map, Carroll-Heard Counties, Georgia." Geochemical 
Study of Alluvium in the Chattahoochee-Flint Area. Georgia. 
V.J. Hurst and C.S. Long. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, 
Institute of Community and Area Development. 1971. (In book 
pocket). 

Crowell, James B. 

"The Optimization of Response Surface Designs." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (statistics), Texas Agricultural and Mechanical Uni- 
versity. 1971. 

Da hi, James C. 

"Kurtz, Marlow, Conrad and the Human Heart of Darkness." Studies 
in the Literary Imagination, I, No. 2 (1968), 33-40. 

Davidson. Thomas J. 

"The Effects of Training in the Concepts of the Sequential Analysis 
of Verbal Interaction Communication Theory on the Teaching 
Behavior of Prospective Elementary School Teachers." Unpub- 
lished EdD dissertation (Curriculum-Development). Wayne State 
Universitv. 1971. 

"The Video-Tape Recorder in the Supervision of Student Teachers." 
Paper read at the Central Kentucky Association for Student 
Teaching, Lexington. Kentucky. Feb.. 1969. 

"The Way It Really Is." With Margaret Shev- Student Impact. 1 
(Jun., 1970). 
Davis. Mollie C. 

"American Religious and Religioses Reaction to Mexico's Church- 
State Conflict, 1926-1927: Background to the Morrow Mission." 
Journal of Church and State. XIII (Winter. 1971 », 79-96. 

"George Whitefield's Attempt to Establish a College in Georgia." 
Georgia Historical Quarterly. LV (Winter, 1971),^ 459-70. 

"Youth and Protest in the 1920's." Paper read at the Conference of 
Childhood and Youth in History, Worcester, Massachusetts. Apr.. 

1970. 

"Report on the Progress of the Caucus of Women in History." 
Paper read at the American Historical Association, New York, 
New York. 1971, 



66 



•'Recent Views on Progressivism." Paper read at the Conference on 
Teaching of History. Carrollton. Georgia. Feb., 1971. 

"Ferment in Collegiate Culture. 1921-1929." Paper read at the Pop- 
ular Culture Association. East Lansing, Michigan, Apr., 1971. 

"Embattled Professionals: Southern Women as Agents of Modern- 
ism." Paper read at the Southern Historical Association. Houston, 
Texas, Nov., 1971. 

Editor, Newsletter. Caucus of Women in History. 1971- 

de Mayo. Benjamin 

"A Mdssbauer Investigation of Atomic Ordering Effects in the Iron- 
Cobalt Alloy System." Unpublished PhU dissertation (physicsi, 
Georgia Institute of Technology, 1969. 

"A Mdssbauer and Neutron and Diffraction Study of Atomic Order 
in Fe (50-50i Co." With D.W. Forester and S. Spooner. Bulletin 
of the American Physical Society. XIII (1968t. 1706. (Abstract*. 

"Mdssbauer and Neutron Diffraction Measurements of Atomic 
Ordering Effects in Fe ( 50-50 1 Co." With D.W. Forester and S. 
Spooner. Bulletin of the American Physical Society. XIV (1969i, 
99. (Abstract). 

"Effects of Atomic Configurational Changes on Hyperfine Inter- 
actions in Concentrated Iron-Cobalt Allovs." With D.W. Forester 
and S. Spooner. Journal of Applied Physics. XLI (1970>, 1319-20. 

DeVillier. John L. 

"Developing Undergraduate Programs." Paper read at the Southern 
Management Association Convention, Miami, Florida, Nov., 1971. 

Dyck. Lawrence A. 

"Morphological, Chemical and Developmental Studies of Chara 
Oosparangial Walls." Unpublished PhD dissertation (biology*, 
Washington University, 1970. 

"Comparison of Fossil and Extant Fractifications of Chara I. Histo- 
chemistry and Ultrastructure. II. Physical and Chemical 
Characteristics." With B.C. Parker. Journal of Phvcologv. Ill 
(1968), 10. 

"Chemical and Structural Characterization of the Cell Wall Com- 
plex in Chara. "With J.E. Ridgway. Journal of Cell Biologv. XLVII 
(1970), 54a. (Abstract* 

"Architecture of the Cell Wall of the Diatom Phaeodactylum tri- 
cornutum Bohlin as revealed by Histochemistry at the Ultra- 
structural Level." Paper read at the South East Electron Micro- 
scope Society, Atlanta. Georgia, Dec, 1971. 

67 



Edwards. Corliss H.. Jr. 

"A Hawthorne Echo in Faulkner's Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech." 
Notes on Contemporary Literature, I (Mar.. 1971 >, 4-5. 

Edwards. Edna Earl 

"Bridging the Gap Between High School English and Post-High 
School Experience." Paper read at the Conference for High School 
and College English Teachers and Business Leaders. Columbia. 
South Carolina.' Mar.. 1971. 

"English Education Programs in Small Colleges: What Can They 
Accomplish?" Paper read at the Conference on English Education. 
Portland. Oregon, Mar., 1971. 

England. Robert B. 

"Trichostrongyliis dosteri sp. n (Nematoda: TrichostrongylidaeU 
A Parasite of the White-Tailed Deer. Odocoileus Viroinianus 
(ZimmermannK" With W.P. Maples. The American Midland 
Naturalist. LXXXVI. No. 2 (1971). 506-8. 

Esslin^er. W. Glenn 

"The Georgia Science Teacher Project at West Georgia College." 
Georgia Academy of Science Bulletin. XXIX. No. 2 (197n, 162. 
(Abstract* 

Dnig Problems or People Problems. Bremen. Georgia: Gateway 
Printing Co.. 1971. (Pamphlet* 

Ferguson. Janice L 

"A Critical Study of the Social and Educational Perspective of 
Walter Lippmann." Unpublished PhD dissertation (education). 
University of Oklahoma, 1971. 

Ferling, John E. 

"Joseph Galloway and the Philosophy of Loyalism." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (history). West Virginia University, 1971. 

Finnic. Gordon E. 

"Visual Metaphors in the Historiography of the Jacksonian Move- 
ment." Paper read at the third Annual Conference on the Teaching 
of United States History. Carrollton. Georgia. Feb.. 1971. 

Review of The Amistad Affair by Christopher Martin. Journal of 
Southern History. XXXVII (Aug.. 1971). 471-72. 



68 



"The Implementation of the 194U Statement on Academic Freedom 
and Tenure in the State of Georgia." Paper read at the Georgia 
State Conference of the American Association of University 
Professors, Atlanta. Georgia. Nov., 1971. 

Gannon, Gerald M. 

"Conrad, Our Contemporary: The MLA Seminar." Conradiana, 
III, No. 1 (1970-1971), 129-32. 

"J.R.R. Tolkien's Modern Fairy Land." Paper read at the South 
Atlantic Modern Language Association. Atlanta. Georgia, Nov., 
1971. 

"Compilation and Abstraction of Unpublished Materials." With E.A. 
Bojarski. Paper read at the Modern Language Association, Chi- 
cago, Illinois, Dec, 1971. 

Editor, Georgia-South Carolina College Enolish Association News- 
letter. I, 19h9- 

Assistant Editor, West Georoia College Review. 11. 1969- 

Garmon. Lucille B. 

"Structure and Topography of Monocrystalline Nickel Thin Films 
Grown by Vapor Deposition." With Kenneth R. Lawless and Helen 
Grenga. 'Journal of Applied Physics. XLIl ( 197U, 3629-33. 

"Indexing of Kaolinite Electron l^iffraction Patterns." Paper read 
at the Georgia Academy of Sciences. Carrollton, Georgia, Apr., 
1971. 

Gay. James T. 

"American Fur Seal Diplomacy." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(history*. University of Georgia. 1971. 

"A Study of the Membership of the Lower House of Maryland: 
1751-1789." Cronica. (May, 1968*, 43-73. 

Gilbert. Edward E- 

"Time and Motion Studies of Tribolium. " Statistical Ecology: Vol- 
ume 2— Sampling and Modeling Biological Populations and Pop- 
ulation Dynamics. G.P. Patil. ed. University Park. Pennsylvania: 
Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971. pp. 285-311. 

Gingrich. Newton L. 

"Belgian Education Policies in the Congo: 1945-1960." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (history). Tulane University. 1971. 

"Researching Women's History." Paper read to the Caucus on Wo- 
men's History, Houston, Texas, Nov., 1971. 



69 



Gott, Prentice L. 

The following six Curriculum Guides Grades 1-6 edited for the 
Carroll County (Georgia) Board of Education. 1971: Science, 
Fine Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, Physical Education and 
Language Arts. 

Gregor, C. Bryan 

"Note on the Geochemical Behavior of Acids." Georgia Academy 
of Science Bulletin, XXIX (1971), 126. (Abstract) 

"Palemomagnetic Results From Lebanon." With A.E.M. Nairn. 
American Geophysical Union Transactions, LII (1971), 188. 
(Abstract) 

"Carbon and Atmospheric Oxygen." Science, CLXXIV (1971), 
316-17. 

Griffith, Benjamin W.. Jr. 

"A Note on Robinson's Use of Turannos. " Concerning Poetrv, IV 
(Spring, 1971), 39. 

"Immobile in Fortunato's Hat: The 'Now Generation' Again." 
Georgia English Counselor, XIX (May, 1971), 8. 

"The Piedmont Chatauqua: Henry Grady's Grandiose Scheme." 
Georgia Historical Quarterly, LV (Summer, 1971), 254-58. 

"Lydia and the Lady from Zurich: The Birth of a Shavian Bon Mot?" 
Notes on Contemporary Literature, I (May, 1971), 14-15. 

"Milton's Morning Meditations and Sonnet XIX." American Notes 
and Queries, X (Sep., 1971), 7-8. 

"Faulkner's Archaic Titles and the Second Shephards' Play." Notes 
on Mississippi Writers, IV (Fall, 1971), 62-63. 

"Bloom and Molly 'Carried Westward': An Alternate Reading." 
James Joyce Quarterly IX, (Fall, 1971), 122. 

"Miracle at Salt Springs." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Maga- 
zine, Jan. 31, 1971, pp. 12, 16, 22, 26. 

"Sequoyah: Indian Man of Letters." The Atlanta Journal-Constitu- 
tion Magazine, Apr. 18, 1971, pp. 58-60. 

"Ups and Downs of Julv Fourth." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 
Magazine, Jul. 4, 1971, pp. 10-11, 13. 

Grogan, Jack L. 

"Diesters as Hypocholesterolemic Agents." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (chemistry). University of Georgia, 1970. 

70 



"Potential Hypocholesterolemic Agents: Dicinnamoyl Esters as 
Analogs of Cynarin."" With I.L. Honigberg. Paper read at the 
Southeast Medicinal Chemistry Society in Miniature, Chapel 
Hill, North Carolina, Mar., 1968. 

"Hypercholesterolemia." Paper read at the Southeast Medicinal 
Chemistry Society in Miniature, Athens, Georgia, Mar.. 1969. 

Guynn. Richard D. 

"The Alabama Tax System: An Economic Analysis of Alternative 
Revisions." Unpublished PhD dissertation (economics). Univer- 
sity of Alabama, 1971. 

Hecht. Alan D. 

"Faunistic Paleotemperatures of Pleistocene Foraminiferal As- 
semblages." With T.J. Schmidt. Georgia Academy of Science 
Bulletin. XXIX (1971), 124. (Abstract)' 

"Oxygen-18 Studies of Planktonic Foraminifera: Reply to Technical 
Comments by Be' and Van Donk." With S.M. Savin. Science. 
CLXXIII (1971), 167-69. 

"Morphological Variation in Recent Planktonic Foraminifera." 
With R.G. Douglas. Bulletin of the American Association of 
Petroleum Geologists. LV (1971), 342. (Abstract) 

Holmes. Y. Lynn 

"The Location of Alashiya." Journal of the American Oriental 
Society. XCI (1971), 426-30. 

Review of Cities and Nations of Ancient Syria by Giorgio Buccellati. 
Journal of the American Oriental Society XCI (1971), 301-2. 

"Mice, Men and Gods." Paper read at the Society of Biblical Liter- 
ature, Knoxville, Tennessee, Mar., 1971. 

"The Foreign Trade of Cyprus During the Late Bronze Age." Paper 
read at the Symposium on Cyprus: Work in Progress, Ontario. 
Canada, Oct.. 1971. 

Huck, Eugene R. 

Editor, West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences. VI, 
1967- 

Editor, West Georgia College Review. I, 1968- 

Editor, SECOLAS Annals. I, 1969- (Acronym for Southeastern 
Conference on Latin American Studies) 

Keller. George E. 

"Band Mixing in ^^^Gd." Georgia Academy of Science Bulletin. 
XXIX (1971), 141. (Abstract)' 

71 



Kennedy. W. Benjamin 

"History and Humanism," Introductory Experiential Psychology, 
H. Steward and J. Thomas, co-editors. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall 
Hunt, 1970. 

Klee. James B. 

"Studies of Abnormal Behavior in the Rat: III. The Development of 
Behavior Fixations Through Frustration." With N.R.F. Maier and 
H.M. G\asser. Journal of Experimental Psychology, XXVI (1940), 
521-46. 

"Studies of Abnormal Behavior in the Rat: VII. The Permanent 
Nature of Abnormal Fixations and Their Relation to Convulsive 
Seizures." With N.R.F. Maier, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 
XXIX (1941), 380-89. 

"Studies of Abnormal Behavior in the Rat: XII. The Pattern of Pun- 
ishment and its Relation to Abnormal Fixations." With N.R.F. 
Maier. Journal of Experimental Psychology, XXIX (1943), 377-98. 

"Studies of Abnormal Behavior in the Rat: XVII. Guidance Versus 
Trial and Error in the Alteration of Habits and Fixations." With 
N.R.F. Maier. Journal of Psychology. XIX (1945), 133-63. 

"Studies of Motion Sickness: XVI. The Effects Upon Sickness Rates 
of Waves of Various Frequencies but Identical Acceleration." 
With S.J. Alexander, M. Cotzin, and G.R. Wendt. Journal of Ex- 
perimental Psychology. XXXVII (1947), 440-49. 

"Experience and Selection." Per^ona/zYv ^vm/jo^/um, I, No. 1 (1950), 
7-10. 

"Learning as Selection." Journal of General Psychology, XLII (1950), 

261-77.^ 

"Studies of Motion Sickness: XIII. The Effects of Sickness Upon 
Rifle Target Shooting." With S.J. Alexander, M. Cotzin, and G.R. 
Wendt. Journal of Psychology. XXIX (1955), 411-15. 

"Religion as Facing Forward in Time." Existential Inquiries. I, No. 2 
(1960), 19-32. 

"Prolegemena to a Psychology of Signs: The Symbolistic Revolu- 
tion." With H.G. Schrickel. Psychologia. VI (1963), 193-206. 

"The Cinema as a Symbolic Form." Film and Culture, II, No. 2 
(1963), 1-7. 

"Hemingway and the American Dream." The Post-Graduate Eng- 
lish Association Journal, Allahabad University, Allahabad, India 
(1963-64), 7-12. 

"India's Mysterious Unity." The Light of Life, IV, No. 1 (1964). 

"The Absolute and the Relative." Darshana, VI, Nos. 13, 14, 15 
(1964), 84-95, 18-30, 35-45. 

72 



"Reactions to the Indian Academic Social Scene." Psvchologia, 
VIII (1965), 73-80. 

"The Cultural Explosion." Darshana. VII, No. 17 (1965), 63-78. 
"The Colors of Zen." Psvchologia, VIII (1965), 197-201. 
"Art Experience as Part of the Developmental Process: A Psycholog- 
ical View." Journal of Humanistic Psychology, VI (1966), 79-86. 

Review of Asian Psychology by G. and L.B. Murphy, eds. Journal 

of Transpersonal Psychology, I (1969), 108-9. 
"The One — Dual and Multiple." Main Currents in Modern Thought, 

XXVI (1970), 116-20. 
"History— Death and Life." Introductory Experiential Psychology. 

H. Stewart and J. Thomas, co-eds. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall-Hunt, 

1970, pp. 31-62. 

Larson. Lewis H. 

"An Unusual Figurine from the Georgia Coast." The Florida An- 
thropologist, VIII, No. 3 (1955), 75-81. 

"The Norman Mound, Mcintosh County, Georgia." The Florida 
Anthropologist, X, Nos. 1-2 (1957), 37-52. 

"An Unusual Wooden Rattle from the Etowah Site." The Missouri 
Archaeologist, XIX, No. 4 (1957), 7-11. 

"Explorations at Etowah, Georgia." With A.R. Kelly. Archaeology, 

X, No. 1 (1957), 38-48. 
"Cultural Relationships Between the Northern St. Johns Area and 

the Georgia Coast." The Florida Anthropologist, XI, No. 1 (1958), 

11-21. 
"Southern Cult Manifestations on the Georgia Coast." American 

Antiquity, XXIII, No. 4 (1958), 426-30. 

"On the Source of Copper at the Etowah Site, Georgia." American 
Antiquity, XXIV, No. 2 (1958). 177-81. 

"A Mississippian Headdress from Etowah, Georgia." American An- 
tiquity, XXV, No. 1 (1959), 109-12. 

"The Shell Ring on Sapelo Island." With A.J. Waring, Jr. Papers 
of the Peabodv Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, LVIII, 
(1958), 263-78. 

"Settlement Distribution During the Mississippi Period." South- 
eastern Archaeological Conference Bulletin, No. 13 (1971), 19-25. 

"Archaeological Implications of Social Stratification at the Etowah 
Site, Georgia." Memoirs of the Society for American Archaeology, 
No. 25 (1971), 58-67. 

Lockhart, William L. 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969- 

73 



Long, C. Sumner, Jr. 

Mines and Prospects of the Chattahoochee-Flint Area, Georgia. 

Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, Institute of Community 

and Area Development. 1Q71. 
Geochemical Study of Alluvium in the Chattahoochee-Flint Area, 

Georgia. With V.J. Hurst, Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, 

Institute of Community and Area Development, 1971. 

"Mineral Resources of the Chattahoochee Flint Area." Paper read 
at the Chattahoochee Flint Area Planning Commission, Newnan, 
Georgia, Oct., 1971. 

McClain, Dudley 

Regional Criminal Justice Plan. With H.A. Deyo, J.D. Gilbert and 
R.M. Wells. Lubbock, Texas: Lubbock Metropolitan Council of 
Governments, 1969. (Printed report) 

"Reapportionment Recapitulated: 1960-1970." Georgia State Bar 
Journal, VII (Nov., 1970), 191-214. 

"The Supreme Court Controversies of Presidents Roosevelt and 
Nixon: A Consideration of the Political Nature of the Presidential 
Power of Judicial Appointment." Georgia State Bar Journal, VIII 
(Nov., 1971), 145-79. 

McNabb, Dorothy A. 

"Recreation. . . An Antidote to Outer Pressures." Georgia Journal 
of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. Ill, No. 2 (1971), 
14-15. 

"Reflections." Georgia Journal of Health, Physical Education, and 
Recreation, III, No. 2 (1971), 15. 

"The Role of the Woman Athlete in Today's Society." Paper read 
at the State Convention for the Georgia Association of Health, 
Physical Education and Recreation, Jekyll Island, Georgia, Apr., 
1971. 

McTeer, John Hugh 

Editor, Teacher Education for International Understanding: A Re- 
port of a Regional Conference. Carrollton, Georgia: West Georgia 
College (off-set printed), 1971. 

"Simulation as a Means for Developing International Understand- 
ing." Teacher Education for International Understanding: A Re- 
port of a Regional Conference. J.H. McTeer, ed. Carrollton, 
Georgia: West Georgia College (off-set printed), 1971, pp. 40-43. 



74 



MacLean, John T. 

"Five Miniatures for Four Household Instruments: 1. Prelude, 
2. March, 3. Devotional, 4. Waltz, 5. Finale." Performed at the 
Fine Arts Festival, Carrollton, Georgia. May, 1971. 

Madeley, Hulon M. 

"Make Geology Relevant!" Georgia Academv of Science Bulletin. 
XXVIII, No. 2 (1970), s. 47. (Abstract) 

Masters, Charles D. 

"The Muddy Mississippi." American Association of Petroleum Ge- 
ologists Bulletin, LV, No. 2 (1971), 351. (Abstract) 

Mathews. James W. 

"Another Possible Origin of HowelFs The Shadow of a Dream." 
American Literature. XLII (Jan., 1971), 558-62. 

"The Creativity Crisis." Bulletin of the National Association of 
Teachers of Singing. XXVII, No. 3 (1971), 10-13. 

"The House of Atreus and The House of the Seven Gables. " Emer- 
son Society Quarterly, LXIII, (Spring, 1971), 31-36. 

"Hawthorne Adapts the Material : From Popular Lore to Art." Pa- 
per read at the South Atlantic Modern Language Association, 
Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., 1971. 

Mixon, Val G. 

"A Government Survey in Fulton County." The Feasibility of At- 
lanta-Fulton County Consolidation: Selected Papers of the Insti- 
tute of Public Administration. New York: Institute of Public 
Administration, 1970. (Originally published in loose-leaf binder) 

Mykkeltvedt, Roald Y. 

"The Judicial Development of the 14th Amendment's Due Process 
Clause — Prelude to the Selective Incorporation of the Bill of 
Rights." Mercer Law Review, XXII, No. 2 (1971), 533-59. 

Owings, Huey Allen 

"A Rationale for the Teaching of Classical Mythology." Unpublish- 
ed PhD dissertation (English), Auburn University, 1971. 

Perry, James Earl 

"On Duods and Hereditarily Duodic Continua." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (mathematics). Auburn University, 1971. 

lb 



Poort, Jon M. 

Interpretations of Earth History. Second edition. Carrollton, Geor- 
gia: Thomasson Printing and Equipment Co., 1971. (manual) 

"Occurrence of Ophliomorphia in the Basal Upper Cretaceous 
Providence Formation in Stewart County, Georgia." Bulletin of 
the Georgia Academy of Sciences. XXIX, No. 2 (1971), 124. (Ab- 
stract) 

"Paleoenvironmental Interpretations of the Upper Cretaceous Rip- 
ley Formation, Stewart and Quitman Counties, Georgia." Paper 
read at the Southeastern Section, Geological Society of America, 
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Scott, Carole E. 

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Sheldon, Craig I., Jr. 

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"The Urn Burial Caves of the Southern Cotobato Highlands, Min- 
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"The Archaeology of Seminoho Cave in Lebak, Cotobato." With 
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76 



Preliminary Archaeological Investigations. Third Field Season at 
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Wearer. David C. 

"A Survey of Short-Term Chances in the Land Use Mix of Three 
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77 , 



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78 



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79 



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'^i. 



80 



11/3 



^ 



US ISSN 0043-3136 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



REVIEW 




CO 



u 

u 
u 

Isl 






» CO" 

a: e> 






Vol. VI 



May, 1973 



Published By 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



A Division of the University System of Georgia 



CARROLLTON, GEORGIA 



Published by 
WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



Ward B. Pafford, President 
John M. Martin, Academic Dean 



Faculty Research Committee 



Thomas A. Bryson Doyle L. Mathis 

Jesse Burbage Roald Y. Mykkeltvedt 

Alex Corriere Carole E. Scott 

Donald Gibbons James A. Wash 

Benjamin W. Griffith Vernon Zander 



Eugene R. Huck, Chairman and Editor 
Gerald M. Garmon and William L. Lockhart, Assistant Editors 



The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the faculty of 
West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major re- 
citals and major art exhibits. Theses and arricles in progress or accepted 
are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and 
appears in the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all 
master's theses and educational specialist's projects written at West 
Georgia College are included as they are awarded. 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 

REVIEW 



Volume VI May, 1973 

TABLE 

of 

CONTENTS 

William Faulkner on Individualism James Dahl 3 

J.R.R. Tolkien's Modern Fairyland Gerald M. Gannon 10 

Principles of Taxation and Characteristics 

of Major State Taxes Richard D. Guynn 16 

Dreams, Visions, and Myths in John Hersey's 

White Lotus Michael Haltresht 24 

The Foreign Policy Statesmanship of Senator 

Walter F. George, 1955-1956 Val G. Mixon 29 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 41 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1, 1973 61 



Copyright © 1973, West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 

Thomasson Printing Co., Carrollton, Georgia 30117 
1 



WILLIAM FAULKNER ON INDIVIDUALISM 

By JAMES DAHL* 

William Faulkner has been dead now for nearly eleven years; he 
died at the age of 65 on July 6, 1962, of a heart attack. His novels and 
stories continue to be very popular with teachers and students alike. His 
thoughts on the plight of the modern individual are less well known 
than his fiction. 

One must understand from the outset that William Faulkner was in 
no sense an academic philosopher. He quit high school at sixteen and 
never returned for a certificate. He did study Spanish and French at 
Ole Miss in 1921 and 1922, but took no more than a course or two for 
three semesters. Thus, it is not surorising that Faulkner in his speeches 
and essays should have a rather marked distaste for intellectual systems 
and academe in general. At the University of Virginia, where he was 
Writer in Residence in 1957 and 1958, Faulkner told one audience. "I 
don't have much confidence in the mind. I think that it is here [in the 
heart] where the shoe fits, that the mind lets you down sooner or later, 
but this doesn't."^ 

For Faulkner the human heart is the seat of the most basic of human 

confUcts. This idea is central to Faulkner's often quoted Nobel Prize 

speech, in which Faulkner urged young writers to concentrate on 

". . . the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself which alone 

can make good writing because only that is worth writing about, worth 

the agony and the sweat."^ In 1955, at Nagano, Japan, in a cultural 

interchange arranged by the U.S. Department of State, Faulkner was 

more specific about the conflict between instinct and conscience: 

Yes, man, his instinct, wants to hold on to what he has at any 

price. It takes his conscience to tell him. "You must relinquish 

some of this," but his instinct, his nature says, "Hold it, you got 

it, it's yours, it's mine, I want it, I've got it, so I can keep it." 

That's not anything to be at all proud of, but since it is his nature, 

I would not apply the word base to that, but when he pretends 

that his reason for that is some high moral one, then that is 

baseness. 3 

In this regard one is reminded of Faulkner's contention that the race 

problem in the American South is basically an economic one — the 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College. 



^ William Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, edited by Frederick L. Gwynn 

and Joseph L. Blotner (Charlottesville: The Universtiy of Virginia Press, 1959), 

p. 6. 

^ William Faulkner, The Faulkner Reader (New York: Random House, 1954), 

p. 3. 

^ William ^Pdmlkncx, Faulkner at Nagano (Toyko: The Kenkyusha Press, 1956), 

pp. 100-1. 

3 



majority of Southerners simply do not wish to give lip their profits from 
cheap Negro labor. 

At the University of Virginia, Faulkner was asked how he defined 
man's basic ideaUsm and what proof of its existence he could find in 
human behavior. His answer is the most succinct of his many statements 
about the nature of man: "I think that man tries to be better than he 
thinks he will be. I think that that is his immortality, that he wants to 
be better, he wants to be braver, he wants to be more honest than he 
thinks he will be and sometimes he's not. but then suddenly to his own 
astonishment he is.""^ Faulkner went on to state that man often has 
great difficulty in making progress against his own selfish nature, but 
that ". . . the desire to be better than he is afraid he might be is inside 
him, inside his conscience."^ At Nagano, Faulkner pointed out several 
instances of moral progress in recent times: 

"Now [man] changes his condition gradually. Nowadays, a little 
child doesn't have to work; nowadays, a merchant can't sell you 
poisoned soup. That's something, that's not much of an advance- 
ment, but it's something. For I do believe in man and his capa- 
city for advancement. I still believe in man. That he still wishes, 
desires, wants to do better than he knows he can and occasion- 
ally he does a little better than anybody expects of him.^ 
At Nagano, Faulkner was asked point-blank whether he believed in 
Christianity. His answer was. 

Well, I believe in God. Sometimes Christianity gets pretty 
debased, but I do believe in God, yes, I believe that man has a 
soul that aspires towards what we call God, what we mean by 
God ... I think that the trouble with Christianitv is that we've 
never really tried it yet, but we must use it— it's a nice glib 
tongue but we have never really tried Christianity.'"^ 
At the University of Virginia, Faulkner was asked about his personal 
stance toward Christianity: 

Why, the Christian religion has never harmed me. I hope I have 
never harmed it. I have the sort of provincial Christian back- 
ground which one takes for granted without thinking too much 
about it, probably. That I'm probably— within my rights— with- 
in my own rights I feel that I'm a good Christian — whether it 
would please anybody else's standards or not I don't know.^ 
In Japan and at Virginia, Faulkner was very outspoken in his denun- 
ciation of the dehumanizing elements in contemporary society. The 
greatest ideological evil of present times, Faulkner told a group of 



'^ Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, p. 85. 
5 Ibid., p. 86. 

^ Faulkner, Faulkner at Nagano, pp. 5-6. 
7 Ibid., p. 242. 

^ Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, p. 203. 

4 



young writers at Virginia, is the marked decline of man's faith in him- 
self as an individual: 

This is the mystical belief, almost a religion, that individual man 
as individual man can no longer exist. A belief that there is no 
place anymore where individual man can speak quietly to indi- 
vidual man of such simple things as honesty with oneself and re- 
sponsibility toward others and protection for the weak and com- 
passion and pity for all. because such individual things as hones- 
ty and pity and responsibility and compassion no longer exist and 
man himself can hope to continue only by relinguishing and 
denying his individuality into a regimented group of his arbitrary 
factional regimented group, both filling the same air at the same 
time with the same double-barreled abstractions of "people's de- 
mocracy" and "minority rights" and "equal justice" and "social 
welfare"— all the synonyms wl.lch take all the shame out of re- 
sponsibility by not merely inviting but even compelling everyone 
to participate in it.^ 
In the seminar with Japanese writers and intellectuals at Nagano, 
Faulkner emphasized again and again the importance of individual ac- 
tion and individual thought: "It's that single voice that's the important 
thing. When you get two people, you still got two human beings; when 
you get three you got the beginning of a mob. And if you get a hundred 
all focused on one single idea, that idea is never too good."^^ 

This challenge to human beings to act individually and not collec- 
tively was the keynote of two speeches Faulkner made, the first at his 
daughter Jill's graduation from University High School in Oxford, in 
1951, and the second two years later at her graduation from Pine Manor 
Junior College in Massachusetts, in 1953. At Oxford, Faulkner gave a 
six-minute speech, which, though little known, is of the same quality 
and stamp as his Nobel Prize acceptance speech. To his daughter and 
her classmates, Faulkner said. 

What threatens us today is fear. Not the atom bomb, nor even 
fear of it, the being afraid of it. Our danger is not that. Our dan- 
ger is the forces m the world today which are trying to use man's 
fear to rob him of his individuality, his soul, trying to reduce him 
to an unthinking mass by fear and bribery— giving him free food 
which he has not worked for— the economics and ideologies or 
political systems, communist or socialist or democratic, what- 
ever they wish to call themselves, the tyrants and the politicians, 
American or European or Asiatic, whatever they call them- 
selves, who would reduce man to one obedient mass for their 
own aggrandizement and power, or because they themselves are 
baffled and afraid, afraid of, or incapable of, beUeving in man's 



9 Ibid., p. 242. 

^° Faulkner, Faulkner at Nagano, p. 29. 

5 



capacity for courage and endurance and sacrifice, ^i 
The threat of totalitarian systems of thought, Faulkner told the grad- 
uates, will not be effectively combated by group action: it can be met 
only by individuals ". . . who will believe always not only in the right of 
man to be free of injustice and rapacity and deception, but the duty 
and responsibility of num to see that justice and truth and pitv and com- 
passion done. 12 And haulkners final challenge to the high school grad- 
uates was to show courage in the face of societal pressures: 

So never be afraid. Never be afraid to raise your voice for hon- 
esty and truth and compassion, against injustice and lying and 
greed. If you, not just you in this room tonight, but all the thou- 
sands of other rooms like this one about the world today and to- 
morrow and next week, will do this, not as a class or classes, but 
as individuals, men and women, you will change the earth. ^^ 
The Pine Manor address was printed in the Atlantic several months 
after Faulkner delivered it in Massachusetts in June of 1955. The speech 
is entitled "Faith or Fear." and as in the Oxford address, the emphasis 
is on the individual's choice between spiritual freedom or slavery. At 
the outset, Faulkner emphasized his idea that what is wrong with the 
world is that it is not yet finisned, that God gave man ". . . the choice 
between ending the world, effacing it from the long annal of time and 
space, and completing it."i'' At present, Faulkner continued, the forces 
of slavery and conformity are stronger than ever before in our history. 
He urged that his audience and he begin at once ". . . to work, to begin 
to change, to begin to rid ourselves of the fears and pressures which 
are making simple existence more and more uncertain and without dig- 
nity or peace or security, and which, to those who are incapable of 
believing in man, will in the end rid man of his problems by ridding him 
of himself. "15 "In fact."" he concluded, "we must break ourselves of 
thinking in the terms foisted on us by the splitoffs of that old dark 
spirit's ambition and ruthlessness: the empty clanging terms of 'nation" 
and 'fatherland" or 'race" or 'color" or 'creed."" ^^ Only when this is 
done will the dark forces of slavery admit defeat, admit that "Man- 
simple unfrightened invincible men and women — has beaten us"'i'' 

In a letter to the editor of the New York Times in 1954 and in an 
article in Harper's magazine in 1955, Faulkner delivered two more 
warnings of a somewhat different nature concerning present-day threats 

" "Fear Threatens M^n's Individuality; Faulkner Challenges UHS Graduates: 
•Never Be Afraid."' The Oxford Eagle. May 31, 1951, p. 53. 

12 Ibid. 

13 Ibid 

14 William Faulkner. "Faith or Fear," Atlantic. CLXXXII (August, 1953), 
p. 53. 

15 Ibid., p. 55. 

16 Ibid 

17 Ibid 

6 



to individualitv. The Times letter concerned the 1954 crash in New 
York City of an Italian airliner whose instruments failed to hold the 
glidepath in landing. ^^ In his letter Faulkner contended that the pilot 
and those aboard were not just the victims of that instrument failure, 
but also ■'. . . of that mystical, unquestioning, almost religious awe and 
veneration in which our culture has trained us to hold gadgets — any 
gadget, if it is only complex enough and cryptic enough and costs 
enough. "'^^ Faulkner reasoned that the pilot had been afraid to use his 
own judgment in landing the plane, even after two unsuccessful passes 
at the airfield, for fear of violating modern man's worship of mechan- 
ical devices. 2° And, Faulkner concluded, "We had all better grieve for 
all people beneath a culture which holds any mechanical device superior 
to any man simply because the one, being mechanical, is infallible, 
while the other, being nothing but man. is not subject to failure but 
doomed to it."^! 

The Harper's article, "On Privacy . . . The American Dream- What 
Happened to It," is an account of Faulkner's firsthand experience with 
the modern individual's helplessness in protecting his own privacy. 
The article is a stinging denunciation of a reporter and his editors, 
who, against Faulkner's expressed wishes, printed a story about his 
personal life in a national magazine. ^^ Faulkner undoubtedly had in 
mind two articles, with pictures, which Life magazine printed about 
him in September and October of 1953. The point of Faulkner's anger is 
that at present the individual is helpless against any large organization 
or group which would profit from violating his privacy, because the 
modern organization has no moral compunctions, and, on the prac- 
tical side, would rather pay damages in a libel suit than give up the 
chance for prestige or profit. ^^ Faulkner concluded the article with 
this warning' 

With odds at balance (plus a little fast footwork now and then of 
course) one individual can defend himself from another indivi- 
dual's liberty. But when powerful federations and organizations 
and amalgamations like publishing companies and religious sects 
and political parties and legislative committees can absolve even 
one of their working units of the restrictions of moral responsi- 
bility by means of such catch phrases as "Freedom" and "Salva- 
tion" and "Security" and "Democracy," beneath which blanket 
absolution the individual salaried practitioners are themselves 

^^ William Faulkner, "Letter to the Editor," New York Times, December 26, 
1954. Section 4, p. 6. 

19 Ibid. 

20 Ibid. 

21 Ibid. 

^ William Faulkner, "On Privacy. . . The American Dream: What Happened 
to It," Harper's CCXI (July 1, 1955), 33. 
23 Ibid., p. 36. 

7 



freed of individual responsibility and restraint, then let us be- 
ware. ^^ 

At Virginia in 1958, Faulkner delivered these remarks about the 
pernicious influence of organizations: 

Yes, I have very definite ideas about that, and if I ever become 
a preacher, it will be to preach against man, individual man, re- 
linquishing into groups, any group. I'm against belonging to any- 
thing. Of course, when 1 was young I belonged to young people's 
fraternities and things like that, but now 1 don't want to belong 
to anything except the human race ... 1 think that there's too 
much pressure to make people conform and I think that one man 
may be first-rate but if you put one man and two second-rate 
men together, then he's not going to be first-rate any longer, be- 
cause the voice of that majority will be second-rate. ^^ 
At this point it is interesting to examine the relationship between 
Faulkner the artist and Faulkner the individualist. In a speech entitled 
"To the Youth of Japan" in 1955, Faulkner outlined the role of art in 
fostering individualism: "... art is the strongest and most durable 
force man has invented or discovered with which to record the his- 
tory of his invincible durability and courage beneath disaster, and to 
postulate the validity of his hope." 

At Virginia, Faulkner singled out J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in 
the Rye as the finest modern novel he had read. As a first-rate work 
of art, Faulkner said, Salinger's novel is a potent means of saving man- 
kind ". . . from being desouled as the stallion or boar or bull is gelded, 
to save the individual from anonymity before it is too late and humanity 
has vanished from the animal called man."^^ It is the artist who is the 
est advocate of individualism ". . . since who should fear the loss of 
[individuality] more, since the humanity of man is the artist's life 
blood. "28 

However, Faulkner is no facile optimist who sees the artist's task 
in modern times as an easy one. In Japan he told several audiences of 
writers that these are indeed dark times for the artist. ^9 Over the long 
haul, however, Faulkner is optimistic about man's capacity for endur- 
ance and progress. 

... I am still convinced that man is tougher than any darkness. 
That man's hope is the capacity to believe in man, his hope, his 
aspiration toward a better human condition. The fact that man 
always hopes toward a better human condition. I think that the 



24 Ibid., p. 37. 

2^ William Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, p. 269. 
2^ William Faulkner, Faulkner at Nagano, pp. 186-7. 
2'^ William Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, p. 245. 

28 Ibid. 

29 William Faulkner, Faulkner at Nagano, p. 157. 

8 



purpose of writing, of art, is a record. The reason that the books 
last longer than the bridges and the skyscrapers is that that is the 
best thing man has discovered yet to record the fact that he does 
endure, that he is capable of hope, even in darkness, that he does 
move, he doesn't give up, and this is not only a record of his past, 
where he has shown that he endures and hopes in spite of dark- 
ness, but is a promise of the validity of that hope. That that is one 
thing in which he can show tomorrow that yesterday he endured. 
He knows that since his own yesterday showed him today that 
he endured, was capable of hope, was capable of believing that 
man's condition can be bettered, is his assurance that after he is 
gone someone will read what he has done and can see what man 
yesterday was capable of believing and of hope that man's condi- 
tion does change. There are evils of yesterday that don't exist 
any more, the evils of today will be gone tomorrow by the ad- 
vancement, women will have more freedom in this country than 
they had once. There will be a time when the older people that 
got the world into wars won't be able to get the world into wars 
any more for the young people to get killed in. That will come, 
it will take time, it will take patience, and it will take a capacity 
of people to believe that man's condition can be improved, not 
as a gift to him, but by his own efforts. That he can do it.^'' 
In his last address at Virginia as Writer in Residence, in 1958, Faulk- 
ner summed up the fate of individual man and the role of the arts in 
this manner. The quotation serves as a fitting conclusion to this brief 
look at Faulkner the artist and Faulkner the individualist- 
Well, the individual is not too much, he's only a pinch of dust, he 
won't be here very long anyway, but species, his dreams, they go 
on. There's always somebody that will keep on creating the Bach 
and the Shakespeare as long as man keeps on producing. ^^ 



30 Ibid., pp. 157-9. 

31 William Faulkner, Faulkner in the University, p. 286. 

9 



J.R.R. TOLKIEN'S 
MODERN FAIRYLAND 

By GERALD M. GARMON* 

I would like to argue that in the twentieth century the epic tradi- 
tion is still very much alive, and that there are good examples to be 
found if we look within the boundaries of popular literature. Let me 
begin by mentioning the characteristics of the epic suggested by E.M. 
W. Tillyard.i "The first epic requirement is the simple one of high 
quality and of high seriousness." Secondly, it should have amplitude, 
breadth, inclusiveness, and the like. Thirdlv, it should have organiza- 
tion and unity. The fourth requirement is called the Choric: '"The epic 
writer must express the feeling of a larger group of people living in or 
near his own time." And lastly the epic "must have faith in the system 
of beliefs or way of life it bears witness to ... . Only when people have 
faith in their own age can they include the maximum of life in their 
vision and exert their will-power to its utmost capacity." Lascelles 
Abercrombie^ describes these last two in other terms; he thinks that 
the epic is often vulgar and provincial, shamelessly singing the praises 
of a conservative faith in morality and in a limited idea of heroic be- 
havior. And let me add another quality found in most epics, and that 
is the reverence for and dependence upon nature. 

It is necessary to stress the part that nature plays in epics, because 
it is seldom mentioned when epic characteristics are listed. Yet nature 
in some form or another serves as the controlling force in most of the 
epics of antiquity. In the Greco-Roman and Norse legends the gods 
and goddesses were qualities of nature personified. Inevitably the 
epic hero fought for the natural good and was supported in his struggle 
by the forces of nature; yet sometimes, too, the gods of nature worked 
against man. 

Now, probably we cannot expect that within our times a poetic epic 
will be written which will fulfill the reasonable requirements of a long 
narrative poem which has a figure of heroic stature, a setting vast in 
scope, which covers great nations, has supernatural forces, a style of 
sustained elevation, and is at once glorifying traditional values and yet 
objective. But only the requirement that it be a poem diminishes that 

*Associate Professor of English, West Georgia College. 



^ E.M.W. Tillyard, The Epic Strain in the English Novel (London: Chatto 
and Windus, 1958), pp. 15-17. 

2 Lascelles Abercrombie, The Epic (Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 
1939), p. 11 and ff. 

10 



tradition in our time. And that is the only requirement that J.R.R. Tol- 
kien's The Lord of the Rings lacks, yet it has much fine poetry within 
it. And this combination of prose and poetry is perhaps the best com- 
promise with the poetic tradition that the twentieth-century reader will 
accept, but the lack of poetic structure should not be crucial to defini- 
tion of the epic. The epic has been invented many times and indepen- 
dently; but as the needs which prompted the invention have been broad- 
ly, similar, so the invention itself has been. 

Certainly, J.R.R. Tolkine intended to create his three-volume, 
six-book work as an epic. He borrowed from the Anglo-Saxon, the Ice- 
landic and German traditions, from Sir Thomas Malory's Morte d' 
Arthur, Spenser's Faerie Queene, perhaps from Michael Drayton's 
Nymphidia, and Milton's Paradise Lost. And yet it is not essentially 
a derivative work, certainly not as much as The Aeneid, for example. 
And from the many sources and influences only two or three can be 
said to have major shaping force on its creation. They are the Anglo- 
Saxon epic works, the Arthurian tradition and the English soldier of 
the twentieth century. The others provide incidental images and stock 
characters or occasional motifs, but little more. And though there 
are echoes of the Greek, Roman, Italian, Norse and Portuguese epcis. 
it is primarily the English works, Beowulf and The Faerie Queene, 
that are its defining ancestors. This should remind us of another tra- 
ditional characteristic of the epic, that the hero should be a nation- 
al hero. 

The hero of The Lord of the Rings is Frodo Baggins, a hobbit, who 
lives at Bag End, the Shire, Middle-earth, in a time incalculably dis- 
tant, before the age of man. The hobbits are a likely choice for the 
heroes of a natural world because they live in the ground, are agrarian 
in their life style and generally close to nature. They are little people, 
standing about three feet tall, but with few of man's destructive habits. 
They have soft hair growing on the tops of their feet, thus they seldom 
wear shoes. They are shy, enjoy eating — up to six meals a day— they 
are naive, innocent, and provincial. They lack an interest in history 
but love to gossip and talk about family traditions. They are stay-at- 
homes, and they like to smoke pipes — a habit which they invented. 
They dislike change. In short they are in every way creatures of habit, 
which may explain their name. Their other salient qualities are endur- 
ance, toughness, loyalty and compassion. They stand as impressive 
answers to the charge of Joseph Wood Krutch and others who claim 
that modern man has lost faith in his own magnificence. But their 
greatness does not rest in preeminent skill in arms and grand appear- 
ance; it is in true courage. The courage to fight without faith but none- 
theless for an ideal, to go on even to sure destruction. It is a courage 
that is not vested in being willing to give up a life that is superior to 
others, but in the willingness to make a mediocre life heroic by giving 
it up well and for a superior cause. The hobbit is a naturally sympathe- 
tic character, a half-sized Hector, a loveable type. Almost surely he 
represents the middle-class Englishman, the British Tommy of two 

11 



in 



world wars who put down his work-a-day tools and fought against great 
odds to save the world from totalitarian forces. And he represents the 
English Tommy without being identified with the less heroic, mundane, 
and personal elements of our times. His small size magnifies the size 
of the enemy; and, perhaps most important, it urges us to believe that 
it is not by strength of arms that the world will be saved. Elrond, the 
elven king, says of Frodo, 

This quest may be attempted by the weak with as much hope as 

the strong. Yet such is oft the course of deeds that move the 

wheels of the world: small hands do them because they must 

while the eyes of the great are elsewhere. (I, 353)^ 

Despite its amazing creativity, its riot of deep traditional learning. The 

Lord of the Rings could not succeed without the hobbit, its finest and 

most endearing creation, an Everyman of heroic proportions. 

In plot, as well as in its representative hero, The Lord of the Rings 
is epic in scope, variety and organization; at the same time it makes 
its appeal uniquely to the modern concern with pollution, war, and 
personal relationships. 

Frodo Baggins is the nephew of Bilbo Baggins, who many years 
earlier had found a mysterious ring which had the power to make its 
wearer invisible. Under the guidance of Gandalf the Grey, a wizard, 
Bilbo — now a hundred and eleven years old — gives a farewell party, 
passes the ring on to Frodo and departs from the Shire. It is now that 
Frodo learns that his ring is the one made over a thousand years earlier 
by the evil wizard Sauron, who had lost his body when he lost the ring, 
but whose evil spirit has now gathered great strength and is about to 
launch a war of conquest on Middle-earth. He first wants to recapture 
his One Ring which will make him invincible. It is up to Frodo to carry 
the Ring back to the mountain in whose volcanic heat it was forged and 
destroy it there by the only force which can destroy it, before it turns 
all of the world into evil. But the Ring, which always gravitates back 
to its maker, has a will of its own and develops the evil in anyone who 
wears it until it destroys him. 

Frodo is helped on his quest by his personal servant Sam, his two 
best friends. Merry and Pippin, an elf named Legolas. two men, Strider 
and Boromir, Gimli, a dwarf and the wizard Gandalf. They comprise 
the fellowship of the Ring. Gandalf falls into a bottomless pit while 
doing battle with an indefinable evil cloud called the Balrog. Boromir 
is killed by Ores— a kind of robot created by Sauron; and Frodo, de- 
ciding that the Ring can be best returned by one person, leaves the rest 
to go on by himself. He does not count, however, on the indefatigable 
loyalty of Sam, who follows his master. Later Merry and Pippin are 



3 J.R.R. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings (New York: Ballantine Books, 1967). 
All references to Tolkien are to this text. 

12 



separated. And as Sauron begins his war, even without the Ring, the 
fellowship is widely scattered. 

The breaking of the fellowship closes Book Two, or volume one. 
The remaining four books of the trilogy divide precisely in two parts. 
Books Three and Five belong to the Heroic Age, to great battles and 
individual heroics; Books Four and Six belong to the theme of the 
Quest, with the middle pages of Six bringing the two parts together 
again when the eagles, sent by Gandalf, rescue Frodo and Sam from the 
exploding Mount Doom. The last three chapters relate the cleansing 
of the Shire of the evil forces which had gathered there in Frodo's 
absence. 

Now all of this suggests a rather traditional plot as epics go. There 
are the fantastic heroes of super-human abilities: Gandalf, Strider, 
Legolas. Gimili, and Boromir: the mysterious and inhuman enemy: 
the Ores, Trolls, Ringwraiths, the giant spider Shelob. and Sauron 
himself, to mention a few: there is the quest to return the Ring, and thus 
to gain the great treasure of peace for Middle-earth. There are the un- 
natural escapes from death; for example, Gandalf the Grey returns 
from the dead as Gandalf the White. There are several descents into 
the underworld, and there is the dependence on nature and the powers 
of nature: things do not grow in Mordor the land of Sauron, they flour- 
ish in the land of the elves. The Ents, huge tree-like creatures who can 
command the trees, help the fellowship. Tom Bombadil is a pure spirit 
of nature, unaffected by evil, by temporal concerns, by even time. 
Birds talk to the elves; the eagles are servants of Gandalf. Certainly 
there is little possibility of the pathetic fallacy here: there are sentient 
wills in plants and rocks, and animals have nearly human intelligence. 

In The Lord of the Rings nature is a controlling force, and if proper- 
ly understood, it serves as a useful device for interpretation. It does 
not, however, present a simplistic dichotomy of good versus evil. At 
times the forces of nature seem to work against the success of the 
fellowship. Sauron seems to have power over nature, and at times 
so does Gandalf. But both evil wizards, Sauron and Suraman, pervert 
nature and destroy it. A key to the interpretation of Nature is found 
in the account of the dwarves in Moria. The dwarves are essentially 
good and in accord with Nature. But in bygone years they had mined 
for silver into the very heart of the mountain and in their greed they 
had unleashed the terrible Balrog. As a result they lost their wealth, 
their mountain home, and much of their skill as craftsmen. The Balrog 
has become an instrument of evil by the time the fellowship reaches the 
mountain, but originally he was a spirit of offended Nature. And offended 
Nature seems to be the pattern throughout the three volumes. The 
forests that hinder the heroes, the mountain that heaps snow in their 
path, the snakes that attack them are all responding to previous vio- 
lations. Nature is essentially passive and good, but at times resentful 
and defensive because of past hurts. With this understanding of nature, 
we can try to understand several of the problems that readers have 
discovered. 

13 



One critical question which has bothered some critics, I have al- 
ready attempted to explain within the idea of Nature as the definition 
of good, and that is, "why did Tolkien use the hobbit for his modern 
tale?" Two other problems which readers have been puzzled by are Tol- 
kien's lack of treatment of religion and the disturbing sense of loss 
that pervades the whole work. 

Too often critics have looked beyond the tale to the Catholic author 
and assumed a Christian foundation. I do not find it, and that may leave 
a few words such as heathen without much meaning, but they do not 
occur often. What I do find is a rather implicit belief on the part of 
the characters in a shaping force behind the affairs of Middle-earth but 
nothing so immediate as the gods of the Greeks nor the personal God 
of the Christians. It seems that Tolkien has gone back to the Nordic 
myths, to the early pre-Christian beliefs of the Teutonic peoples and 
their belief in Fate, a vaguely-comprehended notion of a power that 
not even the gods of the old polytheism could resist. All references to 
religion are so vague as to envoke those shadowy days before religion. 
One of these rare and typical references appears in a comment made 
to Frodo about Bilbo's finding of the Ring. Gandalf says. 

Behind that there was something else at work, beyond any design 
of the Ring-maker. I can put it no plainer, than by saying that 
Bilbo was meant to find the Ring, and not by its maker. In which 
case you also were meant to have it. (I, 88) 
It is a foggy kind of teleology and is perhaps best described by the word 
"Nature." 

To many readers another disturbing quality of the work is the sense 
of loss which pervades the later part of the work in particular; it is a 
sense of the dying out and fading away of the old ways and forms of 
life. It gives the epic the tone of a kind of modern Virgilian sorrow. 
Almost everything that is rational but non-human is fated to pass from 
Middle-earth with the ending of the Third Age. Already the Tree-like 
Ents are dying out because the Entwives have been lost for many years. 
With the destruction of the One Ring, the Three Elven rings lose their 
power and the Elves must pass on to the West. The Fourth Age of 
Middle-earth will be the age of Men, and from them the hobbits will 
hide and be reduced in number, so too will the dwarves. And since 
there is no Middle-earth within our history or geography, we must as- 
sume that it and its history vanished also, long ago, beyond man's mem- 
ory. This sense of loss is dramatized further in the conclusion. Bilbo 
has now grown too old, Elrond and the elves can no longer remain in 
Middle-earth, Gandalf has fought too long and hard and so too has 
Frodo. In the final chapter they meet at the Grey Havens to set sail 
for the West — a kind of Avalon — and Frodo in parting with his beloved 
Sam says, 

I have been too deeply hurt, Sam. I tried to save the Shire, and it 
has been saved, but not for me. It must often be so, Sam, when 
things are in danger: some one has to give them up, lose them, 
so that others may keep them. (Ill, 382) 

14 



And Sam is left alone with his new family to carry on the hobbit life 
and to feel the sense of loss more than any other. He is now the most 
important personage in the Shire and "the most famous gardener in 
history." 

All of this, the hobbits and the other characters, the lack of Christian 
moral, the sense of loss, is drawn together by the central controlling 
concept of the epic, that of Nature. In a way it is a surprising divinity 
to be worshiped in the twentieth century, and in a way it is quite relevant. 
It is in keeping with the natural cycle of life that the elves must leave 
Middle-earth, and the hobbits and dwarves decline in power. For all 
things in nature grow and fade in their season. It is natural, too, that 
man should come to power in the Fourth Age, for his powers are like 
those of the hobbit, but he is more aggressive; but given time he may 
acquire the virtues of the hobbits, these three qualities most praised 
and exemplified in The Lord of the Rings, love, pity, and regeneration, 
and no other terms describe so well a uniquely twentieth-century faith 
and hope. 



15 



PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION AND 

CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR STATE 

TAXES 

By RICHARD D. GUYNN* 

The limitations of various theories of taxation often reduce the task 
of tax legislation to political expediency. The struggles of groups and 
classes over the distribution of the tax burden indicate little agreement 
over the concept of "tax justice." Much taxation has been based on com- 
promises presented by interested parties. This method, common to weak 
governing bodies, rationalizes many tax laws. Thus, a state finds that 
its revenue system discriminates against segments of society incapable 
of making known their views. 

The progressive tax falls on people most capable of paying. Despite 
a basic belief in progressive taxation, the tax burden has recently shifted 
to low income groups. A notable example is the increasing dependence 
of state and local governments on sales and use taxes which are inor- 
dinately regressive for some income groups. In the early years of state 
taxation over half of the total revenue was derived from general and 
selective property taxes. However, in recent years the emphasis has 
shifted to income and consumption taxes. ^ These latter taxes fall 
heavily on the wage earner while in earlier years most of the tax burden 
was borne by property owners and businesses. 

Expediency appears to. be the most commonly used method of leg- 
islating taxes in many states. Few comprehensive studies have been 
made by states to suggest policies for legislators to follow as a guide 
for legislating taxes. A solution to expediency is a well-planned tax 
system which takes into consideration social, ethical, and economic 
factors. 

This paper examines the fundamental principles of taxation and the 
characteristics of major state taxes. This examination can (1) aid in 
determining the structure of a tax system consistant with society's goals, 
(2) suggest criteria by which the faults and attributes of major types 
of taxes can be judged, and (3) provide measures by which proposed 
tax revisions can be appraised. 

In a democratic society one commonly accepted principle of taxa- 
tion is equality, which implies equal treatment of those people equally 
circumstanced. 2 An inherent weakness in the application of this princi- 

*Assistant Professor of Economics, West Georgia College. 



1 William J. Shultz and C. Lowell Harriss, American Public Finance (Engle- 
wood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965), p. 226. 

2 James M. Buchanan. The Public Finances (Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. 
Irwin, Inc., 1960), p. 166. 

16 



pie is the nonexistence of characteristics of equahty used to determine 
an individual's tax burden. Equality is a matter of degree and some 
discrimination is possible since the socio-income groups are not clearly 

defined. 

State and local taxes in the United States are structured in an in- 
equitable manner because taxes are regressive and discriminate against 
families with low incomes. A study by the Tax Foundation found that 
the total state and local tax burden regressed from 14.4 per cent of 
personal income for families in the under $2,000 income class to 8.4 
per cent of personal income for those in the 515,000 and over income 
class. 3 The types of taxes that proved to be the most regressive were 
selective sales and excise, general sales, property, social insurance, 
and employer contributions. 

If the idea of equality or inequality is to be meaningful, the princi- 
ple of equality needs to be an integrated part of a specific tax system. 
However, there is considerable disagreement as to how equality should 
be defined. Some theorists propose that consumption should be the 
guide for the determination of equity while others maintain that income 
should be the index for equity determination.'* In spite of this con- 
troversy, the doctrine does have positive value. It concentrates our 
attention on tax-burden discriminations so we can reflect whether there 
is an equitable basis for them. In most democracies, fiscal equality is 
interpreted as taxation according to benefits-received or ability-to-pay. 

Numerous tax theorists place considerable emphasis on the benefits- 
received principle for the distribution of the tax burden. This princi- 
ple rests on the idea that those who receive benefits from governments 
should absorb the major portion of the costs for these services. Although 
directly assessing the recipient is not always possible, frequently this 
principle has been applied to justify such taxes as the gasoline tax. 
Gasoline, in terms of amounts used, is considered a measure of bene- 
fits received from highway construction and maintenance. This theory 
is valid only when the decision to collect can be tied to the decision 
to spend. Other public services, such as the satisfaction of social wants, 
do not lend themselves to marketing, and their value cannot be approx- 
imated by an objective measure. 

A number of ambiguities surround the benefits-received principle. 
It implies that total benefits are equated to the total amount of taxes 
paid. Economists maintain that each taxpayer receives a surplus, be- 
cause most people receive more in the form of benefits than they would 
be able to pay for if everyone had the responsibility of providing these 
services on an individual basis. ^ A second ambiguity is the interpre- 



^ Tax Foundation, Inc., Tax Burden and Benefits of Government Expenditures 
by Income Class, 1961 and 1965 (New York: Tax Foundation, Inc., 1967), p. 18. 
* Richard A. Musgrave, The Theory of Public Finance. (New York: McGraw- 
Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959), p. 161. 
^ Buchanan, The Public Finances, p. 170. 

17 



tation of marginal benefit rather than total benefit as a basis for tax 
collection. According to this definition, taxpayers receiving public 
services would pay taxes for value received based upon the cost of 
providing the service at that time. The benefit received would be valued 
in the same manner as a commoditv sold in a competitive market, thus 
changing the concept of taxation from one of total benefits received 
to payment according to the incremental benefit received.^ Although 
marginal benefit provides a more equitable measure, it is as difficult 
to determine as total benefits received. In addition, there is no measure 
for personal sacrifice involved in the corresponding tax payment. 
Still, the principle does have value in forcing the student, voter, and 
public official to compare alternatives and to look at marginal govern- 
ment spending rather than the total or the average. 

The ability-to-pay principle implies that individuals with unequal 
ability be taxed in an unequal manner.^ The major problem associated 
with this idea is the determination of the ability to pay for unequal 
groups. Someone other than the individual being taxed must be given 
the authority to decide the ability of an individual to forego income 
to the public sector. Income, consumption, and property ownership 
have been the traditional guides for establishing a person's ability to 
pay taxes. For many advocates of this principle, the personal income 
tax is considered the most equitable tax as it assumes that individuals 
with greater incomes, wealth, or claims to wealth have greater ability 
to sacrifice tax payment.^ 

With regard to the ability-to-pay approach, the contribution to public 
services is treated as an independent problem which differs from the 
benefits-received idea. The former is seen as compulsory payments and 
the revenue-expenditure process is viewed as a planning problem not 
subject to solution by the operation of the market mechanism. 

Other theories related to the ability-to-pay principle have been 
developed to justify progressive forms of taxation. One is the principle 
of minimum-aggregate-sacrifice theory which is based on the theory 
of diminishing marginal utility. It is assumed that individual satisfaction 
(utility) cannot be measured, but is comparable between individuals. 
This implies that the absolute sacrifice of paying taxes can also be 
compared.^ Based on these assumptions it is possible to devise a tax 
structure where the degree of sacrifice will be uniform for all taxpayers 
regardless of income level. Although total utility and interpersonal 
utility cannot be measured cardinally, many people are willing to accept 
the theory that marginal utility of income does decline for most individ- 
uals receiving a substantial increase in income. 

When levying a tax, the taxing authority generally desires that it 



6 Ibid., p. 171. 
■^ Ibid., p. 168 



' wia.. p. ibs. 
^ Musgrave, The Theory of Public Finance, p. 94. 
^ Buchanan, The Public Finances, p. 169. 

18 



be productive in securing the desired amount of revenue regardless 
of economic conditions, which can vary widely within a short period 
of time. State expenditures must be met during periods of high and low 
economic activity. The productiveness of any tax depends on factors 
such as rates, exemptions, deductions, the number of taxpayers, and 
economic developments. 

Closely associated with the principle of productivity is elasticity. 
Rate variation can make the yield of most nonregulatory taxes elastic. 
A tax is elastic when an increase in rates results in a higher yield and 
a reduction in rates results in a lower yield. However, in neither case 
is the effect on revenue proportional. As any tax rate is raised beyond 
a point of optimum productivity, elasticity diminishes and results in 
a reduced tax yield. i° There is little evidence to indicate the optimum 
rate of taxation. Therefore, a revenue system must be structured in a 
manner that will not cause financial hardship as economic conditions 
change. An elastic tax should be capable of expanding rapidly to pro- 
duce larger revenues and contracted rapidly to reduce receipts. States 
which employ the sales and income taxes are fairly well equipped to 
respond to changes in economic conditions. 

A final factor which must be considered is the administration of 
tax collecting. It is important to minimize the cost of collection. Effec- 
tive administration is also essential for the maintenance of tax equity. 
Regardless of how equitable a tax appears in theory, equity is not main- 
tained if large numbers of people are able to avoid the tax. 

The effectiveness of administering a tax is enhanced if the base is 
clearly defined by the collecting agency and understood by the tax- 
payer. Administration of a tax can be simplified if ambiguities are a- 
voided through proper definitions of the tax base and if exemptions 
which are closely related and difficult to interpret are avoided. Gen- 
erally, those taxes having the largest bases and consisting of large num- 
ber of transactions offer the greatest difficulty in administration. These 
problems are encountered with the property and income taxes. How- 
ever, effective methods of dealing with these taxes can be developed 
by agencies that are flexible enough to adopt procedures designed to 
eliminate or reduce problem areas. 

Effective tax collection requires officials who are experienced, 
efficient, and qualified to administer taxes. The purpose of minimizing 
costs is not to minimize the staff, but to extend the staff to the point 
where any additional costs in administration are equated to the incre- 
mental increase received from the added effort. ^^ 

Consumption taxes are defined as any tax which rests on the con- 
sumer. They may be levied directly on the consumer or may be shifted 



^° Shultz and Harriss, American Public Finance, p. 187. 

^^ John F. Due, Government Finance and Economic Analysis, 3rd ed. (Home- 
wood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin.. 1963), p. 120. 

19 



to the consumer in the form of higher prices. They are classified as 
general or selective sales taxes. 

The general sales tax is described as an addition to the price which 
is paid by a person buying at retail. It is usually a tax levied on the seller 
for the privilege of doing business in the state, although the intent is 
for the incidence to be passed on to the buyer. Initially, the fundamental 
objective of the movement for a general sales tax was to lessen the tax 
burden of the wealthy. The sales tax has continued to be an easy way of 
shifting a significant portion of the tax burden to millions of 
consumers. ^^ 

An ideal sales tax structure should fall uniformly on consumption 
expenditures; it should consist of a uniform percentage of the final price 
to the purchaser. The tax should be neutral in its effects on production 
and distribution to prevent producers from being penalized in their 
competition with other manufacturers in different areas. 

Several arguments have been offered to justify the extensive use of 
the sales tax. They are: (1) In recent years, administration of the sales 
tax has improved, making it one of the easiest to administer and the most 
economical to collect. (2) The sales tax aids in the distribution of the 
tax burden, as it forces each individual to bear part of the cost of govern- 
ment. (3) Other types of taxes often discourage business activity because 
they discourage investment and encourage investors to employ their 
financial resources in tax-exempt securities. (4) Sales taxes are an effi- 
cient means of taxing individuals who are in a position to avoid the in- 
come tax. (5) It is a broad-based tax. (6) The sales tax is an excellent 
tax for use if the income tax has an adverse effect on the economy. 

The primary objection to taxes on sales is their regressive nature in 
terms of income groups. Since low income groups tend to spend a larger 
percentage of their incomes for consumption, a higher portion of that 
income may be claimed by taxes than is the case with wealthier families. 

The selected excises include taxes on alcoholic beverages and 
tobacco products and road-user excises. While these taxes have the same 
general advantages and disadvantages as the general sales tax, they tend 
to be more popular with the taxpayer because of their general nature. 
Alcohol and tobacco are considered harmful nonessentials whose use 
should be curtailed by taxation. Road-user excises, including gasoline 
taxes and vehicle registration fees, are justified on the basis that those 
individuals who utilized vehicles and roads should pay for the costs 
incurred in the construction and maintenance of highways. Rate in- 
creases in selected excises encounter less political resistance, making 
them lucrative sources of revenue for many states. 

Many states have long established income tax laws and rely on this 
tax as a lucrative source of revenue. These states generally follow the 



12 Alfred G. Buehler, Public Finance, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, Inc., 1948), p. 14. 

20 



guideline of the federal government with respect to the concept and 
definition of incomes. Many of the differences in income tax collections 
between the two levels of government arise from limitations in the state's 
authoritv to tax incomes and the state's lagging behind the federal 
government in changes in the definitions of terms. 

In accordance with the ability-to-pay principle, the individual in- 
come tax is considered the fairest tax because it is a tax on produced 
wealth. It is a broad-based tax with good revenue potential. Income 
taxes have an advantage over consumption taxes as they have no impact 
on the costs of production and do not constitute a part of business costs. 
Consumption patterns can be altered with the income tax conjunction 
with social objectives. Rates can be made progressive to redistribute 
income away from the rich in favor of the poor, and. alternatively, rates 
can also be manipulated to redistribute income in the reverse manner. 
Low income groups tend to spend larger proportions of their incomes 
on consumption than do the higher income groups. Studies have indi- 
cated that higher incomes lead to a lower propensity to consume. Redis- 
tributing income to the lower income groups results in these groups 
having more to spend and this increases aggregate consumption. 

One of the inherent weaknesses of the income tax arises out of the 
very nature of the tax. Individuals who hold titles to wealth are often 
people of great influence and are in a position to use their wealth and 
influence politically to escape their share of the tax load. By bringing 
pressure on state officials, they are frequently able to force legislators 
to rely on other types of taxes that are more regressive. Substitute taxes 
frequently take the form of consumption takes, thus placing a larger 
burden on the poor. A second undesirable feature of the income tax is 
that revenue varies with economic fluctuations. States imposing the 
tax must be cautious in forecasting changes in the level of economic 
activity: otherwise, a failure to adjust expenditures to receipts can lead 
to financial embarrassment. States which have relied on the income tax 
for a number of years have refined their -^vstems of collection to the 
extent that most of them have achieved substantial efficiency 
of administration. 

A final point to be considered is that relationships between leisure 
time and time worked may be altered by the income tax. Economic 
theory assumes that individuals subconsciously think in terms of mar- 
ginal utility in making expenditure decisions. Income earned for labor 
expended constitutes pleasure while the energy expended and all the 
discomforts of work constitute pain. Workers attempt to equate the 
marginal pain and pleasure of work. Consequently, if an individual's 
income from work is overcome by higher taxes, he may demand more 
leisure time which leads to a reduction of constructive work time. Some 
economists contradict this idea with the argument that higher taxes 
serve as an incentive for people to work harder to offset the losses to 
taxes. 

Smaller units of government have traditionally relied on the prop- 
erty tax to a greater extent than any other level of government. How- 

21 



ever, the authority of local governments to levy property taxes is often 
limited by the state constitution or state legislation. The property tax 
or ad valorem tax is usually a tax on tangible personal property. Some 
states, however, have a tax on intangible personal property. The property 
tax is a broad-based tax. If properly administered, it can be a lucrative 
source of revenue. Local governments can rely on the property tax re- 
gardless of economic conditions; thus, revenues provided in predict- 
able amounts can give the governments stability and simplify their 
budgetary process. 

One of the major inadequacies of the property tax is the assessment 
process. There is a need in most areas to revamp the entire procedure 
of assessing property. In many areas the same assessment method has 
been used for decades and due to the standardization of customs, admin- 
istrative procedures, and socio-political structures, local officials are 
reluctant to modify present forms of assessment. The local assessor is 
typically an elected official, who is not a full-time employee, is poorly 
paid, and often poorly trained. Because the office requires public elec- 
tion and is short term, the job is often politically oriented and subject 
to unnecessary pressure. 

A second disadvantage of the property tax is its regressive nature. 
In the event that two individuals with differing incomes own property 
of identical value, the land owner with the lower income will pay out 
a higher percent of his income in property taxes. Also, assessors tend 
to assess property of low market value near its true value and property 
of high market value is usually assessed at an amount lower than its 
true value. 13 Therefore, the individual with low market valued property 
pays more than his share of the tax burden. 

One of the greatest drawbacks of the property tax is the willingness 
of the state and local governments to grant excessive exemptions. These 
commonly include all public property (federal, state, and local), prop- 
erty belonging to philanthropic organizations and nonprofit institutions, 
and new industrial property. Some states also allow a homestead exemp- 
tion. It has been estimated that one-eighth of all property in the United 
States is exempt from a property tax.^^ This is a serious erosion of the 
tax base. Many local governments are forced to borrow money or raise 
other taxes to compensate for revenue lost by exemptions. 

When levying a new tax or revising an existing tax, legislators have 
the responsibility to keep several factors in mind. The fairness and 
equity of the tax to the taxpayer, the productiveness of each tax, and 
the cost and ease of administration must be assigned high priority. Since 
all taxes currently utilized by state governments have both inherent 
advantages and disadvantages, tax revision must also be based on num- 



13 Committee on Public Finance, Public Finance (New York: Pitman Publish- 
ing Corporation, 1959), p. 425. 

14 Ibid. 

22 



erous other variables. These include the nature of the present revenue 
system, the relationship of the revenue system to those of other states 
in the same geographical region of the nation, and the state's spending 
needs. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of tax provide 
important criteria for selecting taxes for modification when considered 
in relation to the productiveness of a selected tax. 



23 



DREAMS, VISIONS, AND MYTHS IN 
JOHN HERSEY'S WHITE LOTUS 

By MICHAEL HALTRESHT* 

The survival of a persecuted minority may well depend on psycho- 
logical rather than physical resistance to the will of its oppressors. This 
is the theme that permeates John Hersey's The Wall (1950). Central 
European Jewry was destroyed partly because its sense of identity and 
worth had been undermined by centuries of living amidst a hostile en- 
vironment. Beneath their haughty ethnocentrism and exaggerated ambi- 
tiousness, the ghetto dwellers (Hersey suggests) had come unconsciously 
to despise and hate themselves. Their collective ego weakened, the 
victims offered little resistance to the Nazis. Indeed, having become 
anti-Semites themselves, the victims often unconsciously collaborated 
with their exterminators. 

In White Lotus (New York: Knopf, 1965), inspired by the civil rights 
movement in the United States, Hersey returns to the question of ethnic 
identity and morale. His subject is again an oppressed and endangered 
group— this time, an imaginary white minority in China. Again survival 
depends on ego strength, or the ability of the group to maintain its self- 
esteem and sense of purpose. White Lotus differs in emphasis, however, 
from The Wall. In the earlier work, Hersey's intent is to compel us vi- 
cariously to experience the sufferings of the social victims in our own 
flesh and blood. His medium is, appropriately, the diary form. In White 
Lotus, on the other hand, the novelist's appeal is to the intellect. His 
question is not. What does it feel like to be arbitrarily persecuted? It is, 
rather: Why do members of persecuted groups react the way they do? 
Or: Why does a particular individual (or group) give up the struggle and 
break down, while another persists? These questions Hersey answers 
in White Lotus at the level of the unconscious, and his work represents 
one of the very few attempts in American fiction to apply psychoanalytic 
insights to the psychology of minority groups. In this paper I should like 
to explore the deeper meanings of some of the dreams, visions, myths, 
fantasies, and superstitions with which the novel abounds. 

Consider the dream that White Lotus, a slave, has on the eve of a 
contemplated rebellion (pp. 284-85). In her dream, the young woman 
raises her arm to stab her hated mistress. The latter does not offer any 
physical resistance. Instead, she just looks sternly at her slave — and 
White Lotus finds herself paralyzed. Her knife falls to the ground, and 
she is mysteriously compelled, in the dream, to prostrate herself at 
her mistress's feet and beg "for forgiveness, forgiveness." The ego and 
counter-ego, the determination to be free and the extraneous notion 
that it is wrong to defy one's master, are in equilibrium. Over and over 
the nightmare repeats itself until the slaves self-loathing is so profound 
that she has to "sit up in bed to stop her nausea and dizziness " The 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College 

24 



slave rebellion, it may be added, is easily crushed by the masters. 

This cycle of guilt, self-loathing, and paralysis is illustrated also by 
the nightmare that another slave named Grin has on the eve of his con- 
templated escape to freedom (pp. 408-409). At one level, the dream is 
a preview of the flight. The slave sees himself, in his dream, running 
out from his "work space" (the plantation) to "the gate" (free territory). 
A roaring army of hounds soon sets upon him. Grin tries to hide "under 
a pile of stalks" but the huge dogs close in on him from all sides. 

The dream clearly bespeaks the slave's low morale. During the day, 
the man busily prepares for his break, but at night his unconscious 
expectation of failure expresses itself. In his dream, the slave indeed 
hears the pursuing hounds even before he starts his run. The nightmare 
can be read, however, also at a second, deeper level (the so-called sub- 
jective, or functional, level). In this perspective, the "I" and the hounds 
stand not for Grin himself and for his masters but rather for forces 
inside the man's mind. The "I" symbolizes Grin's desire for freedom and 
individuality; the hounds represent the value system of his masters. 
At this level, the dream tells of the absorption of the slave's identity 
into that of the larger society. Initially the "I" is man-sized, but it be- 
comes progressively "smaller and smaller" until it is tiny enough to hide 
under a pile of stalks. Simultaneously, the hounds are progressively 
magnified. They are frightfully large to begin with, and they soon ex- 
pand into an "army" and a "river" of bristling fur. At the climax of the 
nightmare, these creatures are about to suck in the "I" by their "gigan- 
tic" sniffing: what this means is that Grin's authentic self is about to be 
overwhelmed by the foreign ego he has taken over from his oppressors. 
The latter value system makes it wrong for the slave to assert his will 
against the masters, and this is why Grin does not wholeheartedly carry 
out the preparations for his flight. The escape to freedom indeed is 
never carried out because the slave uses his nightmare as a pretext 
for giving up his scheme. "I can't go," he whines. "I want to go but 
I . . . " Grin's friend Dolphin sets out, alone, for free territory, but he 
is careless and the slave hunters' hounds soon overtake and kill him. 
Dolphin, too, even while going through the motions of escape, no longer 
truly desires it. What he wants is simply to die. 

On the one hand then, is the natural desire to assert one's individual- 
ity; on the other is the internalized will of the dominant majority. The 
result is a compromise: a guilt-ridden submissiveness that is, in effect, 
fatal. We find this pattern also in a certain nightmare that plagues White 
Lotus. In her dream, the girl sees a column, "wide as I was tall," of black 
ants advancing to engulf her, "as irresistible as the sun's climb" (p. 139). 
She tries to run away, but her feet are rooted to the ground. At the same 
time, she feels no fear: she has lost her sense of identity — her will has 
become absorbed into that of the masters (whom the ants symbolize). 
The ugly, waspish, engulfing hornworms (p. 276), the "hairy spiders 
and rustling scorpions" (p. 47), the terrible giant "with the horned head- 
piece" (p. 55), and the fire of which Gull (p. 133) dreams nightly, all 

25 



represent the oppressors. So also do the spirits, witches, dragons, and 
vampires around which the slaves' superstitions evolve. 

The same unconscious materials that show the erosion of the slaves' 
collective ego also reveal its continuing resistance to disintegration 
and even its drive toward health and growth. In their unconscious minds, 
for one thing, many of the slaves have preserved a strong sense of pur- 
pose. Individually and collectively, they feel that they must accomplish 
some important mission. The ghetto dwellers in The Wall can conceive 
of nothing worth living for. "The new year will be the end. I feel it," 
one of them says. The image that Rachel, supposedly a Zionist, has of 
Palestine is one of folly, barrenness, and futility. Lacking (in Hersey's 
conception) any whole-hearted commitment to the future, the people 
of the ghetto give it up without very much struggle. The slaves in White 
Lotus, on the other hand, survive as a group because their dreams and 
fantasies, their prayers, religious practices and mystic visions, their 
songs, riddles, and even superstitions (pp. 374, 375), keep their minds 
focussed on worthwhile goals. They cannot afford to die. 

One of the slaves, for instance, expresses his ceaseless longings for 
freedom by nightly playing his "away songs" (p. 375) about the finch 
(the slave) sighing in the pine tree, about the difficult path to the moun- 
tain (freedom), or about how, "discarding his ankle bands" (his slavery), 
he "wears shoes with magpie wings (escapes). Or he sings of "the sunset 
streaks beyond the heights," which he will reach even if he has to walk 
"ten thousand lis" to get there (p. 416). Another slave sings of "the 
fields of glory" and "the jasper sea" (p. 224), while a third, named 
Peace, elaborates a tall tale (p. 125) that does become meaningful as 
a wish-fulfilling fantasy when we realize that the huge Mexican jaguar 
must mean the masters" army, that the fleeing pocket gophers stand for 
individual Chinese troops in flight, and that the white hunters that re- 
duce the jaguar to a "thin, mangy goat" must be rebellious slaves. 
Indeed all of the bizarre visions of Peace, that rabidly nationalistic 
priest-slave, make sense in terms of his desire to see the downtrodden 
prevail over their masters and establish an autonomous, free society of 
their own. Peace happens to be a madman, but fellow slaves are im- 
pelled to join him when he acts out his fantasies of freedom and power. 
The man's private hallucinations are soon incorporated into the com- 
munitv ritual. 

There is more to the slaves' mythology than the longing for brute 
power, however. What the oppressed people crave at least as intensely 
is, perhaps surprisingly, a sense of psychological and spiritual liberation. 
The slaves' ceremonies and folklore contain many symbols of revenge 
and destruction but imagery of height (birds, kites, the mountain, 
ladders, the stars, and the like) outnumber all other images, while arch- 
etypes of purification, light, and fertility (fire, stars, femininity, spring) 
are next in frequency. These anagogic strivings may be unconscious. But 
they are quite real. 

Consider, for instance, the seemingly meaningless nursery song 
about the bride and the groom (pp. 526-27). At the so-called objective 

26 



level, the song tells of the marriage, under a lowering sky, of two slaves, 
and what the jingle emphasizes is the futile cycle of sexuality, birth, 
life, and death among the downtrodden. The nubile "pomegranate girl" 
and "the vegetable snake" "enter the bedroom" (sexual union). A 
"blossom" is deposited "in the stream" (pregnancy), is born, and then 
"falls in the stream" (death). The slave's existence has no meaning be- 
yond this mechanical cycle. At the subjective or functional level, how- 
ever, the song carries a deeply affirmative meaning. At this second level, 
the union of the bride and the groom symbolizes the longed-for re- 
integration of the male and female aspects of the slaves" collective 
personality. It is a union of the potentials of the oppressed minority 
for strength and for artistic and spiritual creativity. The two "gaudy" 
gifts that the groom receives— the "fine horse" and the fur hat— sym- 
bolize, respectively, a new body and a new spirit, as often they do in 
C.G. Jung's dream theory. The wedding presents associated with the 
bride (oil and laurel) are strongly "fragrant," and they are offered in a 
bowl and a jug. These are the blessings of the feminine part of the per- 
sonality (what Jung called the anima). They are the gifts of holiness 
(the oil), life (the evergreen laurel), and perfection (the mandala im- 
agery). The sexual female symbolism of the bride's "gifts" of fragrant, 
oil-filled "containers" is certainly there, but we should not ignore the 
spiritual signification. 

Liberation for the slaves (the song says in effect) lies in neither sub- 
mission nor violent revenge but rather in the fullest development of 
their spiritual and psychological resources. The same meaning is con- 
veyed by White Lotus's vision on p. 144. The cooperative, ceremonial 
construction of the house is symbolic of the slaves' desire to have their 
own home — to have autonomv and independent institutions. The 
branch that Gabe attaches to the new, living house is a symbol, like 
the Biblical olive branch, of hope, and its "leafiness" suggests also 
ideas of spiritual fertility. This archetypal meaning of the vision ex- 
plains the cheering of the crowd and the song, "We are watching, we 
are waiting. For the bright prophetic day." 

In Hersey's view, then, a threatened group is challenged, first, to 
preserve its identity from being overwhelmed by the ego of the larger 
society. Secondly, it must develop positive goals and deeply commit 
itself to the realization of these objectives. When this dual challenge 
has been met, the minority group is no longer on the defensive. It is, 
indeed, to make its own contributions to the larger society. Here again a 
contrast suggests itself between The VKa//and White Lotus. In the former 
novel, the characters are progressively driven backwards on themselves. 
The Germans begin by surrounding the ghetto with a wall, then add 
a new wall within the old one, then further decrease the ghetto area 
by a series of barbed-wire fences. Eventually, they drive the inhabi- 
tants of the ghetto into cellars and sewers. The victims, in Hersey's 
novel, accept their confinement and isolation, and even feel most se- 
cure within the ghetto. White Lotus, too, contains many actual and 
symbolical walls, but the oppressed people here have the strength never 

27 



quite to accept their imprisonment. They persist in their efforts to 
break the walls down and, inevitably, they are victorious. At the end 
of the novel, a sit-in by former slaves is successful, and the title character 
has a moment of mystic illumination (p. 670). The white lotuses and "the 
perfect crystalline pool" she envisions symbolize her newly liberated 
self. It is a prize that she has very richly earned. 



28 



THE FOREIGN POLICY STATESMANSHIP 
OF SENATOR WALTER F. GEORGE: 1955-1956 

By VALG. MIXON* 

In 1922 forty-four year old Walter Franklin George became a mem- 
ber of the United States Senate to fill the unexpired term of Senator 
Tom Watson. The junior Senator from Georgia joined a national gov- 
ernment headed by the Harding Administration and a Senate dominated 
by the giant figures of William Borah, Henry Cabot Lodge, Robert 
Norris, and Robert LaFoUette. Thus began a career which was to span 
thirty-four years, a period in which America would experience great 
economic and social upheavals, conventional wars of limited scope and 
the threat of a nuclear war with total annihilation — events which would 
force the country from its contented isolationalism into an unwanted 
and unsure leadership of the western world. 

George entered the Senate as a representative of the mood of the 
people of Georgia of the 1920*s; he opposed America's entry into the 
League of Nations, all foreign aid, and was an unvarying conservative 
on domestic economic matters.^ The revolutionary events of the 1930"s 
and 1940's altered most of these views. And when George left the 
Senate in 1956 he was recognized as one of that body's most influential 
members. Even The Nation praised him as "the indispensable man" 
in Washington on international affairs. ^ 

Senator George rose to this pinnacle of influence almost as if by 
osmosis. Gradually, he became recognized and accepted by his col- 
leagues as a member of that inner group who exemplify the qualities 
expected of Senators. 

This approval by his colleagues accounts for a degree of his power 
but, of course, even more significant than this intangible source are 
the positions he controlled in the Senate. At different periods in his 
career, George served on twelve committees and headed five of them.^ 
Two of the most powerful chairmanships he held were in the Finance 
and Foreign Relations committees. Most of his career he concentrated 
on financial legislation. But in January of 1955, as the Democrats re- 
gained control of Congress, George moved, at the urgent request of 
the President and Secretary of State Dulles, from head of Finance 
to Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee.'* 
*Assistant Professor of Political Science, West Georgia College 



1 Atlanta Constitution, May 10, 1956, p. 1; Time. April 25, 1955, p. 23. 

2 "Washington's Indispensable Man," The Nation. August 6, 1955, p. 105. 

3 Time, April 25, 1955, p. 23. 

^ Editorial, Atlanta Constitution, May 11, 1956, p. 4. 

29 



The Eisenhower administration was in almost desperate need of 
congressional support for its foreign policy in the beginning of 1955. 
The Republican Party had controlled the eighty-third Congress of 1953-54, 
but the Knowland, Bricker, Bridges and McCarthy wing of the party 
had not cooperated with Dulles.^ Rather they had effectively tied ad- 
ministration policy to inflexible and unimaginative slogans such as, 
"No surrender," "Negotiations equal appeasement," "Unleash Chiang 
Kai-Shek and free the mainland." Responsible leadership in the Senate 
was needed to free the executive to explore various avenues in search 
of solutions to developing problem areas, 

George's first major test came only two weeks after he moved up 
to head the Foreign Relations Committee. American policy in the 
Far East, which was rigidly tied to Chiang Kai-Shek, and his hopes of 
eventual "return to the mainland," clashed with what appeared to be 
Chinese Communist movements to carry out their long promised "War 
of liberation" against Formosa. On January 18, 1955, after several days 
of intensive artillery attacks against the off-shore islands in the Tachen 
Island group, Communist forces landed on Yikiang and easily destroyed 
the small group of Nationalist defenders.^ 

Secretary of State Dulles immediately pointed out that Yikiang 
was "without any particular importance" to the military security of the 
United States or any of its allies.'^ This mild public reaction by the 
administration did not at all indicate the seriousness with which the 
stepped up Communist military activity in the Formosa Strait was 
viewed. The private expressions of concern and the hurried conferences 
at the highest governmental level which marked the next few days were 
more indicative of the government's reaction. Eisenhower and his ad- 
visors faced the central questions of how far the Communists intended 
to carry their campaign; that is, would they be content with grabbing 
a few of the tiny off-shore islands or did they plan to overrun Formosa 
itself, and what action by the United States would be necessary to 
stabilize the area.^ 

The dominant opinion within the government held that the Com- 



^ President Eisenhower referred to these senators when he wrote of the 1954 
Congress, "the present situation is, 1 think, without recent precedent in that 
the particular legislators who are most often opposing administration views 
are of the majority party." See Dwight D. Eisehhower, The White House Years: 
Mandate for Change, 1953-1956 {Nevj York, 1963), p. 193. 
^ Douglas B. Cornell, "Ike Asks U.N. to Seek Cease-Fire, Discounts Tachens" 
Importance," /l/Zanto Constitution, January 20, 1955, p. 1. 
■^ New York Times. January 19, 1955, p. 1. 

8 Louis L. Gerson, John Foster Dulles (Vol. XVII, in Samuel F. Bemis, ed.. 
The American Secretaries of State, 18 Vols., New York, 1958-1970), pp. 198- 
206. Eisenhower wrote of these days, "Lately there has been a very definite 
feeling among the members of the Cabinet, often openly expressed, that within 
a month we will actually be fighdng in the Formosa Straits." See Eisenhower, 
The White House Years, p. 478. 

30 



munists would not be thwarted from their often-stated goal of '"liber- 
ating" Formosa unless the government acted quickly and unequivocally 
to demonstrate that America stood firmly behind Chiang's Formosa 
and would defend it with whatever military force was required.^ The 
President, as commander-in-chief, could have simply announced that 
United States military forces would be deployed against any aggressor 
of Formosa. For reasons both political and strategic, Dulles chose 
to present the problem to Congress and to request a joint resolution 
authorizing Eisenhower to use the armed forces to protect Formosa 
and the Pescadores.^'' 

After the initial decision toward a definite course of action was 
made, events moved rapidly. On the second day following the Yikiang 
attack, January 20, Dulles held a private meeting with George and other 
congressional leaders to explain the administration's plans. ^^ When 
the Secretary brought up the congressional resolution proposal, some 
Democratic leaders expressed the view that the President already 
possessed the power to command the military forces to defend areas 
considered vital to the United States. Dulles did not push for com- 
mitments on the proposed but said that the Communists must be con- 
vinced of American solidarity on the issue. ^^ 

George made no public comment on the position he would take 
on the administration request. On Saturday, January 22, Dulles' Assis- 
tant Secretary for congressional relations, Thruston Morton, and 
Francis Q. Wilcox, Chief Clerk of the Senate Foreign Relations Commit- 
tee, visited George at his apartment to go over a copy of the resolution. 
The following day George met with Dulles for breakfast and then called 
a meeting of his Democratic colleagues on the Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee. In the meeting some of the Democrats voiced a generally felt 
skepticism of the Republican administration's motives in asking a 
Democratic controlled Congress for powers which many believed the 
President already had as commander-in-chief. George attempted to 
placate these doubts by voicing his confidence in Dulles' objectives; and 
although a few of the members were convinced that Dulles simplv want- 
ed to shift to Congress some of the responsibility which they felt belong- 
ed to the President alone, the majority of the group reached the con- 
clusion that they would have to go along with Eisenhower's public re- 
quest for support. 12 



9 Eisenhower, The White House Years, pp. 463-68. 

10 Ibid. p. 468. 

11 U.S., Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 2, p. 2408; 
William S. White, "President Plans Formosa Defense if Reds Advance," New 
York Times, January 21, 1955, pp. 1, 3. 

12 Atlanta Constitution. April 7, 1955, p. 4. 

13 The Nation. August 6, 1955, p. 106; Elie Abel, "President to Set U.S. Defense 
Area in Formosa Policy," A^ew York Times, January 23, 1955, pp. 1, 3. 

31 



On January 24, what came to be known as the Formosa Resolution 
was introduced simultaneously in both houses of Congress.^'* George 
introduced the measure in the Senate and thus announced his inten- 
tion to act as guide and protector of the resolution. Committee con- 
sideration of the resolution was immediately arranged as a joint session 
of the Senate Armed Services and Foreign Relations Committees, 
with George presiding, was called to hear Dulles and the Joint Chiefs 
of Staff explain the rapidly deteriorating Far Eastern situation. George 
limited the committee hearings to administration spokesmen and ad- 
amantly refused to consider amendments or substitutes to the measure. ^^ 

When the joint committee sent the resolution to the Senate floor 
by a vote of seventeen to two, opposition, which had previously been 
expressed only privately, broke into the open. Testimony by the mili- 
tary experts had left doubts in the minds of some Senators as to where 
the ultimate decision to "pull the trigger" would be made. Senator 
Wayne Morse of Oregon launched a vehement attack against the re- 
solution and accused Dulles of developing a "preventative war" policy 
in Asia.^^ Senator Mike Mansfield of Montana, in a more measured 
tone, brought out reservations held by many leading Democrats about 
the lack of clarity of the resolution on the scope of power being granted. 
Too, Mansfield again pointed out that many Senators felt that Eisen- 
hower was trying to shift responsibility onto Congress for a decision 
which as commander-in-chief he alone should make.^'^ 

As the rumblings of potential opposition grew louder, George ad- 
vised Dulles that the principal misgivings in the Senate appeared to 
center on concern over the possibility of the United States being drag- 
ged into a Chinese war by actions initiated by Chiang's forces. ^^ He 



14 U.S., Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, pp. 605, 

625. The resolution authorized the President "to employ the armed forces of 

the United States as he deems necessary for the specific purpose of securing 

and protecting Formosa and the Pescadores against armed attack, this authority 

to include the securing and protecting of such related positions and territories 

of that area now in friendly hands and the taking of such other measures as he 

judges to be required or appropriate in assuring the defense of Formosa and the 

Pescadores." See Eisenhower, The White House Years, p. 608. 

1^ Douglas Cater, "Foreign Policy; Default of the Democrats," The Reporter. 

March 10, 1955, p. 22. President Eisenhower later praised George's efforts a- 

gainst "crippling" amendments to the Formosa resolution. Eisenhower, The 

White House Years, p. 469. 

16 U.S.. Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, p. 736; 

William S. White, "Two Senate Committees Back Formosa Policy; Bitter Floor 

Debate Begun," New York Times, January 27, 1955, pp. 1, 2. 

1'^ U.S. Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, p. 621; 

William S. White, "Quick Approval Seen of The Request for Power to Use 

Force on Formosa and Pescadores Islands," Atlanta Constitution, January 25, 

1955, p. 1. 

18 Atlanta Constitution. January 27, 1955, p. 1. 

32 



recommended that the president issue a statement definitely clarifying 
where the uUimate decision as to the use of mihtarv force would be 
made. Eisenhower responded on January 27, when he assured the 
country that he alone would decide when and where to order American 
forces into action, i^ 

Immediately after the Presidenfs statement was made public. 
George took the Senate floor to deliver what David Lawrence of the 
New York Herald Tribune called an address of statesmanship seldom 
equaled m the history of the United States. 20 George quickly dis- 
pensed with the "who will pull the trigger" argument by^inting to the 
assurances given by Eisenhower. Then he turned on those who would 
either kill or amend the resolution with the demand that "every mem- 
ber answer on his conscience the question of what is his alternative."^! 
The debate about constitutional powers, said George, was nothing 
but "legislative quibbling," and "certainly he [the President] has both 
asked for authority from Congress and has invoked the powers of the 
executive branch of the government and in these two departments 
all these powers must reside."22 After warning against the adverse effect 
amendments to the administration measure would have on nations a- 
broad, George boldly and unequivocally removed the issue from par- 
tisan politics. "I hope no Democrat," he said, "will be heard to say that 
because the President of the United States came to Congress he is there- 
by subject to criticism. "23 

Several attempts were made to amend the measure but were de- 
feated by one-sided votes, and on the final vote only Senators Estes 
Kefauver, Herbert Lehman, and William Langer elected to go on record 
opposing the Presidential request. 24 Commentators unanimously agreed 
that the administration had George to thank for holding an almost 
unanimous Senate in support of its Far Eastern Policy. 25 



19 W.H. Lawrence. "President Says He Alone Will Make Decision on Formosa 
Strait Action," TVevv York Times. January 28, 1955, pp. L 2. 

20 U.S., Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101. Part 1. p. 922. 

21 Ibid., p. 819. 

22 Ibid., p. 820. 

23 Ibid., p. 821. The Nation commented, "George crushed, with the power of 
his oratory, the threatened Democradc revolt against the President's Formosa 
resolution." The Nation, August 6, 1955, p. 106. 

24 U.S. Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, pp. 921- 
Senator George conceded in his major speech on the resolution that what 
the Senate was about to authorize the President to do might lead to "an evil 
to our country and a horrible experience." "But," he continued, "it is one of 
those things as to which, when we assume high public office, we simply assume 
the responsibility of passing upon." U.S., Congressional Record. 84th Cone 
1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, p. 821. 

^ Arthur Krock, "The 'Old Man" Lays It on the Line," New York Times. Jan- 
uary 28, 1955, p. 18. 



33 



To further clarify and legalize United States' relation with Chiang 
Kai-Shek, the Senate ratified, shortly after passing the Formosa Re- 
solution, a mutual defense treaty with Nationalist China. ^^ The ad- 
ministration had negotiated and signed the treaty during the last months 
of 1954, and had taken the precaution to inform George of the de- 
tails of the pact shortly after both Eisenhower and Chiang had agreed 
to them. Assistant Secretary of State Walter S. Robertson was dispatch- 
ed by Dulles to George's home in Vienna, Georgia, to go over the agree- 
ment with the Senator and if possible to win his support. ^'^ 

George apparently accepted the substance of the pact and agreed 
to guide it through the Senate. George's party was not all united behind 
him in support of the treaty. One source of opposition was the Demo- 
cratic National Committee, which had circulated a memorandum ques- 
tioning the wisdom of signing a mutual defense treaty with Nationalist 
China and stating, "It would therefore seem to be in the interest of 
the United States to separate Formosa and China, ^s Congressional 
Democrats refused to go along with this reasoning. Too, they were 
jealous of their prerogatives and felt that they and not the national 
committee should define Democratic policy on foreign affairs. 

Democratic Senators had other specific objections to the pact, 
but George was successful in keeping their criticisms out of the rati- 
fication resolution. Instead, the Senators simply accepted Dulles' as- 
surances on the matters which concerned them: (1) the treaty did not 
grant Chiang title to the island of Formosa; (2) no offshore islands 
could be added to the treaty without Senate consent; (3) Chiang would 
agree not to attack the mainland without first obtaining United States 
consent. After these assurances were made by the Secretary, only five 
Democrats and one Republican voted against ratification. ^^ 

Neither the Formosa Resolution nor the Mutual Defense Treaty 
served definitely to stabilize the military situation in the Far East. 
But in April, 1955, Chou En-Lai announced that he was willing to discuss 



26 U.S., Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, p. 1416. 
The United States and Nationalist China agreed that an attack on either would 
endanger the safety of the other. But the United States committed itself in the 
treaty to defend only Taiwan and the Pescadores. Gerson, John Foster Dulles. 
p.203. 

2'^ Cater, "Foreign Policy," p. 23; Gerson, John Foster Dulles, p. 202. 
"^ James Reston, "Democrats Unhappy Over Far East Role," Atlanta Consti- 
tution. April 7, 1955, p. 4. Adlai E. Stevenson, the titular head of the Demo- 
cratic party who was not even consulted about Formosa policy by Congression- 
al Democrats, did not respond to the administration's Far East policy for several 
weeks. In a speech carried by national radio and television on April 12, Steven- 
son opposed the use of force in the Formosa Strait, especially to defend Quemoy 
and Matsu. New York Times. April 12, 1955, pp. 1, 4. 

29 U.S., Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 1, pp. 1380- 
81, 1416; William S. White "Senate Approves Formosa Treaty," New York 
Times, February 10, 1955, pp. 1, 14. 

34 



the Formosan problem with the United States. ^o The first statement 
from the administration concerning the proposal was drafted by Under- 
secretary of State Herbert Hoover, Jr. in Dulles" absence and cleared 
by Eisenhower. 31 This statement simply reiterated the United States' 
demand that free China participate as an equal in any discussion con- 
cerning the area. This position would have ended further maneuvering 
toward discussions, because the Nationalists and Chinese Communist 
governments did not recognize the legitimacy of the other. 

George, however, spoke up to urge the administration to accept 
the Chinese offer to discuss the Formosan problem, with or without 
the participation of Nationalist China. ^^ \^ anticipation of those who 
would cry appeasement, George said. "For one strong power to say it 
is willing to sit down and talk is not appeasement," and he hoped the 
United States would be "big enough and great enough to accept Chou's 
offer."33 xhe ^ext move was up to Dulles, and he made it in a follow- 
up announcement which held that Chiang would not necessarily have 
to be present in talks limited to a cease fire in the Formosa Strait. 
He explained the discrepancy in the two State Department positions 
by saying that he had been out of town and had not seen the Hoover 
statement before its release. ^^ 

The Knowland-Bridges wing of the Republican Party reacted bitter- 
ly against Dulles' change of position. Senator Knowland implied in a 
strongly worded criticism of the administration's stand that he might 
withdraw as party leader in the Senate if negotiations were actually 
held with the Chinese Communists without participation of Chiang. ^^ 
Despite the fact that most of the top Senate Republican leaders were 
opposed to negotiations, Dulles maintained his position. 

In the spring of 1955, George pushed for negotiations not only be- 
tween the United States and Chou En-lai but also was the first leading 
public figure in the United States to advocate an East-West summit 
meeting. 3^ On the "Meet The Press" program of March 20, 1955, George 
expressed his opinion that "the real hope of avoiding war is through high 



^ Tillman Durdin, "Chou Asks for U.S. Talks on Easing Formosa Crisis," 
New York Times. April 24, 1955, p. 1. 

31 U.S., Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 5, p. 6094; 
New York Times. April 24, 1955, p. IE. 

32 Charles E. Egen, "U.S. Stresses Chiang Role; George Would Accept Bid," 
New York Times. April 24, 1955, pp. 1, 3. 

33 Ibid. 

3* James Reston, "Dulles Is Willing to Talk to Peiping on Cease-Fire without 

Nationalists," New York Times. April 27, 1955, p. 1. 

35 "Knowland Strongly Attacks Administration China Policy," A^e'vv York Times, 

April 28, 1955, p. L 

3^ Dana Adams Schmidt, "George Proposes Big Four Parley to Prevent War," 

New York Times. March 21, 1955, pp. 1, 10. Also see Eisenhower, The White 

House Years, p. 505. 

35 



level conferences among the leading powers."^'' In urging a summit 
meeting without insisting that the Russians first meet certain conditions, 
George broke with the position held by the Eisenhower administration. ^^ 

According to James Reston of the New York Times, George be- 
lieved that the international situation was such that a meeting of the 
great powers was essential to relieve the growing war fears produced 
by the tense Far Eastern situation. George interpreted available infor- 
mation on Sino-Soviet relations as indicating the Russian's increasing 
dissatisfaction with the aggressive policies being followed by the Chinese 
in the Formosa strait. He, according to Reston, felt that the Soviets 
could be persuaded to exercise a restraining influence on the Chinese. 
Also, the Senator felt that such a meeting would provide Eisenhow.er 
with an opportunity to assure the Russians that they had nothing to fear 
from a rearmed Germany allied to the North Atlantic Treaty (Organiza- 
tion. ^9 

The immediate effect of George's public statement was to point 
up certain internal difficulties the Republican administration was having 
over the question of negotiations. Senator Knowland was opposed to 
all high level negotiations, and after a meeting with the President an- 
nounced that the George proposal did not reflect the viewpoint of the 
government. Eisenhower indicated in a message to George that he was 
in general agreement with the Senator's views, but in a subsequent 
press conference the President again reiterated his determination that 
the Russians give "some evidence" of intentions to bargain in good faith, 
rather than for propaganda purposes, before he would agree to a summit 
meetincr.^'' 

During the following months discussions over the need for a peace 
conference continued, and public opinion gradually forced governments 
on both sides of the Iron Curtain to agree to a late summer conference. 
Thus the prospects of fruitful negotiations checked the war talk over 
Formosa and turned the attention of world leaders toward ways to main- 
tain peace. George was given much of the credit by news commentators 
and members of Congress for helping to create the kind of political 
climate which enabled the administration to enter into negotiations 
with the Communists without fear of partisan political attack. ^^ 



3^^ Schmidt, "George Proposes Big Four Parley," p. 1. 

^ Eisenhower, The White House Years, p. 504. 

39 James Reston, "State Department Favoring George Plan for Big 4 Talk," 

New Yoric Times, March 22, 1955, pp. 1, 10. 

'^ Elie Abel, "G.O.P. is Divided on Big Four Parley; Knowland Wary," New 

Yorii Times, March 23, 1955, pp. 1,4.^ 

41 U.S., Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955, 101, Part 10, pp. 12572- 

76. Eisenhower referred to George's role, "To my delight I received a call from 

the statesman who had put so much of himself behind the idea of this Summit 

meeting. Senator Walter George of Georgia." Eisenhower, Tlie White House 

Years, p. 510. 

36 



George also helped the administration defend its foreign aid policy 
during the two years he headed the Foreign Relations Committee. Once 
in a debate over foreign aid programs George conceded that much of 
the public seemed disenchanted with the policy but went on to add 
his conviction that "To slacken assistance to allies would be to invite 
disaster." ^^Georse saw the program as a bulwark and necessary part 
of the United States' position as world leader, and he felt that the result 
of ending the program would be to leave America as an isolated "gar- 
rison state. "'^^ 

George pointed out in his arguments for continued economic and 
military aid to America's allies that the United States had three courses 
which she could follow in meeting the challenge of world problems. 
Isolationism and domination, said George, had been ruled out by the 
American people, and that the course which had been chosen of build- 
ing "an alliance of equal partners jointly dedicated to the task of keep- 
ing the free world free" required a substantial foreign aid program. '^'^ 

George's efforts on behalf of the administration's aid programs 
were not confined to defending the total amount of funds requested 
but involved challenges from leading Senate Republicans to executive 
control of the programs. In 1955 the chief struggle over the program 
was brought about by Senator Knowland and other Republicans when 
they attempted to amend the bill to provide that a large proportion of 
the economic aid funds be dispensed as loans. George told the Senate, 
"We might as well abandon the whole [economic aid] program" if 
such restrictions are placed on administering the aid because the coun- 
tries in most need of assistance would be unable to repay loans. "^^ In 
the debate George assured the Senate that the loan method would be 
used whenever feasible for "it shakes the dignity of the Asian people 
[who receive most of available aid funds] to regard themselves as the 
recipients of alms.''^^ The amendment was defeated when twenty-nine 
Democrats and twenty-two Republicans voted with George while 
twenty-two Republicans and eleven Democrats supported Knowland.'*'^ 



42 U.S.. Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess.. 101, Part 9, p. 11090. 
^ Senator George, who had consistently opposed foreign aid programs, an- 
nounced in a speech before the annual dinner of the American Society of News- 
paper Editors on April 24, 1955, that he had changed his mind about the de- 
sirability of continuing economic aid. After stating, "I change my mind as I 
go along, frequently. . ." he explained that he now saw "Point Four" type of 
assistance as "of greater value and promises more than military aid to people 
who love peace and who don't want war." See "Text of George's address to Edi- 
tors on Foreign Policy of the U.S.," New York Times, April 25, 1955, p. 9. 
^ U.S., Congressional Record. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 101, Part 9, p. 11090. 

45 Ibid., Part 6, p. 7468. 

46 Ibid., p. 7264. 

47 Ibid., p. 7479. Also see John D. Morris. "Senate Approves 3.5 Billion in Aid 
President Asked," Afiv 'i urk Times, June 3, 1955, p. 1. 

37 



The 1956 aid program also met determined opposition from leading 
Republican Senators who introduced amendments aimed at eliminating 
aid to Yugosalvia and substantially reducing funds marked for India. 
In spite of appeals from Eisenhower and Secretary of State Dulles, Sen- 
ators Knowland and Styles Bridges made an all-out effort to circum- 
scribe the administration program with legislative directives. The right- 
wing Republican attacks on aid to Yugoslavia were inspired b_y certain 
indications, such as Marshall Tito's visit to Moscow, that Soviet-Yugo- 
slav relations were rapidly improving. The Knowland-Bridges group 
maintained that in helping Tito the United States was simply strength- 
ening the Communist world. "^^ In a letter to George, Dulles countered 
this argument by pointing out the need for a flexible policy toward Tito 
in the hope of thwarting Soviet efforts to retrieve its mistakes in Yugo- 
slavia. The President also wrote George urging the Congress to leave 
the executive with a free hand in his relations with Tito.^^ 

George responded to the administration's appeal in a speech before 
the Senate in which he warned his colleagues of the probable results 
of ending aid to Tito. Yugoslavia, said George, would have no other 
recourse than to make a complete turn into the Kremlin fold. George 
went on to point out the implications of such a policy. "It would be 
said everywhere, that unless the United States can be a great imperial- 
istic nation and decide with whom any nation to which she offers assis- 
tance shall associate on friendly terms, the United States will have 
nothing to do with such a nation. "^o Congress would be proving the 
charge often made by critics of the United States that foreign aid was 
primarily an instrument of control. 

George's support of the administration was successful in defeating 
all of the attempts to limit executive discretion over aid funds, except 
for one Knowland amendment which directed the President to end all 
new military aid programs for Tito and supply him with only spare parts 
and replacements. ^1 Economic aid for Yugoslavia was not affected, 
and even the victory over the military program was a relatively insig- 
nificant one for the anti-administration Republicans. 

One of George's last major addresses to the Senate was an eloquent 
appeal for the preservation of a strong foreign aid program. The Ameri- 
can people, prophesied George, would have the courage to accept the 
burdens of world leadership, "I know that the American people are 



48 William S. White, "Senate Opens Aid Debate, George Pleads Against Cut," 
New York Times. June 28, 1956, pp. 1, 11. 

49 U.S.. Congressional Record, 84th Cong., 2nd Session, 102, Part 10, pp. 14175, 
14185. 

50 Ibid., p. 14185. 

51 Ibid., p. 14189. 

38 



not going to step backward (toward isolation). And I know that if the 
free people of this globe lose confidence in us, we shall disappoint 
the best of hopes of mankind, and we shall utterly fail to justify the sac- 
rifices of our heroic dead, who have died in nearlv all lands and have 
been swallowed up by the blue waters of nearly all oceans. "^2 

On May 9, 1956, when Senator George st'^od in the Senate to an- 
nounce that for "good and sufficient reasons" he had decided not to 
seek reelection to the seat he had held for thirty-four years, practically 
all of his colleagues stood to voice their recognition of his merits. The 
son of a Georgia tenant farmer had reached the heights of national and 
even international fame and power only to find that political realities in 
his home state dictated a reluctant withdrawal from public office. When 
the prospect of a George-Talmadge struggle loomed for the 1956 Demo- 
cratic primary, many of the Senator's former supporters notified him 
of their desire to be free to support the young and extremely popular 
former governor. ^^ 

In his statement of retirement George expressed what may have 
been his chief hope for holding the support of Georgia voters while 
concentrating on international problems. He said. "1 had hoped the 
united front presented by congressmen would find unanimous approval 
and undivided support by all responsible citizens. "^^ He hoped a bi- 
partisan approach to foreign policy, which he had made possible, would 
win for him the loyalty of his constituents. 

The position that George found himself in was not at all a new phe- 
nomenon in American politics. The reasons George gave for his de- 
cision not to run again were health and the "political action of my friends," 
but doubtless the principal determinant in his action was his acknow- 
ledgement of the extent of Herman Talmadge"s political power. George 
accepted Congressional leadership over foreign policies which were 
of vital concern to the nation and in so doing gained a national standing 
which was in no way indicative of his political support at home. In fact, 
Talmadge used George's liberal stand on foreign aid and his preoccu- 
pation with complex international issues to undermine the Senator's 
political base in Georgia. ^^ 

Senator George's brief tenure as head of the Foreign Relations Com- 
mittee is important for several reasons. His leadership in the moves 
toward negotiations with the U.S.S.R. doubtless had much to do with 



52 Ibid., p. 1 1091. The youngest of George's two sons was lost over the Atlantic 
in World War II. After the war, the Senator became more and more interested 
in foreign affairs. 

^ Atlanta Constitution, May 10, 1956, p. 1. 
^ Iliid., May 12. 1956, p. 3. 

55 Long-time Georgia political leader Roy V. Harris commented, "If he [Sena- 
tor Georgejhad just made one speech giving the Supreme Court hell, nobody 
could have beat him," Time. May 21, 1956, p. 23. 

39 



creating a favorable public and political environment which enabled 
Eisenhower to go boldly to Geneva. He helped to negate the opposition 
of the right-wing in both political parties. 

The Senator's actions while chairman also had consequences for 
subsequent exective-congressional relations. The Formosa Resolution 
of 1955. guided through the Senate by George with only cursory hear- 
ings and limited debate, was the forerunner of other congressional 
resolutions delegating war powers to the President. The 1955 Resolution 
was followed, within ten years, by the Middle East Resolution and the 
crucial Tonkin Bay Resolution. In both of the latter cases the legisla- 
tive branch followed the precedent set by the George-led Congress 
in granting the President the option of making war dependent upon 
future circumstances.^^ 

Obviously, as have many Senators, George looked to the executive 
branch of government to formulate and initiate policies in the inter- 
national sphere. The role of Congress was chiefly to support and assist 
the foreign policy of the President. And judging from George's accep- 
tance and public support of administration bills, it appears Dulles was 
given a practically free hand by George to conduct relations with 
other nations. When the Senator from Georgia undertook the defense 
of administration policy, other leading Democrats found it impossible 
to oppose or publicly to criticize Dulles' policies. ^'^ The important 
point is that although some Democrats complained in private, the great 
majority followed George and allowed the administration a freedom 
in foreign affairs it most certainly would not have had but for George. 

In recent years leading members of the Senate Foreign Relations 
Committee have been sharply critical of this veiw of the Senate's le- 
gitimate role in foreign policy. In fact, members of the Committee, 
led by Senator William Fulbright, assign much of the responsibility for 
the United States' international difficulties, especially in the Far East, 
to the fact that the George view of the Senate's constitutional obliga- 
tion of "advice and consent" dominated executive-congressional rela- 
tions in the immediate pre-Vietnam years. These senators contend that 



^ The Formosa Resolution marks the first time in United States history that 
precedent was established for executive war-making. All three of the resolu- 
tions are clearly uncontrolled delegation of the war power. Both the language 
of the resolutions and the congressional debates indicate fhat Congress intended 
to transfer the power of decision to the President. 

^'^ James Reston wrote of Adlai Stevenson's dilemma, "He [Stevenson] cannot 
aim his criticism at President Eisenhower, for Senator George has been standing 
right in front of the White House door." New York Times. April 13, 1955, p. 1. 
William S. White wrote of George's influence, "No Senator whatever in recent 
history has been so near to being the final voice on world affaris for a whole 
party. Mr. George, by his great eminence as the senior member of the Senate, 
its President pro tern. Chairman of Foreign Relations, and senior member of 
Finance, literally and personally makes Democratic foreign policy." New York 
Times, April 10, 1955, p. 1. 

40 



if the Foreign Relations Committee had critically, and publicly, ex- 
amined executive foreign policy during those years the United States 
might have avoided the Vietnam disaster. 

Senator George, however, by following Arthur Vanderberg's dic- 
tum, "Politics stops at the water's edge," got the Republican admin- 
istration to consult the Foreign Relations Committee on every major 
foreign policy question. The amount of constructive give-and-take that 
occurred between George's committee and state department officials 
was not great on every issue, especially during consideration of the 
Formosa Resolution, but George's cooperative attitude clearly enabled 
him to influence Eisenhower's position on talks with Communist China 
and the Russians. 

For good or ill for the future of the Republic this kind of exchange 
between the executive and the Foreign Relations Committee has ended. 
The committee is now little more than a discussion circle where senators 
meet to pass ineffective resolutions while the real business of the world 
is transacted by the White House. The bickering between the committee 
and two successive Presidents over Vietnam has resulted in the com- 
mittee losing its role in establishing and maintaining United States 
foreign policy. Treaties are increasingly designated "executive agree- 
ments" and signed by the President without congressional approval. 
The committee's advice now is seldom sought and rarely accepted. Its 
consent is asked only when it is convenient. 

The argument could thus be made that George's concern for a uni- 
fied American foreign policy resulted in Congress having a greater 
voice in international affairs than if he had taken a more partisan, or 
more obstructive position. Nevertheless, it seems clear that Senator 
George sincerely felt that the bipartisan course he set was one most 
likely to keep this nation out of war, and that his major concern was 
not personal power or political support but was the welfare of the United 
States. 



41 



ABSTRACTS 

of 
MASTERS THESES 

and 

SPECIALIST IN EDUCA TION PROIECTS 

Cutting, Gerald Roger (MA, Psychology, March, 1972)* 

SENSITIVITY TRAINING AND HYPNOSIS: 
EXPLORATIONS IN SELF-ACTUALIZATION 



Self-actualization is a process of psychological and biological devel- 
opment that was originally formulated to express what the Taoist of 
the East have always known to be enlightenment. Researchers in the 
areas of sensitivity training and hypnosis have recently begun to ex- 
plore different avenues for bringing about increased potential towards 
self-actualization. The following hypotheses were formulated and in- 
vestigated. One, sensitivity training will increase students' potential 
towards self-actualization as measured on the Personal Orientation 
Inventory (POI). Two, sensitivity training will increase students' hyp- 
notic susceptibility as measured on the Harvard Group Scale of Hyp- 
notic Susceptibility (HGSHS). Three, students who are highly suscep- 
tible will be able, through hypnotic suggestion, to increase their self- 
actualization potential. 

Using students in psychology classes, two experimental and three 
control grtiups were formed. Experimental Group I underwent sensi- 
tivity training and Experimental Group II, volunteers, were given 
post-hypnotic suggestions based on the values and attitudes of self- 
actualizing persons. Control Groups I, II, and III were all taken from 
classes that used a cognitive approach of instruction. After a four week 
period, using pretest and posttest administrations of the POI and HGSHS, 
it was found that none of the hypotheses were supported. However, it 
was found that Group CI reported significant positive changes on two 
scales of the POI and CII also increased significantly on three of the 
scales, (p<C.05 using a two tailed test). Group CIII, a statistics class, 
reported a significant increase in susceptibility as measured on the 
HGSHS, (P<.05 two tailed test). 



*MA indicates the degree, "Psychology" is the awarding department and March, 
1972 is the Ume of compledon of all requirements. This pattern is followed 
throughout. 

42 



It was therefore concluded that the more goal-directed the setting 
the more likely are Ss to report an increase in susceptibility. This pos- 
sibility brings Tart's findings (1970) into question. He was able to report 
significant increases after nine months of fellowship training at Eslen 
after hypothesizing that personal growth groups would increase sus- 
ceptibility. The study undertaken here at West Georgia College indicates 
that in any group which encouraged self-expression, susceptibility 
tended to decrease. A critique of previous findings using the POI suggests 
that often personal growth groups are goal-directed phenomena where 
the experimenter or group leader rewards and discourages behavior 
and values which he does not feel are appropriate. These growth groups 
would seem to promote values and goal orientations that are incompat- 
ible with the original formulation of self-actualization. Directions for 
further research are discussed. 

Waller. John Lebiis (MA, Psychology, March, 1972) 

THE LAUGHTER IN THE DARK: 

A PHILOSOPHICAL INQUIRY INTO 

THE FRAMEWORK OF THE HUMAN DILEMMA 

Being human is a constant state of change in accordance with funda- 
mental, ontological characteristics involving all things and in particular 
nature and civilization. The incessant ordering and structuring of con- 
cepts within the human framework has all but eliminated the conditions 
for being human and its fulfillment. Underlying the structuring and stan- 
dardization of "should" and "ought to" goals, the human existence has 
basic wants and needs which are being by-passed in order to coordinate, 
regulate and stabilize the interests of an existing environment. When 
first entering an institution of learning a person is a flowering, fluent 
mass of energy. But by the time that person gets to the graduate level, 
he has become a drop of oil to lubricate the machinery of society. 

This thesis has tried to point to some of the outstanding factors and 
consequences arising from being human. It is very difficult to summarize 
or in some way isolate the process of this work. But one point that 
emerges rather clearly from this eight chaptered, chaotic background 
is fairly evident. And that point reveals that chaos, like science, is a 
way of being human. One is not any better or worse than the other. But 
it would seem that society would have us believe that a real difference 
does exist. It's like borrowing money to pay off a loan. To choose is 
self-defeating. 

I am not advocating chaos nor am I advocating science. But. I am 
ready to deal with science and/or chaos, not as good or bad, right or 
wrong, but as choosing neither and yet accepting both. I could not 
choose science as opposed to chaos or visa versa. To live life's many 
forms in choiceless awareness, responding to each and yet all of its 
forms, is a way of living. 

43 



Heaton, Dennis (MA, Psychology, June, 1972) 

PSYCHOLOGY AND THE 
SCIENCE OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE 

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi has proposed that the normal state of man 
is a higher state of consciousness in which the full value of the qualities 
of the relative field of existence can be enjoyed together with the in- 
finite value of the Absolute field, and that transcendental meditation 
can enable any individual to grow to this state by bringing his mind to 
the transcendental field of pure Being. This paper presents a theoretical 
model of the structure of creative intelligence according to Maharishi, 
and discusses the unfoldment of creative intelligence in human life. 
This model is related to current psychological theories, to Eastern 
religions. Transcendental meditation, as a practical tool to facilitate 
psychological growth, is compared to other programs of growth or 
therapy. This thesis implies that transcendental meditation expands 
the conscious mind and liberates the individual from the effects of 
stress. 

Hoomes. Charles Wendell [EdS, Guidance and Counseling, June, 1972) 

A STUDY TO DETERMINE IF THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT 
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STUDENTS WHO DROP-OUT OF THE 
ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE COURSE 

AT CARROLL COUNTY AREA VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL 
SCHOOL AND THOSE WHO COMPLETE THE COURSE AS MEA- 
SURED BY THE CALIFORNIA TEST OF ADULT BASIC 
EDUCATION 

A t test of independent means was conducted to determine if a sig- 
nificant difference existed between the means of the two groups after 
a F ratio revealed that the samples were drawn from a population with 
the same variances. The t test revealed that a significant difference did 
exist, not caused by chance alone, and that the group completing the 
program scored higher than the group dropping out of the program 
before completion. The results of this study indicate that poor skills 
in mathematics decreases the probability of student success. 

Rowell Judy Copeland (EdS, Guidance and Counseling, June, 1973) 
DEVELOPING A PRE-SCHOOL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM 

The purpose of this project was to develop a comprehensive in- 
formation-gathering program that would also serve as an orientation 
for students, parents, and first grade teachers at Bowdon Primary 
School, Bowdon, Georgia. A planning committee was provided with 
a review of related literature. A battery of tests was administered to 
three groups of kindergarten-age students and results were made avail- 
able to parents. Developmental grouping for first grade work was based 

44 



on these results. Students, parents, and first grade teachers participated 
in orientation activities. Participants in the program evaluated it as 
successful, worthwhile, and worthy of continuation. 

Bellafiore, Stephen Louis (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

ON SILENCE 

Silence is a basic phenomenon, the first born of all the basic phe- 
nomenon. She is an ever present reality surrounding the other basic phe- 
nomena with her presence. By her very nature she is profoundly speak- 
ing to man. The purpose of this paper is to paint a picture, through the 
symbolic imagery of language, built on the foundation of dialogue, 
academic pursuit, and personal imagination, in the hope of widening 
the horizon of man through the phenomenological significance of 
silence. 

I attempt to explain the dimensions of silence in relationship to its 
world and to the inner depths of man's heart, the still point. Man's re- 
lationship to the silence is explained through an exploration of pri- 
meval man, nature and silence, the mystic, and finally modern man. 
Five conversations born out of lives dedicated to an existential confron- 
tation with the silence will terminate this paper presenting living testi- 
mony of the challenge of silence. 

The thesis is that through a man's encounter with the silence, an 
existential silence, in dialogue with the inner life of the world and him- 
self, that spiritual realm, that last frontier, will the hope of spirit-charged- 
meaning-made-flesh emerge for man. 

Clark, Stephen Kay (MA, English, August, 1972) 

A THEMATIC ANALYSIS OF ROBERT LOWELL'S 
FOR THE UNION DEAD 

The purpose of this thesis is to submit that Robert Lowell's 1964 
volume For the Union Dead is pervaded with frustration and sympto- 
matic of a distressed poet, a point overlooked or at least minimized by 
various critics. For the critics, the most important aspect of the volume 
is that Mr. Lowell ventures into areas of public concern and away from 
the confessional poetry, a type poetry he began in his Life Studies 
(1959) and which is characterized by painful recall of personal problems. 
Several critics contend, then, that the inclusion of poems with public 
themes— specifically, socio-cultural and religious— indicates that Mr. 
Lowell is not as obsessed with baring intimate details of his life and 
is thus relieved of the frustration accompanying such disclosure. I 
submit, however, that the nature of the impersonal poems pose as 
great a source of frustration for the poet and actually increases it, since 
they are concerned generally with the dehumanization of man in a 
mechanized, militaristic world or with the absence of a benevolent 
God. All the major thematic areas of the volume interrelate, therefore, 

45 



to characterize For the Union Dead as a manifestation of Mr. Lxjwell's 
overall distress. 

In Chapter One, Confessional Themes, we discover the basic frustra- 
tion of Mr. Lowell through an analysis of various confessional poems. 
The poet is painfully concerned with the recollection of an unhappy 
marriage, of guilt-provoking adolescent incidents, and of his poor 
relationship with his parents. In Chapter Two, Socio-Cultural Themes, 
we find that one of Mr. Lowell's major areas of non-confessional concen- 
tration, concern with society, offers him no relief. When the disturbed 
private figure looks outside himself into the world with its wars, relent- 
less mechanization, and dehumanization generally, his frustration is 
increased. In Chapter Three, Religious Themes, through a review of 
Mr. Lowell's religious evolution, which runs from New England Protes- 
tantism to Roman Catholicism to a general disenchantment with Chris- 
tian doctrine, we find in appropriate poems that God is impetuous and 
not concerned with man, or in the idea that God ^oes not exist at all. The 
poet's allusions to a fear of the finality of death seem to indicate the 
latter alternative is his belief. At any rate, we see through an extended 
thematic analysis of the volume that Mr. Lowell's basic distress is com- 
pounded, and any balancing or relieving aspect of the public themes 
is offset by the frustrating implications they carry. 

Cockerham. Raymond (EdS, Guidance and Counseling, August, 1972) 

READING ABILITY AND THE HIGH SCHOOL DROP-OUT 

This study examined the relationship between the effect of reading 
ability on I.Q., achievement, self concept, attitude and interest in 
school. It also gave some specific suggestions on what can be done to 
improve reading disabilities. Pertinent literature on the subject was 
reviewed and many students' permanent records were studied. This 
study revealed a very high correlation between reading ability, I.Q. 
and school achievement. The evidence indicated that disabled readers 
are usually frustrated in most classes. They likely have repeated one or 
more grades in school. As a result of their repeated failure in school, 
they are likely to join the drop outs, a group that now constitutes almost 
one-half of the students who enter Georgia schools. This study had 
implications for the counselor's role in assessment, placement, and 
counseling of students. 

Cornish. Joseph Jenkins, III (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

AN EXAMPLE AND AN ANALYSIS OF 
THE EUREKA PHENOMENON 

The creative process known as the 'Eureka Phenomenon' is inves- 
tigated by examining a series of the author's experiences. The series 
of experiences and events led to a geometrically significant compar- 
ison between the shape of the megalithic monument at Stonehenge and 
the shape of the qabalistic Tree of Life. 

46 



The events are described and their significance to the author during 
the process of developing the geometric comparison is defined. The 
events are also pictured in a graphic network in order to show their 
interrelationship to each other. 

A conclusion is presented which proposes that six steps can be 
defined as parts of the process producing the 'Eureka Phenomenon'. 
These steps are compared to descriptions of the creative process de- 
scribed by other writers. 

Cowart, Luther Carl (EdS, Guidance and Counseling, August, 1972) 

STUDENT REVISION: A METHOD 
OF FACILITATING MATURITY IN WRITING 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students would 
improve more in their writing maturity through a program of student 
revision than through the traditional method of teacher correction. 
The sample was comprised of a control section and an experimental 
section of the ninth grade at Villa Rica (Georgia) High School. 

Each group received the same instructions about writing prior to 
the assignment of eight descriptive paragraphs based upon literary 
models chosen by the teacher. The teacher corrected the papers of the 
control group and returned the papers to the students so they could 
make indicated changes and further improvements as the students 
saw fit. The papers of the experimental group were returned unmarked, 
with instructions to revise the papers by using stronger verbs, by elim- 
inating vague or ambiguous nouns and be using more explicit modifiers. 

An important assumption of this study is that the T-unit, or inde- 
pendent clause, and certain grammatical constructions related thereto, 
as brought out in Kellogg W. Hunt's 1965 study, represent a valid mea- 
sure of maturity in writing. This study is based upon that assumption. 

Prior to the experiment, the teacher assigned two themes to each 
student, with each theme of sufficient length to provide at least 25 
T-units from each student on each theme. The better of each pair of 
themes was chosen on the basis of the highest frequency count of 
Hunt's listed grammatical constructions being considered in the data. 
The same procedure was followed at the end of the experiment. 

After counting the constructions used, this researcher converted 
the raw frequency count scores to weighted scores so that the less 
frequently used constructions would count more and the most frequent- 
ly used constructions would count less. Then, the t test of statistical 
significance was applied to determine that the improvement noted 
was due to the treatment, and not to chance. 

This researcher reached the conclusion that the students who were 
subjected to the revision treatment improved a statistically greater 
amount than did the students in the control group, but the students 
in the letter group also improved from the teacher-correction pro- 
gram. 

47 



Cruce, Michael M. (MS, Biology, August, 1972) 

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL 

STUDIES OF CALCIUM METABOLISM IN LIVER AND KIDNEY 

OF NORMAL AND GREY-LETHAL MUTANT MICE 

Comparative electron microscopic analysis of mitochondrial volume 
in kidney tissues of grey-lethal mutant mice and normal mice is corre- 
lated with 45Ca uptake experiments in liver and kidney tissues of the 
mutant and normal mice. Results reveal greater mitochondrial volume 
in mutant than in normal tissues, and 45Ca uptake also appears greater 
in mutant tissues. The significance of these findings is discussed in 
relation to parathyroid function, mitochondrial metabolism, and the 
pleiotropic effects of the mutation. 

Deloach, Jimmie Carlton (MA, Mathematics, August, 1972) 
CONVERGENCE SPACES 

The goal of the author was to investigate the basic properties of 
convergence spaces. This was done by researching the literature and 
by solving problems which occurred. 

Two theories of convergence spaces are included in his thesis. 
One theory uses a filter approach and the other uses a net approach. 
The filter approach (Chapter III) is based chiefly on papers by Fischer 
and Poppe. The author also defines the Lindelof property for con- 
vergency spaces (Definition 3.39). One of the main theorems discovered 
by the author states that every compact convergence space is Lindelof 
(Theorem 3.40). 

Chapter IV contains the material on the net approach. Here the 
conditions for various types of net convergence are given and contin- 
uous functions are investigated. 

Dossey, Steven Monroe (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

THE RIVER: A SYMBOL FOR A WAY OF LIVING 

The meaning of the river as a metaphysical symbol, provides an 
intuitive insight into man's relation to and understanding of the nature 
of consciousness and the cosmology of the universe. The river, when 
understood in its manifold meaning, provides a philosophy of harmonic 
living which enables one to live a psychologically healthful existence. 
The intuitive meaning of the river symbol is related to Eastern philo- 
sophies such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Taoism. Finally, a process 
whereby a person may attain a greater awareness of himself and his world 
by understanding the nature of the symbolizing mind is presented as 
it generates from the meaning found in the river as a symbol. 

48 



Howren. Sara Orr (EdS, Elementary Education, August, 1972) 

A COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL ACHIEVEMENT USING 
TUTORIAL VERSUS REGULAR CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION 



In an effort to meet the needs of the average and above average 
learners as well as the under-achievers, an experiment was conducted 
at the Elizabeth Elementary School, Cobb County, Georgia. Two 
sections with fifty students assigned by the principal at random, were 
involved in the five weeks project during a study of decimals. These 
children were administered the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills along with 
all sixth grades countywide. The experimental group used a tutorial 
system while the control group received regular classroom instruction. 

A research of the literature indicated tutoring resulted in higher 
academic achievement. Self-concepts improved and attitudes changed 
favorable due to the personal attention and individually prescribed 
instruction which led to a more conducive learning situation. 

The experimental group was composed of twenty three students 
with eleven scoring 6.2 and above and being classed as average and 
above average. These were selected to tutor the twelve underachievers. 
The criteria for selection was the mathematical scores of the Iowa 
Tests of Basic Skills. The tutors received fifteen minutes of instruction 
through examples and with discussion of suitable tutoring activities 
before the class period. The class as a whole then received fifteen min- 
utes of basic instruction which was followed by tutoring as a reinforce- 
ment of the teacher's instructions to the group. 

The control group was composed of thirteen underachievers and 
fourteen average and above average achievers according to the same 
criteria as the experimental group. They received only regular tra- 
ditional classroom instruction during the entire class period. 

Both groups were administered the same criterion reference test 
as both pretest and posttest. Progress tests were given as a phase was 
completed. A t test on the pretest showed no significant difference 
in the two groups and the t test on the posttest showed no significant 
difference in the two groups. At the conclusion of the project a t test 
showed no significant difference in gains in achievement of the two 
groups due to the tutorial system as the .58 score was not significant. 

Although the data did not show a significant difference between 
the classes academically, individual gains were evident which in some 
cases were beyond the teacher's expectations. Self-confidence and 
attitudes improved. 

A larger group study over a longer period of time would possibly 
give more positive results. Better training of tutors and more structured 
materials for their use should aid such a project. Further study along 
these lines should be of value. 

49 



Hunt. Betty R. (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1972) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF 

CERTAIN BEHAVIORS TO THE TEACHING OF THINKING IN 

SOCIAL STUDIES WITH SELECTED SEVENTH AND EIGHTH 

GRADE STUDENTS IN THE GORDON COUNTY SCHOOLS 

An Experimental Group and a Control Group, each consisting of 
six students with superior ability, comprised this nine-weeks research 
study that provided for critical thinking would result in student increase 
in critical thinking, positive attitudes toward social studies, and positive 
behavioral patterns. The following three tests were administered to 
the students: (1) Remmers' Attitudes Toward Any School Subject, (2) 
the Wassermann Student Self-Rating Instrument, and (3) the Watson- 
Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. 

The following null hypotheses were tested: (1) There will be no 
significant difference between the Experimental Group and the Con- 
trol Group with respect to changes in attitudes toward social studies 
as a result of work done in a nine-weeks period; (2) As a result of the 
differential treatment of the two groups, there will be no significant 
differences in the rate of change from negative to positive behavior 
as judged by (a) teachers and (b) students; and (3) There will be no 
significant difference between the Experimental Group and the Con- 
trol Group with respect to an increase of critical thinking skills as a 
result of the differential treatment of the two groups. 

From analysis of data, computed by the t test, the first hypothesis 
that there will be no significant difference between the Experimental 
Group with respect to changes in attitudes toward social studies as 
a result of work done in a nine-weeks period was accepted. The second 
null hypothesis that as a result of the differential treatment of the two 
groups, there will be no significant difference in the rate of change from 
negative to positive behavior as judged by (a) teachers was rejected 
as the t-ratio of 3.5 was significant at the .01 level; however, as judged by 
(b) students was accepted. The third null hypothesis that there will 
be no significant difference between the Experimental Group and the 
Control Group with respect to an increase in critical thinking skills 
as a result of the differential treatment of the two groups was rejected 
as the t-ratio of 2.65 was significant at the .05 level. In the comparison 
of the within group means, the Experimental Group had significant 
differences on all variables, whereas the Control Group had no signi- 
ficant differences. 

Miller, Melvin E. (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

MYTHS OF THE AQUARIAN AGE 

Man has been constructing myths for ages and this alleged "Aquar- 
ian Age" is no exception. This thesis intends that myths and symbols 
have so thoroughly permeated man's thinking that he often takes these 
conventions to be a description or direct manifestation of an ultimate 

50 



reality. This paper is therefore a critical inquiry into the origin of myths 
and symbols, as well as an elucidation of the manner in which myths 
determine what we take to be reality. A number of contemporary myths 
are discussed as they have evolved from their origin to the present, 
while simultaneously revealing how they are merely recent rarefactions 
of ancient mythological themes. An integrated vision of the myriad 
of possibilities for a 'new' myth is presented with the implicit hope that 
the invitation for future attention, inquiry, and analysis into the mythic 
process will be accepted with a fully human sense of responsibility by 
all the disciplines that create myths for man. 

North. Ralph S. (Ed.S, Secondary Education, August, 1972) 

THE EFFECT OF SIMULATION ON ACHIEVEMENT AND 
ATTITUDE WHEN USED TO SUPPLEMENT THE LECTURE- 
DISCUSSION METHOD OF INSTRUCTION IN A TENTH- 
GRADE CLASS OF MODERN EUROPEAN HISTORY 

Using two classes of twenty-eight students each this study attempted 
to discover if simulation resulted in significant gain in attitude and 
achievement when used to supplement the lecture-discussion method 
of instruction. The null hypothesis was used. The two intact classes 
were determined to contain no significant difference through the t 
test for the difference between means computed on pretest scores from 
form A of the Modern European Test of the Cooperative Social Studies 
Series. The Any School Subject Attitude Survey of the Purdue Attitude 
Survey Series was administered. A nine week treatment followed with 
one class taught by lecture-discussion using twenty days of supple- 
mentary simulation. At the end of the treatment forms B of the Modern 
European History Test and the Any School Subject Attitude Survey 
were administered as posttests. Appropriate statistical treatment found 
no significant difference in attitude but a significant difference in 
achievement at the .05 level. The null hypothesis was rejected. 

Pritchard. James Warren (MA, Psychology. August, 1972) 

SELF-REFERENT EXPRESSION IN SMALL GROUPS 
A COMPARATIVE STUDY 

A movement from non-self-reference to self-reference in verbal 
utterances, taken by Rogerian theorists as evidence of successful client- 
centered therapy, was found in this study to have occurred among mem- 
bers of an encounter group. The findings suggested that people who 
see themselves as disturbed and people who see themselves as psycho- 
logically healthy both have movement to make on this scale, whether 
toward health or toward personal growth. The findings also suggested 
that group encounter, as client-centered therapy, can be effective in 
helping people move, in Rogers' terms, "from fixity to changingness, 
from rigid structure to flow, from stasis to process." 

51 



From a different perspective — that of Bugental and other existen- 
tial psychotherapists and philosophers— the findings suggested that as 
a person makes increasing reference to himself rather than to things 
that are not himself in an intensive, affective situation, the change re- 
flects his becoming a more responsive and responding subject rather 
than a buffeted object in his way of being in the world. 

The findings indicated that group encounter members moved from 
non-self-reference to self-reference in greater degree than members 
of a discussion group devoting themselves to an intellectually structured 
examination of ways to personal growth or than members of a class- 
room group measured for comparison. Caution was exercised, however, 
in conclusively attributing any single cause to this movement. Spec- 
ulation as to cause ranged from reinforcement and conditioning respon- 
ses, to group members having practiced collective Rogerian therapy 
on each other, to an existential learning theory which saw in the process 
of group encounter experiential similarities with the more cognitive 
ventures of existential philosophy. The latter was given the most atten- 
tion in suggesting factors as work. 



Rhodes, Carolyn Bates (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1972) 

A HISTORIOGRAPHICAL STUDY OF SELECTED AMERICAN 

HISTORY TEXTBOOKS IN REGARD TO INTERPRETATIONS 

OF THE CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. THE 

JACKSONIAN ERA, AND THE CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WAR 



The purpose of this research project was to determine whether 
or not American History textbooks have an inner consistency of inter- 
pretations in regard to the causes of the American Revolution, the 
Jacksonian Era, and the causes of the Civil War. A secondary purpose 
was to determine whether the interpretations presented are up-to-date 
histodographically. 

Materials written by various authorities as Greene, Pessen, Pressly, 
etc. in each historical area were closely examined to establish criteria 
by which the interpretations presented in the eighteen textbooks selec- 
ted from the 1971 Georgia textbook list could be identified. After 
having established the criteria and having examined the textbooks to 
determine their particular interpretations, the conclusions of this 
project were made. 

It was concluded that textbooks generally present consistent inter- 
pretations of these three historical periods, although, the interpreta- 
tions presented were out-dated historiographically. 



52 



Rogers, William Wendell {EdS, Guidance and Counseling, August, 1972) 

AN EVALUATION OF THE 

COORDINATED VOCATIONAL ACADEMIC EDUCATION 

PROGRAM AT DOUGLAS COUNTY HIGH SCHOOL 

This study is an investigation to see if an innovative program was 
effective with potential school dropouts. The areas involved in the 
evaluation of the Coordinated Vocational Academic Education pro- 
gram were school attendance, grade point average, and change in at- 
titude towards dropping out of school. Results indicate that the pro- 
gram was successful. 

Short. Andrew Earl (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

COMING TO GRIP!: WITH MY WORLD: 

MEANING FORMATION AS AN 
INTERSUBJECTIVE PHENOMENON 



This project hypothesized that meanings which are prereflective 
to 'vertical, verbal man' are available to reflection through non-verbal, 
physical contact relationships based upon a non-vertical posture. I 
examined Cartesian dualism's implications for psychology's develop- 
ment as a human science and Maurice Merleau-Ponty's concept of 
"flesh" as an alternative which posits man's unity prior to dualization. 
Intersubjectivity emerged as crucial for meaning-formation, although 
verbalization was viewed as a less reliable vehicle for such formation 
than bodily movement. Four female and eight male college underclass- 
men participated in physical and verbal dyads and in small group dis- 
cussion of their behavior. Their observations during the experiment, 
their descriptions of their experiences on questionaires, and my own 
observations appear to support my hypothesis. 



Shurling. Svlvia Bowen (EdS, Elementary Education, August, 

1972) 

A THREE YEAR LONGITUDINAL EVALUATION OF THE 

RESULTS OF AN INTENSIVE READINESS PROGRAM, 

FOLLOWED BY A MODIFIED LINGUISTIC READING 

PROGRAM, WITH DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN WHO 

WERE DIAGNOSED AS POOR RISKS FOR FORMAL 

ACADEMIC WORK 



To determine the effectiveness of grouping children considered 
not ready for formal academic instruction, a longitudinal study was 
begun in Cobb County, Georgia, in 1969, as part of a federally spon- 

53 



sored program, Project Success. The investigator followed the progress 
of an experimental group for three years. Data was collected through 
questionnaires, testing instruments, and personal interivews with 
parents, students, teachers, project personnel, and school personnel. 

Subjects for the experimental group were selected on the basis of 
IQ tests, readiness tests, and teacher observation. These subjects were 
then placed in a special learning situation, referred to in the project 
as Developmental First and Developmental Second. Both Develop- 
mental classes were designed around a flexible schedule, a relaxed 
classroom atmosphere, an intensive readiness program, a modified 
linguistic approach to reading, and learning materials selected espe- 
cially for each child's individual needs. No child was pressured into a 
situation where he would meet failure and become frustrated. The 
classroom teacher was aided by the project's Learning Specialist, Psy- 
chologist, psychometrist, and Child Development Counselor in diag- 
nosing the child's needs and providing a prescriptive program for him. 

There were 19 subjects in the experimental group in 1969-1970. 
Because of the phasing out of the original Project Succuss school, the 
investigator was unable to follow the original 19 subjects for three years. 
The second year 13 subjects remained in the project school and 11 
subjects remained the third year. Project Success ended in June, 1971. 
During the third year of the experiment the sugjects were placed in regu- 
lar classroom situations and given no special help. 

The investigator attempted to answer three questions: 

1. Will the results of the Metropolitan Achievement Test indicate 
the subjects who completed Developmental First were on grade 
level at the time of first year post-testing? 

2. Will the results of the Metropolitan Achievement Test indicate 
the subjects who completed Developmental First were on grade 
level at the time of the second year post-testing? 

3. Will the results of the Metropolitan Achievement Test indicate 
the subjects who completed Developmental First were on grade 
level at the time of the third year post-testing? 

Two basic assumptions were made. The first was that these sub- 
jects were not ready for formal academic work and the second was that 
they were representative of the larger national groups of education- 
ally disadvantaged. 

The final results from the study indicated that the subjects were not 
on grade level at the end of the third year. At the time of post-testing 
the first year, they were above grade level, the second year they were 
less than a month below grade level, but the third year they dropped 
down to six months below grade level. While in a special classroom 
situation, the experimental subjects made progress. The study indicated 
the subjects were unable to make the transition to a regular classroom 
situation and continue to progress. 

54 



Smith. William Lee (MA, Psychology, August, 1972) 

A GROUP SCALE OF HYPEREMPIRIC SUSCEPTIBILITY 
A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

The study was conducted to develop a group scale of hyperempiric 
susceptibility. Fifty-five male and female subjects enrolled in Psycho- 
logy 103 at West Georgia College, Spring Quarter, 1972, were admin- 
istered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and the 
Group Scale of Hyperempiric Susceptibility utilizing a counter-balanced 
group design. The hyperempiric scale was composed of seven orig- 
inal items and five items from the hypnotic scale. Kuder-Richardson 
Formula 20 reliability coefficients. Student's t ratios for related mea- 
sures, and Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients for the 
relationship of the two scales were employed for analysis of the data. 

The reliability for the Group Scale of Hyperempiric Susceptibility 
was found to be 0.72 for all items and 0.87 for the scale with the items 
from the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility deleted. 
The reliability for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility 
was found to be 0.81 which was comparable with the reliability reported 
in the manual (/■= 0.82) (Shor and Orne, 1962). 

The Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient for the com- 
parison of the Group Scale of Hyperempiric Susceptibility with the 
Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility was found to be 0.27 
(z^2.03) which demonstrated that the two scales were significantly 
related. 

There were no significant differences found between the Group 
Scale of Hyperempiric Susceptibility and the Harvard Group Scale 
of Hypnotic Susceptibility utilizing the Student's "f ratio for related 
measures. There was no data present to support any statement for 
the validity of the Group Scale of Hyperempiric Susceptibility. 



Spears, Ann Saywell, (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1972) 



AN OUTLINE FOR THE FOUR REQUIRED COURSES IN ENGLISH 

FOR THE 
ROME CITY HIGH SCHOOLS 

This project develops a sequential English program of language, 
literature, and composition within four quarter courses that will be 
required of all ninth and tenth grade Rome City High School students 
reading on or above their grade level. The four courses teach the basic 
concepts, skills, and terminology necessary for more advanced high 
school work. The guide also includes a logical sequence of experiences 
and activites to develop these concepts and to increase proficiency in 
the language skills. 

55 



The first course, Course A, reviews grammar and usage skills, and 
develops descriptive, narrative, and expository writing and speaking 
skills. In addition, there are suggested procedures for dictionary usage, 
vocabulary development, library study, and effective notetaking. Works 
of literature are suggested to correlate with such writing assignments 
as a persuasive paper, a comparison theme, and an autobiographical 
sketch. 

Course B introduces the student to the various elements of litera- 
ture—plot, conflict, characterization, setting, theme, tone, and 
symboUsm. The emphasis is on perceiving how an author combines 
these elements to create a unified work. The poetry unit deals with 
the vocabulary of poetry. Selected works are suggested. 

Course C continues with the language and composition skills of the 
first course. This course, however, proceeds from the typical faults of 
sentence construction to the more complex and subtle matters of struc- 
ture, style, and euphony. Emphasis is on the connotation of words, along 
with a series of suggestions for study of the history of the English lan- 
guage and dialect study. 

Course D is based upon Northrop Frye's critical theory of narrative 
patterns in Hterature. This guide organizes the "Internal Forms" material 
of the Georgia Design for an English Curriculum into chart form and 
gives illustrations for the patterns of Romance, Irony, Comedy, and 
Tragedy. Composition evolves out of the application of this theory to 
selected works of literature. 

Each course begins with a statement of the overall purpose and a 
list of the behavioral objectives. A general introduction precedes the 
content section of the guides. Each guide concludes with some sugges- 
tions for evaluation and a bibliography for the teacher. 

Stanley, Gloria Meadow (EdS, Secondary Education, August 31, 1972) 

THE EVALUATION OF UNITED STATES HIGH SCHOOL 

HISTOKY TEXTBOOKS IN REFERENCE TO CONFLICTING 

INTERPRETATIONS OF TWENTIETH 

CENTURY FOREIGN POLICY 

This study had a two-fold purpose. First, to examine conflicting 
interpretations of five aspects of twentieth century United States foreign 
policy. A second purpose was to examine high school history textbooks 
and to determine whether they devoted ample space to twentieth cen- 
tury foreign policy, as well as whether the textbook interpretations were 
based on historical data. 

After the study was completed, the following conclusions 
were drawn: 

1. Textbooks devoted adequate treatment to American foreign 
policy in the twentieth century. 

2 Textbook writers consistently presented American foreign 
policy from the traditional interpretation, while the New Left and 

56 



the revisionist interpretations were not as evident in most textbooks. 

3. There was some incongruity in the texts in regard to the amount 
of detail, visual aids and interpretation given to twentieth century 
foreign policy. 

4. Textbooks varied between, as well as within, the different levels 
of reading difficulty in regard to the sophistication with which they 
presented American foreign policy. 

5. Textbooks exhibited both strengths and weaknesses in the pre- 
sentation of twentieth century foreign policy. 

6. Textbooks tended to be patriotic or chauvinistic rather than 
critical or America's foreign policy. 

Willingham, Mary Lynn (EdS, Secondary Education, August, 1972) 

A STUDY OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF PUPILS 

WITH NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD READING VERSUS 

THOSE WITH POSITIVE ATTITUDES TOWARD READING 

An attitudes toward reading scale, developed by Thomas H. Estes, 
was administered by the reading teacher to the seventh grade English 
classes of Cedartown Junior High School, Cedartown, Georgia. The 
scales were scored according to the method prescribed by Estes. The 
highest ten per cent of the scores were chosen for study as the group 
having positive attitudes toward reading; the lowest ten per cent of 
the scores were chosen for study as the group having negative atti- 
tudes toward reading. Study was made of school permanent records 
and telephone interviews with parents to determine differences in 
background characteristics between the two groups. 

The information was statistically analyzed by use of the / test and 
the Chi-square test. Results showed statistically significant differences 
between the two groups as follows: 

1. The negative group had a greater mean days absent in the 
seventh grade. 

2. The negative group had a lower mean reading level in the 
seventh grade. 

3. The negative group had parents with a lower mean of education. 

4. The negative group had a greater mean of boys. 

5. The negative group had a lower mean of use of the public 
library. 

6. The negative group had a greater mean of help with homework. 

Creaghan, Madeleine C. (MA, Psychology, December, 1972) 

A COMPREHENSIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY 
OF A PREOPERATIVE MALE TRANSSEXUAL 

This study presents and discusses material gathered during seven 
interviews with a 35 year old preoperative male transsexual. A biography 

57 



from childhood to the present was obtained and related to a review of 
the literature. The subject was administered projective and non-pro- 
jective tests and a psychological evaluation based on these results is 
given. Finally, it is shown that there is reason to doubt the authenticity 
of some of the subject's verbal accounts and further, that it is question- 
able whether surgery ever should or will be performed on this individual. 

Miller, Marlene Walker (MA, Psychology, December, 1972) 

INDIVIDUALS" RESPONSE TO AFFECTIVE MASSAGE 

According to this thesis, massage is a somatic "technique" promoting 
integration and personal growth by working directly with, through, or 
upon the physical body. From experiencing their body as a source of 
pleasure during massage, individuals feel more positive about their 
bodily being and experience a positive shift in body/self image. This 
positive identification with one"s body helps a person regain contact 
with bodily (sensual) energy. Therapy, or any process that helps indi- 
viduals know themselves, must recognize the significance of touching 
and the importance of awakening the senses for full human development. 
Massage is such a growth experience, encouraging people to be more 
accepting and more aware of themselves. 

The intention of this thesis is to explore how individuals respond 
to full body massage, and includes an analysis of personal descriptions 
of massage as well as a description of the masseuse's experience. This 
study describes different responses based on these operational defini- 
tions: 

Receptive individuals are considered to be those who surren- 
dered to the massage process and felt their consciousness work- 
ing in a different way. Receptive people would experience a 
positive shift in self image, pleasant and/or unusual body sensa- 
tions, freer energy flow, and greater integration. They would 
feel more whole and more connected with their bodies. 

Individuals who responded to particular body sensations and 
who focused attention on body parts and specific strokes are 
considered to be those who would notice changes in breathing 
and especially tense or sensitive areas. They would be aware of 
some release of tension that would free energy, and they would 
feel more relaxed. These people would also mention some posi- 
tive shift in body image. 

Individuals who resisted full involvement with the massage 
experience are considered to be those who remained in control 
and observed the procedure. They would only be aware of ten- 
sion and areas of pain and would possibly feel more relaxed and 
comfortable following the massage. 

To explore these assumptions, twenty people were given a full body 

58 



massage and asked to write "as fully detailed a description as possible" 
of their experience. Five judges analyzed the content of these descrip- 
tions in accord with the categories as defined in the instructions to the 
judges. The original trends predicted were confirmed by the judges' 
analysis of the descriptions. 

Administering the Body Cathexis Questionnaire and the Draw a 
Person Test to individuals in a pilot study provided additional evidence 
that people express a positive shift in body image (defined as the inner 
experience of 'self) following a massage. 

The masseuse's experience of giving a massage is briefly discussed 
as moving meditation. Massage can be understood as a practice in aware- 
ness, in attunement with human nature, and in being available to per- 
ceptions. Massage opens new possibilities for heightened awareness— 
physically, emotionally, and spiritually. 

Starnes, Oren Brown (MA, Psychology, December, 1972) 

THE RELATIONSHIP OF A MEASURE OF SECURITY 
AND A MEASURE OF SELF- ACTUALIZATION 



The study investigated the relationship between the Security-Inse- 
curity Inventory (S-I) and the Personal Orientation Inventory (POD. 
The hypothesis tested was that there is a positive relationship between 
the scores attained on the S-I and the scores attained on the POL Fifty- 
five \olunteer subjects took the S-I and the POI inventories. Pearson 
product-moment coefficients were calculated to establish the relation- 
ship between the scores attained on the S-I and POI. There were no 
statistically significant correlation coefficients established between 
the S-I and the scales of the POL Accordinglv the hypothesis tested in 
the study was rejected. Reason was found to suspect the validity of the 
POI score data and, consequently, also, to suspect the validity of the 
results of the study. The conclusion rejected the hypothesis tested and 
pointed to the necessity of additional studies on the hypothesis tested 
and on the "fake ability" of the POI. 



Ragsdale. Edward Stanton (MA, Psychology, December, 1972) 
MAN IN TIME- TIME IN MAN 

With every step man takes, every word he utters, every thought he 
thinks, every pronouncement he makes, every position he holds, he 
moves within the matrix of time and eternity. To the extent that he is 
alive, he is vulnerable. To the extent that he is vulnerable, he is open 
to change and able to ride with time. To the extent that he can move 
with time and change, even for a moment, he can ghmpse at the timeless. 

59 



He sees himself outside of all that which he is conscious of. Born 
into, and baring himself to, a world of apparent diversity and multi- 
plicity, he seeks to unify it. He observes, and perhaps creates, continui- 
ties and patterns in trying to order his world across space and time. Yet 
the greatest discontinuity, the greatest point of dissonance he experi- 
ences is his own existence. For he now sees himself alone and apart. He 
sees a friend scrape his elbow yet it doesn't hurt him. He knows his 
thoughts and feelings are not essentially accessable to others, without 
at least his invitation. He experiences this same inaccessability in others. 
His life is comprised of a partial glimpse. While perhaps cherishing and 
fostering his separateness he is hurt by it. 

But now conscious of it, outside of it, it is his lot, his desire, to think 
about it. For while actions are soon forgotten, reasons for actions, may- 
be because they are unreal, yet remain. Reasons, he hopes, might last 
forever. So to overcome the dissonance of ephemerality, diversity, 
multiplicity, his sense of alientation, and his awareness of his own 
mortality in the world of action, he seeks reasons. These are his patterns, 
his continuities, his justifications, his excuses. He gets so enthralled 
that he begins to assume that the reasons, and reason, are somehow 
constitutive of actions. 

It is as if one wave of being in the Parade that is without beginning 
or end, stepped over to the curb to get a better view of more of Itself. 
It, hereafter to be called "he," could thus see Itself pass by. He could 
see It begin as It came into sight and end as It disappeared from sight, 
and made up names for the parts of It that he saw pass. And thus he 
came to see time. And as parts of it moved closer to him and then far- 
ther away from him, he came to posit space and distance. And he won- 
dered where It came from and where It was going, beyond his all too 
near horizons. Soon he began to see similarities and maybe even repe- 
titions in the parts of It. Some parts he liked more than other parts, 
and he hoped that those parts or other parts like them would come 
back soon. Sometimes he worried that they wouldn't come again. And 
as he continued to watch the Parade progress, he came to forget that 
he was still part of It. Having forgotten this, he was upset, and he sought 
to join in, and he began to run along beside the Parade, trying at least 
to keep abreast of It. But when he rushed to keep up. It slowed down; 
when he slowed to Its pace. It speeded up. He eventually grew tired and 
rested, and soon he forgot. And as he forgot he remembered. And as he 
remembered he came to join back in. 



60 



ANNUAL FACULTY BffiLIOGRAPHY 
AS OF JANUARY 1, 1973 



Arons. Myron M. 

"Humanistic Psychology: Where Are We." Paper read at the First 
Southeastern Conference for Humanistic Psychology, Eatonton, 
Georgia, Apr., 1972. 

"Philosophical Marks in a Recent Development of American Psy- 
chology." Paper read at the Informal Invitational Conference on 
Parapsychology and Humanistic Psychology, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 
Jul., 1972. 

"New Modes of Higher Education Through a Humanistic Model." 
Paper read at the Seminar on Humanistic Psychology, New Dehh, 
India, Jul., 1972. 

"Current Trends of Humanistic Psychology in Higher Education." 
Paper read at the Seminar on Humanistic Psychology, Bangkok, 
Thailand, Aug., 1972. 

"The Changing Notion of Creativity." Paper read at the Third Inter- 
national Invitational Conference on Humanistic Psychology, Tokyo, 
Japan, Aug., 1972 

"Creativity: Changing Concepts of the New Consciousness." Paper 
read at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association for Humanistic 
Psychology, Oahu, Hawaii, Aug., 1972. 
"Humanistic Psychology in Higher Education: Four Years Develop- 
ment Study of the West Georgia College Program." Paper read at 
the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Association for Humanistic 
Psychology, , Oahu, Hawaii, Aug., 1972. 

"Humanistic Psychology in a Master's Degree Program." Paper 
read at the Symposium on Humanistic Psychology and Graduate 
Education, Convention of the American Psychological Association, 
Honolulu, Hawaii, Sep., 1972. 

"Potentially Yours." Narrator for thirty minute documentary film. 
Hartley Production, Inc., Cos Cob, Connecticut, 1972. 

"Creativity and Education." One hour tape for educational television. 
Honolulu, Hawaii, Sep., 1972. 

"What's It All About." With C. Harari and C. O'Donovan. News- 
letter Association Humanistic Psychology, (Summer, 1972), 1-2. 

Austin, Roger S. 

"The Origin of the Kaolin and Bauxite Deposits of Twiggs, Wilkin- 
son, and Washington Counties, Georgia." Unpublished PhD dis- 

61 



sertation (geology), University of Georgia, 1972. 

"The Origin of Kaolin and Bauxite in Central Georgia." Conference 
Program of the Clay Minerals Society, (1972), 16. (Abstract) 

Barrett, Richard F. 

"Police Professionalism and Public Evaluation: A Research Note," 
Paper read at the Southern Political Science Association Meeting, 
Gatlinburg, Tennessee, Nov., 1971. 

"Police Professionalism and Citizen Evaluation," Governmental 
Research Bulletin, The Florida State University, IX, No. 1 (1971), 
1-2. 

Be all. John A. 

A Strategy for the Reduction of Private Motor Vehicles in a Mili- 
tarv Unit. Ft. McPherson, Georgia: Third U.S. Army Printing Press, 
1972. 

The Private Motor Vehicle Accident Problem in the Military Ser- 
vice. Washington: The Department of the Army, 1972. 

"An Analysis of Characteristics of Private Motor Vehicle Accidents 
in a Military Setting." With W.S. Blumenfeld. Paper read at the 
Georgia Psychological Association Meeting, Macon, Georgia, May, 
1972. 

"The Problem of Private Motor Vehicle Accidents in the Military 
Service." Keynote address made at the U.S., Army World-Wide 
Safety Conference, Washington, D.C., May, 1972. 

"The Problem of Private Motor Vehicle Accidents in a Major Unit 
of the U.S. Army." Keynote address made at the Safety Conference 
of the U.S. Army, Europe, Numbered Armies and Major Commands, 
Heidelberg, West Germany, Jul., 1972. 

"Development of a Psychometric Procedure to Forecast Private 
Motor Vehicle Accidents Within a Military Sample." With W.S. 
Blumenfeld. Paper read at the Annual Convention of the American 
Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, Jul., 1972. 

Belt, Bobby. D. 

"Isomerism in HI Sn." With R.E. Holland and F.J. Lynch. Bulletin of 
the Southeastern Section of the American Physical Society of the 
American Physical Society, XXXIX (1972), 17. (Abstract). 

Blanton, Floyd L. 

"Games in the Mathematics Classroom." Paper read at Georgia 
Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Gainsville, Georgia, Oct., 
1972. 

62 



"Operation SNAP and Other Mathematical Models." Paper read 
at the Andalusia Meeting of the Alabama Mathematics Teachers, 
Andalusia, Alabama, Nov., 1972. 

Bowdre, Paul H. 

"Method and Reality: The Significance of Recent Investigations 
in the Area of Meaning." Paper read at the Second Annual Sym- 
posium on Method and Reality, Salisbury, North Carolina, Feb., 
1972. 

Boyd, Herman W. 

" A General Physics Course for Secondary School Teachers." With 
B.E. Powell. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, XVIII, 

No. 2 (1972), 255. 

Bryson, Thomas A. 

"Journal of a Journey to the Near East, Walter George Smith." 
Armenian Review, XXV, Part I (Spring, 1972), 61-70. 

"The National Archives and the Biographer." Prologue: The Journal 
of the National Archives, IV (Fall, 1972), 157-60. 

"Diary of a Journey of Walter George Smith to the International 
Philamenian League, Nov. 2, 1920 — Jan. 31, 1921. Armenian Re- 
view, XXVI (Summer, 1972), 55-75. 

Byron, Dora L. 

"Sacred Harp Singing." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Maga- 
zine, Dec. 3, 1972, 60-69. 

Claxton. Robert H. 

Review of Don Helder Camara: The Violence of a Peacemaker 
by Jose' de Broucker. Records of the American Catholic Historical 
Society, LXXXIII, No. 2 (1972), 112-114. 

Cox, James W. 

"A Critical Examination of Paul Ricoeur's Philosophy of Decision 
and Action." Unpublished PhD dissertation (philosophy), Vander- 
bilt University, 1972. 

Crawford, Thomas, J. 

"Western Georgia Piedmont Between the Cartersville and Brevard 
Fault Zones." With J.H. Medlin. Southeastern Section Program of 
Geological Society of America, IV, No. 2 (1972), 68. (Abstract). 

63 



"Structure and Stratigraphy Along the Brevard Fault Zone in West- 
ern Georgia and Eastern Alabama." With J.H. Medlin, H.W. Dailey, 
and J. Baldwin. Southeastern Section Program of the Geological 
Society of America, IV, No. 2 (1972). (Abstract) 

de Mayo, Benjamin 

"Magnetism in Gold-Iron Alloys Below 14 at % Fe." Magnetism 
and Magnetic Materials. 1971 AIP Conference Proceedings No. 5 

CD. Graham, Jr. and J.J. Rhyme, co-editors. New York- American 

Institute of Physics, 1972, pp. 492-496. 

"A Mossbauer Study of Iron-Aluminum." Bulletin of the American 
Physical Society, XVII (1972), 195. (Abstract) 

DeVillier, John L. 

"Communication Effects of Variations in Organization and Format." 

The ABCA Journal of Business Communication, IX, No. 3 (1972), 

5-18. 
"Citation Indexing- A Research Tool for Business." Paper read at 

the Southern Management Association Convention, Washington, 

D.C., Nov., 1972. 

Edwards, Corliss H. 

"The Sea in Four Romantic Poems." West Georgia College Review, 
V, No. 1(1971), 29-34. 

"A Foggy Scene in Deliverance." Notes on Contemporary Litera- 
ture, II (Nov., 1972), 7-9. 

"Lanier's 'The Symphony'." Explicator, XXXI, No. 4 (1972), item 27. 

Edwards, Don A. 

Descriptive Statistics. With A.S. Jackson. Houston, Texas: Houston 
Teacher Center, 1972. (Instructional materials) 

Measure Theory. With A.S. Jackson. Houston, Texas: Houston 
Teacher Center, 1972. (Instructional materials) 

Classroom Evaluation. With A.S. Jackson. Houston, Texas: Houston 
Teacher Center, 1972. (Instructional materials) 

Topics in Instructional Design. Carrollton, Georgia: West Georgia 
College, 1972. (Instructional materials) 

Eslinger, Eric V. 

"Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Lx)w-Grade Metamor- 
phic and Argillaceous Rocks." Unpublished PhD dissertation 

64 



(geology), Case Western Reserve University, 1971. 

"A Carbonate Sand Bar Near Bahia Honda Key, Florida." With S.F. 
Huffman, G.G. Anderson, and C.A. Orosco. Paper read at the Geo- 
logical Society of America, Lexington, Kentucky, 1970. 

"Oxygen Isotope Studies of the Hydrothermally Altered Tuffs of 
Broadlands, New Zealand." With S.M. Savin. Paper read at the 
API Symposium on Diagenesis of Sandstones and Shales, Denver, 
Colorado, Dec, 1970. 

"Oxygen Isotope Studies of Hydrothermal Alteration and Burial 
Diagenesis." With S.M. Savin. Paper read at the Clay Minerals 
Conference, Rapid City, North Dakota, Aug., 1971. 

"Oxygen Isotope Studies of Burial Metamorphism of the Belt Super- 
group, Glacier National Park, Montana." With S.M. Savin. Paper 
read at the Geological Society of America, Washington, D.C., 
Nov., 1971. 

"An X-Ray Technique for Distinguishing Between Detrital and 
Secondary Quartz in the Fine-Grained Fraction of Sedimentary 
Rocks." With L.M. Mayer, T.L. Durst, J. Hower, and S.M. Savin. 
Paper read at the Twenty-First Clay Minerals Conference, Woods 
Hole, Massachusetts, 1972. 

Esslinger, W. Glenn 

"Cholesterol: Methods of Control." With J.L. Grogan. West Georgia 
College Review. V, No. 1 (1972), 8-11. 

Drugs: The Fallen Angels? With J.L. Grogan. Bremen, Georgia: 
Gateway Printing Co., 1972. (Pamphlet) 

"Recruiting Science Teachers and Upgrading the Quality of Existing 
Program." With J.M. Maddox. Paper read at the Georgia Academy 
of Science, Athens, Georgia, Apr., 1972. 

"A Model for Pre-Service Science Teacher Preparation: Recruit- 
ing Prospective Science Teachers." Invited paper read at the Area 
NSTA Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, Oct., 1972 
GSTP: Upgrading Pre-Service Science Teachers." Invited paper 
read at the Area NSTA Meeting, New Orleans, Louisiana, Nov., 
1972. 

Ferling. John E. 

"Joseph Galloway: A Reassessment of the of the Motivations of a 
Pennsylvania Loyalist." Pennsylvania Historw XXXIX (Apr., 1972), 
163-86. 

Finnie, Gordon E. 

"Employment Trends and Manpower Needs in Georgia, 1970-1985." 

65 



Paper read at the Chattahoochee-Flint Area Manpower Planning 
Board, CarroUton, Georgia, Dec, 1972. 

Folk. Richard A. 

"Black Man's Burden in Ohio, 1849-1863." Unpublished PhD dis- 
sertation (history), Universtiy of Toledo, 1972. 

"Black Politics in Ante-Bellum Ohio: Steps Toward Maturity, 1835- 
1865." Paper read at the Association for the Study of Negro Life 
and History, Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct., 1972. 

"Ohio's Ante-Bellum Black History." The Alumnus of The Univer- 
sity of Toledo. XIX, No. 5 (1972), 14-15. 

Gannon. Gerald M. 

"Doctoral Dissertations on D.H. Lawrence: Bibliographical Adden- 
da." D.H. Lawrence Review, V, No. 2 (1972), 170-73. 

"The Summer Course on 'Lawrence and England'." D.H. Lawrence 
Review, V, No. 2 (1972), 177-78. 

"Conrad and His Art: His Future." Invited paper read at the Second 
International Conference of Conrad Scholars, London, England, 
Sep., 1972. 

"Roderick Usher: Portrait of the Madman as an Artist." Poe Studies. 
V, No. 1 (1972), 11-14. 

Editor, Georgia-South Carolina College English Association News- 
letter. I, 1969-III, 1972. 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review. II 1969 — 

Gannon, Lucille B. 

"Presenting the Atom-Simplification or Accuracy?" Letter in the 
Physics Teacher. X (Mar., 1972), 114. 

"A Mathematical Model for Combining Inherent Astigmatism with 
Externally-Adjustable Astigmatism in the Electron Microscope." 
With Marian Sanders. Paper read by Miss Sanders at the Georgia 
Academy of Science, Athens, Georgia, Apr., 1972. 

"Experimental Physical Science for Elementary School Teachers." 
With W.L. Lockhart and H.M. Madeley. Paper read at the Georgia 
Academy of Science, Athens, Georgia, Apr., 1972. 

Gibbons, Don E. 

"Hyperempiria: Beyond Hypnosis." Paper read at the First South- 
eastern Conference for Humanistic Psychology, Eatonton, Georgia, 
Apr., 1972. 

"Hypnotic Susceptibility and Rehgious Experience." With J. De 

66 



Jarnette. Paper read at the Convention of the American Psychologi- 
cal Association, Honolulu, Hawaii, Sep., 1972. 

"Lowering the Auditory Threshold with Hypnosis." With R. Cooper. 
Paper read at the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 
Boston, Massachusetts, Oct., 1972. 

"Beyond Hypnosis." Paper read at the Asso-^iation to Advance Ethi- 
cal Hypnosis, Orlando, Florida, Oct., 1972. 

"Hypnosis and Hyperempiria." Paper read at Kansas State College, 
Pittsburg, Kansas, Nov., 1972. 

Griffith, Benjamin W. 

"Midnight Cowboys and Edwardian Narrators: James Leo Herlihy's 
Contrasting Voices." Notes on Contemporary Literature, II (Jan., 

1972), 6-7. 

"Csardas at Salt Springs: Southern Culture in 1888." The Georiga 

Review, XXVI (Spring, 1972), 52-59. 
"They Traveled with Mark Twain." Atlanta Journal-Constitution 

Magazine, Mar. 19, 1972, pp. 16-19. 
"In 1437 What Made Katie Bar the Door?" Sports and Travel, VII 

(Nov.-Dec, 1972), 21. 

Grogan, Jack L. 

"Cholesterol: Methods of Control." With W. Glenn Esslinger. West 
Georgia College Review, V, No. 1 (1972), 8-11. 

Hahn, H.S. 

"A Counting Function of Integral n-Triples." Fibonacci Quarterly, 
X, No. 6 (1972), 609-13. 

Haltresht, Michael 

"Disease Imagery in Conrad's The Secret Agent." Psychology and 
Literature, XXI, No. 2 (1971), 101-106. 

""The Wall: John Hersey's Interpretation of the Ghetto Experience." 
Notes on Contemporary Literature^ II, No. 1 (1972), 10-11. 

"The Gods of Conrad's A^o^fromo. "Renascence, XXIV, No. 4 (1972), 
207-13. 

Harendza, Michael J. 

Public Recital: Solo and Chamber Music, Georgia State Univer- 
sity, Atlanta, Georgia, Jan., 1972. 
Public Recital: Solo, Carrollton, Georgia, Jun., 1972. 

67 



Invited Recital: Solo, Georgia Music Teachers Association, Colum- 
bus, Georgia, Nov., 1972. 

Invited Recital: Accompanied solo voice, Georgia Music Teachers 
Association, Columbus, Georgia, Nov., 1972. 

Public Recital: Accompanied voice, Clayton Junior College, Mor- 
row, Georgia, Nov., 1972. 

Hecht, Alan D. 

"Phenotypic Variation and Oxygen Isotope Ratios in Recent Plank- 
tonic Foraminifera." With S.M. Savin. Journal of Foraminiferal 
Research, II, No, 2 (1972), 55-67. 

"The Application of Computer Analysis to Geologic Problems." 
With J. Medlin, H. Madeley, J. A. Howell, and A. Irby. Geological 
Society of America, IV, (1972), 79. (Abstract) 

"A New Model for Estimating Pleistocene Ocean Temperatures 
from Planktonic Foraminiferal Assemblages." Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Association of Petroleum Geologists, LVI (1972), 624. (Ab- 
stract) 

"Diversity and Age Relationships in Recent and Miocene Bivalves." 
With B. Agan Systematic Zoology, XXI, No. 3 (1972), 308-12. 
"A Model for Determining Pleistocene Paleotemperatures from 
Planktonic Foraminiferal Assemblages: Application to the Atlan- 
tic Ocean." American Quaternary Association, (Dec, 1972), 24-33. 

Herbert. Paul C. 

"A Concept of the Educational Needs of Youth in Contemporary 
Society and the 'New Curricula'." Unpublished EdD dissertation 
(education), Florida State University, 1972. 

Holmes, Y. Lynn 

"Compass Points for Old Testament Study — A Review." The Out- 
look, XXI (Jul.-Aug., 1972), 40-41. 

"The Messengers of the Amarna Letters." Paper read at the Ameri- 
can Oriental Society, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Apr., 1972. 

Huck. Eugene, R. 

"Economic Experimentation in a Newly Independent Nation: Colom- 
bia under Francisco de Paula Santander, 1821-1840." The Americas, 
XXIX, No. 1 (1972), 17-29. 

Editor, West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences, VI, 
1967- 

Editor, West Georgia College Review, I, 1968 — 

68 



Editor, SECOLAS Annals, I, 1969 — (Acronym for Southeastern 
Conference on Latin American Studies). 



Kennedy, Benjamin 

"Revolutionary Expansionism and the Directory's Irish PoHcy." 
Paper read at the Inter-University Consortium on Revolutionary 
Europe, 1750-1850, Columbia, South Carohna, Feb., 1972. 

Klee, James B. 

Excerpts from a memorial address. Abraham H. Maslow: A Memo- 
rial Volume. Bertha G. Maslow, editor. Belmont, California: Brooks 
Cole, 1972, pp. 9-13. 
"An Hour with Klee." Paper read at the Firs* Southeastern Con- 
ference for Humanistic Psychology. Eatonton, Georgia, Apr.. 1972. 

"Mythological Elements in Humanities or the Arts as Communal 
Endeavors." Paper read at Kathy Cashen Hall. West Georgia Col- 
lege, Carrollton, Georgia, Jul., 1972. 

"Contradictions of the Cross." Paper read at the International So- 
ciety for the Study of Symbols. Waikiki, Hawaii, Sep., 1972. 

"A Conversation Hour with James B. Klee." Invited paper read at 
the American Psychological Association, Wakiki, Hawaii, Sep., 
1972. 

Larson, Lewis H. 

"Functional Considerations of Warfare in the Southeast During the 
Mississippi Period." American Antiguitv, XXXVII, No. 3 (1972), 
383-92. 

Lockhart. William L. 

"Recruiting Science Teachers and Upgrading the Quality of Existing 
Programs." With W.G. Esslinger and J.M. Maddox. Bulletin of the 
Georgia Academy of Science. XXX (Apr., 1972), 101. (Abstract) 

"Experimental Physical Science for Elementary School Teachers." 
With L.B. Garmon and H.M. Madeley. Bulletin of the Georgia 
Academy of Science, XXX (Apr., 1972). 102. (Abstract) 

Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969 — 

McClain, John 

"How the New College-Age Voter in Texas Views the Rights of 
Policemen to Unionize and Strike." The Police Chief, XXXIX 
(Nov., 1972), 67-69. 

69 



"The Role and Impact of the Supreme Court and Judicial Decision- 
Making in the Evolution of American Federahsm." Georgia State 
Bar Journal, VIII (May, 1972), 457-83. 

"How Do Young Georgians Vote?" Atlanta Journal. Forum, Dec. 30, 

1972. p. 2A. 

McTeer, J. Hugh 

"Music in the Teaching of Social Studies." Paper read at the Georgia 
Seventh District Council of Social Studies, Rome, Georgia, Oct., 
1972. 

MacLean, John T. 

"Sanctus and Benedictus." Composition performed at the Fine Arts 
Festival, West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia, May, 1972. 

"Portrait for Flute, Bassoon and Strings." Composition performed 
by the Oklahoma City Symphony Orchestra, Mar., 1972. 

Mathews. James W. 

"The House of Atreus and The House of the Seven Gables. "Ameri- 
can Literature Abstracts, V (Dec, 1971), 130. 

Meehan, Virginia M. 

"Teaching Sophomore Literature Survey Courses." Paper read at 
the Georgia- South Carolina College English Association, Carroll- 
ton, Georgia, May, 1972. 

Mixon, Val G. 

"Another Look at Annexation" and "Where is the Loyalty for Atlan- 
ta" Atlanta Journal Forum, Sep. 23, 1972. 

Mykkeltvedt. Roald Y. 

"Fourteenth Amendment Procedural Due Process: From the Fair 
Trail Rule to Selective Incorporation." Georgia State Bar Journal, 

IX, No. 2 (1972), 157-185. 

Nix, Pearl 

"A Study of Value Judgements in a Sample of Adults From Two West 
Georgia Counties." West Georgia College Review, V, No. 1 (1972), 
35-48. 

70 



Perry, James Earl 

"On Duods and Hereditarily Duodic Continua." Notices of the Ameri- 
can Mathematical Society, XXIX, No. 4 (1972), A-546 (Abstract) 

"A Note on Unions of Duods." Notices of the American Mathemati- 
cal Society, XXIX, No. 5 (1972), A-611.' (Abstract) 

"A Second Note on Unions of Duods." Notices of the American 
Mathematical Society, XXIX, No. 6 (1972), A-724 (Abstract) 

"A Note on Hereditarily Duodic Continua." Notices of the Ameri- 
can Mathematical Society, XXIX, No. 7 (1972), A-770. (Abstract) 

Powell Bobby E. 

"What Are Those Clouds? Barium Gas!" West Georgia College Re- 
view, V, No. 1 (1972), 26-28. 

"Growth of L- Alanine Filamentary Crystal." With B. Madden. Bulle- 
tin of the Georgia Academy of Science, XXX (Apr., 1972), 90. 
(Abstract) 

"Combinations of Third-Order Elastic Constants of Tin." With 
M.J. Skove. Physica Status Solidi, IX (1972), K11-K14. 

"The Effect of Thermal Cycling on the Resistance and Morphology 

of InBi Single Crystals and Polycrystals." With R.B. Lai and J.H. 

Davis. Journal of the Less Common Metals, XXVII (1972), 367- 

370. 
"A General Physics Course for Secondary School Teachers." With 

H.W. Boyd. Bulletin of the American Physical Society, XVIII, No. 2 

(1972), 255. 

Quertermus, Carl J., Jr. 

"Experience as a Factor in Habitat Selection in the Cichlid Fish, 
Tilapia mossambica."' Unpublished PhD dissertation (biology), 
Michigan State University, 1972. 

"A Key to the North American Species of Lepisosteus (Class Pisces) 
Based on the Cleithrum." Transactions of the Illnois State Academy 
of Science, LX, No. 1 (1967), 45-48. 

"Development and Significance of Two Motor Patterns Used in 
Contacting Parents by Young Orange Chromides (Etroplus mac- 
ulatus)r Animal Behavior, XVII, No. 4 (1969), 624-35. 

Rao, Jaganmohan L. 

"Communication Channels in the Innovative-Decision Process: 
Some Dimensions of the Channel Concept and Tentative Hypoth- 

71 



eses." Paper read at the International Communication Association 
Meeting, Atlanta. Georgia, Apr., 1972. 

Status Inconsistency and Modernization in Three Indian Villages: 
Technical Report 13-Project on the Diffusion of Innovations in 
Rural Societies. East Lansing. Michigan: Michigan State Univer- 
sity, 1972. 

"Channels of Communication in the Innovative-Decision Process: 
A Review and a Reconceptualization." Paper read at the Third 
World Congress of Rural Sociology, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Aug., 

1972. 

"Status Inconsistency and Modernization: The Indian Case." Paper 
read at the Third World Congress of Rural Sociology, Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana, Aug., 1972. 

Renshaw. J. Parke 

"Up-dating on Spiritism in Brazil." Latin American Studies Asso- 
ciation Newsletter. III. No. 3 (1972), 36-38. 

"O Humor em laid Garcia e Brds Cubas." Luso-Brazilian Review, IX, 
No. 1 (1972), 13-20. 

"Foreign-Language and Intercultural Studies in Present-Day College 
Cmncula." Journal of Higher Education. XLIII, No. 4 (1972), 295- 
302. 

Sharp, Thomas J. 

A Note on Projection-Invariant Subgroups." Notices of the Ameri- 
can Mathematical Society, XIX, No. 5 ( 1972), A-568. (Abstract) 
"An Additional Note on Projection-Invariance." Notices of the 

American Mathematical Society. XIX, No. 6 (1972), A-688. (Ab- 
stract). 

Short, Verl M. 

"A Study of the Conceptual Systems and Role Expectations in 
Teacher Collective Negotiation in Selected School Districts 
in Northern Illinois." Unpublished EdD dissertation (education). 
Northern Illinois University, 1967. 

Current Salary Practices in Northern Illinois. With Philip C. 

Wells. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 1964. 
(Pamphlet). 

Explorations In Selected Problems of Adult Education. DeKalb, 
Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 1965. 

Survey of Illinois Colleges Study Relating to the Preparation of 
School Administrators. With P.C. Wells. DeKalb, Illinois: North- 

72 



ern Illinois University Press, 1965. (Pamphlet) 

Speaking About Adults and the Continuing Education Process. 
With P.R. Carter. DeKalb, lUinois: Northern Illinois University 
Press, 1966 and 1967. 

United States Teacher Certification Map (A Guide to Elementary 
and Secondary State Teacher Requirements). With P.C. Wells. 
DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 1967, 1969, 
and 1971. (Map) 

"Social Studies Reading Material Problems." Florida Reading 
Quarterly. IV, No. 3 (1968), 29-31. 

"The First 'R' in the Kindergarten." Florida Reading Quarterly, 

VI, No, 1 (1969), 32-35. 
"Greatest Problem Facing Education in Nova Scotia Today." 

Nova Scotia Teachers Union Newsletter. VIII, No. 11 (1970), 

1-3. 

"Selection and Training of Adult Educators." With P.R. Carter. 

Nova Scotia Journal of Education. XIX, No. 5 (1970), 33-35. 
"In-Service Teacher Training for Adult Literacy Problems." With 

P.R. Carter. Nova Scotia Journal of Education, XIX. No. 2 (1970), 

40-44. 
"Education Numbers Racket, Let's Take the Number Mystique 
Out of Education." School Progress, XXXIX, No. 5. (1970), 
52-54. 

Early Childhood Education for Today and Tomorrow. New 
York: Simon And Schuster, 1970, 1971. 

"Possible Oversupply of Teachers in the 70's?" Nova Scotia Teachers 
Union Newsletter. X, No. 6 (1970), 1-2. 

A Selected Collection of Fingerplays and Poems for Use in Early 
Childhood Education. With Sharon Jenks. Halifax. Nova Scotia: 
Nova Scotia Preschool Education Association, 1971. 
A Big Problem for Little People. With G. Eade, Janet McCracken. 
G. Hillis, and Jane Norman. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia 
Preschool Education Association, 1971. 

"Don't Sit Still. Jimmy." With Jane Norman. Nova Scotia Teachers 
Union Newsletter, x', No.21 (1971), 3-4. 

"The Goals of Early Childhood Education." Nova Scotia Teachers 
Union Newsletter, X, No. 22 (1971), 2-4. 

"What is the Oper Classroom?" Nova Scotia Teachers Union News- 
letter.X, No. 10, (1972), 3-5. 

Guiding Your Young Child Through School With R. Robbins 
and G. Hillis. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nova Scotia Preschool Educa- 
tion Association, 1972. 

"The Open Classroom." Education Canada, XII, No. 2 (1972), 4-9. 

73 



Slaughter, Richard A. 

Compiled and edited, American Policy Toward Southern Africa, 
for the Colorado Education Association, 1971. 

Steely, Melvin 

"Operation 'Magic Fire': Germany's Involvement in the Spanish 
Civil War." West Georgia College Review, V, No. 1 (1972), 12-25. 

Van Cott, Theodore N. 

"Wealth, Income and the Transfer Problem." Unpubl'shed PhD 
dissertation (economics). University of Washington, 1969. 

"An Abstract of Michael Polanyi, A Keynesian Monetarist: Money 
in the Keynesian Revolution." With P.C. Roberts. Paper read at 
the Western Economics Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, 
1971. 

"A Note on the Theory of Efficient Transfers." With G. Santoni. 
Kyklos, XXV (Dec, 1972), 829-34. 

Weaver, David C. 

"The Transport Expansion Sequence in Georgia and the Carolinas 
1670-1900: A Search for Spatial Regularities." Unpublished PhD 
dissertation (geography). University of Florida, 1972. 

"Industrial Location in the Seventeenth Century: An English Ex- 
ample." Virginia Geographer, VI, No. 2 (1971), 3-7. 

"A Country Called Black: Some Observations on the Resilience 
of Coketown." West Georgia College Review, V, No. 1 (1972), 3-7. 

Welch, Robert M. 

"Mitochondrial Swelling and Abnormal Calcium Uptake in Liver 
and Kidney of the Homozygous Grey-Lethal Mouse." With M.M. 
Cruce and J.M. Maddox. Genetics, LXXI (1972), s 13. (Abstract) 



74 



Published by 
WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



Ward B. Pafford, President 
John M. Martin, Academic Dean 



Learning Resources Committee 
Chairman, Chester Gibson 

Mary Baxter Lynn Holmes 

Thomas A. Bryson Al Irby 

Tom Carrere Kathy Martin 

Lafaye Cobb Roald Y. Mykkeltvedt 

Don L. Crawford T.D. Seiber 

Mary Creamer Vernon Zander 

Gerald M. Garmon, Editor 
William L. Lockhart, Associate Editor 



The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the facutly of 
West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major re- 
citals and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted 
are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and 
appears in the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all 
master's theses and educational specialist's projects written at West 
Georgia College are included as they are awarded. 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



REVIEW 



Volume VII May, 1974 

TABLE 

of 

CONTENTS 

Mice, Men and Gods Lynn Holmes 3 

The Proletarian Revolution and the International Energy 

Crisis: A Third World View Daniel A. Offiong 11 

On The Problem of Human Problems James B. Klee 20 

» 

Black Poverty: A Difference in Degree 

in the South James R O'Malley 25 

Solar Eclipses B.E. Powell 37 

Management and the Nature of Man /. Lincoln DeVillier 

and Mary Anne G. DeVillier 43 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 51 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1, 1973 76 



Copyright © 1974, West Georgia College 

Printed in U.S.A. 

Thomasson Printing Co., Carrollton, Georgia 30117 

1 



MICE, MEN AND GODS 

by Y. LYNN HOLMES* 



When one now thinks of our modern pest control programs, the 
frightened housewife and the experimental laboratory, it is very diffi- 
cult to conceive of a time when the small furry rodent, which we call 
a mouse, could ever have been in a place of importance. However, if 
one reads carefully through the literature of ancient Israel, Anatolia, 
Mesopotamia, Egypt and Greece, it becomes quite evident that the 
little mouse was a rather important and frequent participant in the 
religious lore of the ancient world. 

One of the best known of these "mice" tales appears in I Samuel 6 
where there is the occurrence of the five golden mice. You will of course 
remember that the Israelites carried the Ark of the Covenant into battle 
against the Philistines with the full hope that this holy object would bring 
them better military fortune than they had had before. Such hope was 
in vain, because the Philistines not only defeated the Hebrews, but also 
captured the sacred Ark and carried it to the temple of their god Dagon. 
Soon, however, they began to have trouble with Dagon falling, and their 
bodies became afflicted with a plague of hemorrhoids. With this prob- 
lem occurring, the Ark was passed from one Philistine city to another 
with the plague following it to every place. The decision was then made 
to send the Ark back to the Hebrews, and the text states that five golden 
hemorrhoids and five golden mice were made to accompany the ox- 
drawn cart carrying the sacred Hebrew shrine. 

There are numerous questions which should be asked in connec- 
tion with this story, and not the least of these is why five golden mice 
should appear. In the story the explanation is made that the golden 
mice and hemorrhoids are to be a guilt or trespass offering to the God 
of Israel. 1 It is not so difficult to understand why the golden hemor- 
rhoids appear, because the ancient concept of sympathetic magic would 
be interpreted as having the golden hemorrhoids to portray the real 
hemorrhoids which would be leaving from the afflicted people as the 
Ark and the golden hemorrhoids leave the land of the Philistines. This 
still does not answer the question about the mice, because no relation- 
ship has been seen between them and the hemorrhoids and the troubles 
of the Philistines. 

To answer this question, numerous suggestions have been made. 
H.P. Smith regards the references to the mice as a reaction and con- 
sequently removes them whenever they appear. A more frequent 
answer, which has been supported by Biblical scholars, such as Julius 
Wellhausen, and medical doctors alike, is that the pestilence on the 
Philistines was the bubonic plague and that the hemorrhoids were 

•Associate Professor of History, West Georgia College. 



^ I Samuel 6:4 (trespass offering) 



plague buboes. 2 This theory received particular attention from W.J. 
Simpson in his A Treatise on Plague and from Topley and Wilson's 
Principles of Bacteriology and Immunity. A more recent and different 
picture has been offered by J.F.D. Shrewsbury of the Department of 
Bacteriology at the University of Birmingham. In his article called "The 
Plauge of the Philistines," he points out that the balck mouse which 
carried the plagues of the Middle Ages used human dwellings for its 
breeding and living and thus came into close enough contact to pass 
the bubonic plague on to humans. The mouse of the ancient world, 
however, was a brown mouse which inhabited the fields and conse- 
quently could not have come into close enough contact to give the 
plague to humans. He therefore concluded that there was no connec- 
tion between the hemorrhoids and the mice.^ 

Agreeing with Shrewsbury, the Septuagint gives what is probably 
the best explanation to this perplexing problem. In the story which is 
told there, mice appear more frequently than in the Hebrew text. This 
same thing is also true of the Vulgate. For example, in I Samuel 5:6 the 
Greek text has an addition to the Hebrew text and reads as follows: 
"And in the villages and fields in the midst of that country, there came 
forth a multitude of mice." Another addition occurs in I Samuel 6:1 and 
states "their land swarmed with mice." An addition also appears in I 
states "their land swarmed with mice." An addition also appears in 
I Samuel 6:5 where it relates that the objects were made in the "likeness 
of the mice that have destroyed the land." It should also be noted that 
the Hebrew text in this particular verse also includes the destruction of 
the land as a part of the Philistine plague. Thus according to the tradi- 
tion of the Septuagint and the Vulgate, there were two plagues, one 
which afflicted the body with hemorrhoids and the other which brought 
mice to ravage the land. 

This same type of explanation is given by Josepheus. In commenting 
on this passage, he states that "as to the fruits of their country, a great 
multitude of mice arose out of the earth and hurt them and spared 
neither the plants nor the fruits."'* Later he states that they made five 
golden mice "like to those that devoured and destroyed their country."^ 

It must also be mentioned that this is not the only time that mice 
appear in Hebraic literature. One passage occurs in Leviticus 11:29 
the mouse is mentioned along with other burrowing animals as being 



2 Interpreter's Bible, II, 905. 

3 J.F.D. Shrewsbury, "The Plague of the Philistines", Journal of Hygiene, 
XLVII (1949), p. 245. 

^ Josepheus VI, i, 171. Such a plague as this was not uncommon in the ancient 
world. Aelian records that an invasion of fieldmice drive certain people in Italy 
from their native country and made them exiles, as a drought or frost or some 
other unseasonable event might have done by shearing away ears of com and 
cutting through the roots (See Aelian, On Animals, XVII, 41). 
5 Josepheus VI, 2, 172. 

4 



unclean. A more interesting passage appears in Isaiah 66:17, but unfor- 
tunately the reference is brief and unclear. Here the mouse is eaten by 
a group in the garden who are also eating swine's flesh and detestable 
things. This seems to be telling about the ritualistic practices of an 
apostate group, and it is quite possible that the mouse was regarded as 
sacred by them and that it was eaten sacramentally. It is also interesting 
that there is a proper name which comes from the Hebrew word for 
mouse. This name appears in Genesis 36: 38 and 39 and I Chronicles 
1:49 as a name of an Edomite king and in II Kings 22:12 and 14; 
Jeremiah 26:22 and 36:12 as a Hebrew name. 

From Hebrew literature it thus appears that the mouse was a vehicle 
used by the God of Israel to punish the Philistines and that it became 
a symbol of relief for the Philistines who made a golden image of this 
little creature. Additionally, the mouse was considered most unsacred 
by some elements of the ancient Hebrews, but seemingly sacred by 
others. This small furry rodent was also important enough that personal 
names became based on its name. Thus it can be seen that even though 
the mouse played a small part in Hebrew religious literature, it was an 
important part. 

Because of the close connections between ancient Israel and an- 
cient Egypt, one should expect to find some similar "mice" tales in the 
religious literature of Egypt and such is indeed the case. One interest- 
ing story of Egyptian mice appears in the second book of the Histories 
of Herodotus. Here Herodotus relates the account of Senacharib, the 
king of Assyria, brought a great army to fight against the Egyptians. 
Against such a strong army the Egyptian soldiers refused to fight, so 
the Egyptian king, Sethos, went into the temple of the god Ptah, and 
cried to the god about the peril which threatened them. During the 
prayer the king went to sleep and the god spoke to him in a dream tell- 
ing him that he should not worry because the god "will send you cham- 
pions." The king trusted the vision and with his few remaining troops 
he encamped on the borders of Egypt at Pelusium. As the Assyrians 
camped opposite them that night, a multitude of fieldmice swarmed 
over the Assyrian camp and devoured their quivers, their bows and 
the handles of their shields to such an extent that they fled the next 
day unarmed. After this miraculous event, there was placed in the 
temple of Ptah a stone statue of the Egyptian king with a mouse in his 
hand, and an inscription stating: "Look on me, and fear the gods."^ 

Another interesting "mouse" story coming from Egypt is connected 
with the saga of Set and Osiris. In this story Set managed to kill Osiris 
and then scattered his body all over the world. Osiris had a son named 
Horus, and Set wished to kill Horus also, lest he should become his 
enemy and the claimant of the throne of Osiris. As he attempted to do 
so, wise Thoth came out of heaven and gave warning unto Isis, the 
mother of Horus, and she fled with her child into the night. She took 
refuge in Buto, where she gave Horus into the keeping of Uazit, the 



8 Herodotus II, 141. 



virgin goddess of the city. Whenever Set came near, Uazit took the form 
of a mouse to escape him, and thus according to Egyptian tradition, 
the mouse became sacred to the goddess Uazit.'' 

The importance of the mouse in Egypt is further shown by the fact 
that Strabo includes it in a Hst of the animals which were worshipped 
in Egypt. According to this list, the mouse was worshipped by the Ath- 
ribitae or dwellers in Crocodilipolis.^ 

From this discussion it can be seen that Egyptian religious tradi- 
tions frequently deal with mice. One story shows how mice were used 
by a god to punish an enemy by destroying his weapons, just as the 
Hebrew god sent the mice to punish the Philistines by ravaging their 
land. Because of this the lowly mouse became exalted and was thought 
of as a holy object. 

Neither is the mouse missing in Akkadian religious literature. It 
appears in the literature as the Sumerian ideogram PESv which is 
the equivalent of Akkadian hu-um-si-ru. Although this little creature 
is not included in any important mythological stories of ancient Meso- 
potamia, it does appear numerous times in the literature as a figure of 
speech in the form of a simile or metaphor. It also appears as a divine 
name 8 Hu-mu-si-ru in reference to the god 8 MAR.TU. There are 
likewise many masculine and feminine personal names which are form- 
ed from this word, just as is true in Hebrew literature.^ These things 



' Donald A. Mackenzie, Egyptian Myth and Legend, London: The Gresham 
Publishing Co., p. 16. 
^ Strabo XVII, 40. It should also be noted that artist forms of the mouse also 
appear in numerous tombs in Egypt. Andrew Lang in his book Custom and Myth 
points out on page 113 that there is a green mouse containing the throne-name 
of Thotmes III on its base, and thus it would appear that the mouse was used 
as a substitute for the sacred scarab. The writer observed while going through 
the Egyptian section of the British Museum a painted steatite mouse with 
wooden movable lower jaw and tail, a glazed composition figure of a mouse, 
a bronze mouse sacred to Horus, and a bronze mouse with two winged disk 
and a flying vulture on its back. There are probably numerous other examples 
in the British Museum and other museums of this important little creature. 
Also there is a picture from Egypt in a book by Andre Lhate, La Peinture 
Egyptienne pi. 167, which depicts a mouse standing behind a lady who is in 
front of the god Osiris. 
^ I.J. Gelb, et al (eds.) CAD: The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institute 
of the University of Chicago, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956ff, 
vol. VI, p. 236. See also Wolfram von Soden, Akkadisches Handworterbuch. 
Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1962, Lieferung 4, p. 355. It should also be men- 
tioned that artistic representations of the mouse came from the excavations 
of ancient Mesopotamian cultures. E.D. Van Buren points out in his The Fauna 
of Ancient Mesopotamia as Represented in Art that among amulets or pendants 
from Kish there was a little mouse of white stone pierced with a hole for suspen- 
sion. Also on the floor of the temple at Nozi were scattered pendants and beads 
and some of these were in the shape of mice. See page 26. The personal names 
include Hu-un-si-ri, Ha-am-zi-ru-um, Ha-ba-zi-ri, Ha-ba-si-ru, Hu-ma-zi-rum, 
Hu-mu-si-ru-um, Ha-ma-zi-ru-um, Ha-ba-si-ru, and Ha-ba-sir-tum. 

6 



indicate that the mouse was certainly no stranger to the Hterature and 
religion of ancient Mesopotamia. 

In the Hittite literature of Anatolia, the writer has been able to find 
only one passage in which the mouse appears. However, in this text, 
which Albrecht Goetze calls the "Purification Ritual Engaging the 
Help of Protective Demons," the furry rodent plays a most important 
part.^° This ritual consists of four parts with the first three running 
mainly parallel with one another except that they are addressed to dif- 
ferent demons. The second part is relevant here, because a mouse 
appears in the ritual which is addressed to the demon Alauwaimis. The 
text reads as follows: "She wraps up a small piece of tin in the bow- 
string and attaches it to the sacrificers' right hands (and) feet. She 
takes it off them (again) and attaches it to a mouse (with the words): 
'I have taken the evil off you and attached it to a mouse. Let this mouse 
carry it on a long journey to the high mountains, hills and valleys.' I 
shall give you a goat to eat!"^^ Later in this same text it states, "An- 
other pure mouse they bring and he sends it before Tarpattassis."^^ 

Just as the five golden mice were to carry off the evil plague which 
had befallen the Philistines, so here the Hittite writer conceives of the 
mouse as carrying off the evil of the ones participating in the ritual. 
Thus the mouse serves somewhat in the capacity as a scapegoat, as well 
as appearing to be a potential sacrifice to the god Tarpattassis. 

Although thoughts of any connection between Greek mythology 
and Hebrew literature are generally considered anathanma, one finds 
the closest parallels to the biblical "mice" tales in Greek myths. One 
of these myths is told by Aelian as he tries to explain the origin of Apollo 
Smintheus. He points out that those who lived in Hamaxitus in the Troad 
worshipped Apollo and gave him the name Smintheus, the ancient 
Cretan word for mouse, because the mouse was sacred to them.^^ 
The reason behind this connection goes back to a tale which reports 



^° James B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testa- 
ment, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955, p. 348. Here Goetze gives a 
translation of the second and fourth parts of this ritual. 

^^ Keilschifturkunden avs Boghazko, Berlin: 1921ff, XXVII 67 obv. ii 34-42. 
^ Ibid., XXVII 67 rev. iii 44-45. 

^^ Strabo says that the word means mouse and thus Apollo Smintheus would be 
the "mouse god". (Strabo XIII, 64) Additional study by Mary H. Swindler in 
Cretan Elements in the Cults and Ritual of Apollo has shown that this is indeed 
the ancient Cretan word for mouse. See page 29. This of course agrees with the 
words of Strabo that the Teucrians, about which the story is told, were originally 
from Crete. Since the cult of Apollo Smintheus was supposed to have come out 
of Crete, it is interesting that Apollodoros (Bibliotheca III, 3f) tells the story that 
the son of Minos, the ancient king of Crete, and Posiphae, Glaucus, while still 
a child, was drowned by falling into a jar of honey as he was chasing a mouse. 
Willetts thinks that Glaucus may have laid Apollo Smintheus under a special 
obligation by dying while pursuing a mouse. (See R.F. Willetts, Cretan Cults 
and Festivals, p. 66.) 

7 



that mice came in tens of thousands and cut off before they ripened the 
crops of the Aeolians and Trojans, rendering the harvest barren for the 
sowers. Accordingly the god at Delphi said when they enquired of him, 
that they must sacrifice to Apollo Smintheus; they obeyed and freed 
themselves from the conspiracy of mice, and their wheat attained the 
normal harvest. ^^ This story is of course very similar to the story of the 
Philistine mice who ravaged their land, but it is also the acts of devotion 
to the deity who sent the mice and the exalting of the mouse itself that 
brings relief from the trouble. 

Aelian and Strabo both give another version about the origin of 
Apollo Smintheus, and they connect it with the Teucrian movement 
from the island of Crete to Asia Minor. ^^ According to this story, when 
the Teucrians arrived in Asia Minor they asked Apollo to tell them of 
some place where it would be advantageous to found a city. The oracle 
then instructed them to "stay on the spot where the earth-born should 
attack them."^^ So they came to a place called Hamaxitus and pitched 
their camp, but a countless swarm of field mice came into their camp 
and gnawed through their shield-straps and ate through their bow- 
strings. They guessed that these were the earth-born referred to and 
besides, having no means of getting weapons of defense they settled 
in this spot and built a temple to Apollo Smintheus. Of course this 
story bears very close similarity to the earlier story told about the 
mice attacking the army of Senacharib. 

Concerning the temple of Apollo Smintheus at Hamaxitus, several 
very interesting things have been recorded by the ancient Greek writers. 
Strabo states that mice swarmed around this temple and that they were 
regarded as sacred. He also noted that the image of Apollo is depicted 
with its foot upon a mouse. ^^ Aelian adds that in the temple of Smin- 
theus tame mice were kept and fed at public expense. Furthermore he 



14 Aelian, On Animals, XII, 5. 

'5 Strabo XIII, 48 and Aelian, On Animals, XII, 5. From what archaeologists 
can discover, it appears that the mythological story of the movement of the 
Teucrians is connected with a very large movement of peoples about 1200 
B.C. which brought on the destruction of the Hittite Empire, the city of Ugarit, 
numerous other cities on the coast of Cyprus, Syria and Palestine and even came 
to the very borders of Egypt to fight a very big battle with Ramses III. This 
invasion of the "Sea Peoples" was repulsed by Egypt, and the invaders began to 
settle to the north of Egypt. Some settled in the Troad as the Teucrian myths 
portray while others settled in Palestine and later were called Philistines. It is 
also interesting that the Biblican tradition says that these Philistines came from 
Caphtor, usually associated with the island of Crete. Thus the Teucrians and 
Philistines were a part of the same movement of peoples and originated from 
the same land, and therefore thus one would expect that there should be some 
similarities between their traditions. 
16 Strabo XIII, 48. 
I'' Strabo XIII, 48. 

8 



records that the mice had a nest beneath the altar and that by the tripod 
of Apollo there stood a mouse. ^^ 

Neither should one think that Apollo Smintheus was an unimportant 
god, because there is available evidence concerning numerous cult 
centers for this mouse deity. The earliest testimony is found in the Iliad 
where Apollo Smintheus is invoked by a priest at the cult centers of 
Chryse, Killa and Tendos.^^ Of course the chief center of worship was 
at Chryse near Hamaxitos. Apollo Smintheus was also honored in com- 
munities which had colonies in the Troad, as for example, in Lesbian 
Arisba, and Methymna, and at Magnesia. Likewise on the island of Ceos 
there seems to have been an important cult center of Apollo Smintheus. 
No record of his cult is preserved on the mainland except at Athens 
and Thespice.20 

It is also interesting that the name of Smintheus is used as a geo- 
graphical place name. In the neighborhood of Hamaxitus itself, there 
are two places called Sminthia; and there are others in the neighboring 
territory of Larisa. According to Strabo, there is a place called Sminthis 
in the territory of Parium, as also in Rhodes and in Lindus and in many 
other places. 21 

From this material on "Apollo the Mouse-God" it can clearly be 
seen that this was a very important god among the Greeks of Asia Minor 
and the islands of the Aegean Sea. Because of his importance, the mouse 
likewise enjoyed a place of fame among these people and occupied a 
a position of sacredness in the temple. The literature points out that the 
mouse was used as a tool of the deity and consequently became a symbol 
of destruction and at the same time a symbol of salvation or relief. The 
mouse was also important enough in Greece that towns were named 
after it. 

As one looks back over all of these literary traditions, several in- 
teresting facts emerge. For one thing, the mouse becomes associated 
with religion among all the main cultures of the ancient world, and in 
most cases the function of the mouse was very similar. Except among 
the people of Mesopotamia, the mouse was a symbol of punishment 
and relief or salvation. Another point is that the mouse took a position 
of honor in the religious literature, except in one occasion in the Old 



18 Aelian, On Animals. XII, 5. In Paoli's Delia Religione de' Gentili there is 
a bas-relief with a mouse on the tripod of Apollo (page 9). Coins also used the 
design of the mouse on them. The Argives, according to Pollux, stamped the 
mouse on their coins {Onomastica, IX, 6, segm. 84). As there was a temple of 
Apollo Smintheus in Tenedos, one naturally hears of a mouse on the coins of 
the island. The people of Metapontum stamped their money with a mouse gnaw- 
ing an ear of corn, while the people of Cumae employed the form of the mouse 
dormant. See Andrew Lang, Custom and Myth, p. HI. 

19 Iliad I, 39. 

20 Mary Hamilton Swindler, Cretan Elements in the Cults and Ritual of Apollo. 
Bryn Mawr: Bryn Mawr College, 1913, p. 32. 

21 Strabo XIII, 48. 

9 



Testament, and is usually connected with one specific god and his 
temple. Also in the Hebrew, Egyptian and Greek traditions, the mouse 
is a tool which is used by a deity to convey some message to a group of 
people. Another fact is that the bodily form of the mouse is usually 
associated with an important religious shrine. Finally, the mouse was 
important enough that gods, men and towns were frequently named 
after it. 

Having seen the vast similarity between the "mice" tales of the an- 
cient Hebrews, Egyptians, Akkadians, Hittites and Greeks, the writer 
has come to the conclusion that this similarity is no accident, but rather 
it shows that these tales were a part of the common literary tradition of 
the ancient Mediterranean world which were used in similar manner 
by all the participants in that world. 



10 



THE PROLETARIAN REVOLUTION AND 

THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CRISIS: 

A THIRD WORLD VIEW 

by DANIEL A. OFFIONG* 

Briefly, this essay aims to show how Lenin and Kwame Nkrumah 
have explained why the Marxian proletarian revolution has not ma- 
terialized, and to examine the feasibility of such a revolution in the 
light of the current international energy crisis, the pinch of which has 
already been greatly felt by the capitalist nations. According to Marx, 
the workers' own labor power was to decline in value as the workers' 
skills became replaced by machines. Workers were to become "increas- 
ingly interchangeable and expendable" as "capitalists continued to 
revolutionize productive forces." ^ The result was to be a rising un- 
employment forcing wages below subsistence levels until the point of 
revolutionary explosion was reached. But it became increasingly clear 
that instead of the workers of Western Europe becoming poorer, they 
were becoming richer. This prompted Lenin to try to find out why this 
was so. 

The answer lay in imperialism. Lenin argued that the founding of 
the British Empire, which enabled it to exploit the natural resources of 
the colonized peoples, kept the British workers away from abject penury 
and thus prevented a proletarian revolution. As Mazrui has pointed out, 
Benjamin Disraeli's concept of the "two nations" of Britain was, in a 
sense, Marxian. ^ The British people have polarized into two potentially 
antagonistic "nations within the nation," that is, the poor against the 
rich. Lenin then wanted to know what prevented an open conflict. His 
answer was found in British imperial expansion. In support of his thesis, 
Lenin quoted Cecil Rhodes who in 1895 had said: 

... In order to save the 40,000,000 inhabitants of the United 
Kingdom from a bloody civil war, we colonial statesmen must 
acquire new lands to settle the surplus population, to provide 
new markets for the goods produced in the factories and mines. 
The Empire, as I have always said, is a bread and butter ques- 

*Assistant Professor of Sociology, West Georgia College. 

I am thankful to Henry DuFour for reading an eadier draft of this essay and 

for his useful comments. 



^ C.H. Anderson, Toward a New Sociology: A Critical View (Homewood: 
The Dorsey Press, 1971), p. 70. 

2 Ali A. Mazrui, "Borrowed Theory and Original Practice in African Polidcs," 
in Herbert J. Spiro (ed.). Patterns of African Development: Five Comparisons 
(Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), p. 111. 

11 



1 



tion. If you want to avoid war, you must become imperialists. ^ 
The implication of this was that the proletarian revolution would 
come once the British empire disintegrated. The question in the 1960's 
was whether or not the revolution was imminent since the British Em- 
pire was disintegrating— in the sense that the exploited colonies were 
becoming independent. It was at this juncture that Nkrumah suggested 
an explanation as to why the capitalist nations would not collapse 
through a proletarian revolution. Nkrumah found his explanation in 
neo-colonialism— the exploitation of one country by another country 
without actually ruling it, or in the words of Green and Seidman, a 
situation stemming from "false decolonization," that is, "the preserva- 
tion of the basic relationship of Western dominance" and the former 
colonies' "dependence by other means, after the transfer of formal 
political power."'* It is neo-colonialism that stands in the way of the 
proletarian revolution because it still enables the metropolitan countries 
to exploit these so-called independent countries just as formal colonial 
imperialism did. In the words of Nkrumah: 

Marx had argued that the development of capitalism would 
produce a crisis within each individual capitalist State. The gap 
between the 'haves' and the 'have nots' would widen to a point 
where a conflict was inevitable and that it would be the capi- 
talists who would be defeated. The basis of his argument is not 
invalidated by the fact that the conflict, which he had predicted 
as a national one, did not take place on a national scale but has 
been transferred instead to the world stage. World capitalism has 
postponed its crisis but only at the cost of transforming it into 
an international crisis. The danger is now not civil war within 
individual States provoked by intolerable conditions within those 
States, but international war provoked ultimately by the misery 
of the majority of mankind who daily grow poorer and poorer. 
When Africa becomes economically free and politically united, 
the metropolis will come face to face with their own working 
class in their own countries, and a new struggle will arise with- 
in which the liquidation and collapse of imperialism will 
be complete.^ 

According to Nkrumah, therefore, capitalism has divided the world 
into two opposing camps— the haves and the have nots— and as the 
wealthy nations become wealthier the poor nations become poorer. 
Hence the proletarian revolution if and when it comes is going to be 
international in scope with the wealthy and poor nations taking opposite 



3 V.I. Lenin, Selected Works in One Volume (New York: International Pub- 
lishers, 1971), p. 225. 

^ Reginald H. Green and Ann Seidman, Unity or Poverty: The Economics of 
Pan Africanism (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968), p. 14. 
5 Kwame Nkrumah, Neo-Colonialism: The Last Stage of Imperialism (New 
York: International Publishers, 1966), pp. 255-256. 

12 



sides. 

Interestingly enough, what we have seen in the last few years is 
the "beginning of solidarity among the largest oil producing countries 
to demand better prices for their crude oil. Not only have they demanded 
better prices, but they have also become partners in the oil enterprise 
and, in some extreme cases, have nationalized foreign oil companies. 
However, until the Arabs decided to use their oil as a political weapon 
against their "enemies," it could not be conceived that a few poor 
nations, as an NBC news commentator recently commented, could hold 
the economies of the wealthy and powerful nations for ransom. It was 
very surprising that the Arab nations so balkanized by domestic paro- 
chialisms and foreign interests could demonstrate such a show of unity 
and solidarity, even though the U.S. has said that it received Arab oil 
despite the embargo. However, the amount was not what the U.S. nor- 
mally received. The Arab nations have suddenly emerged as an impor- 
tant power bloc, forcing the economically, politically, and militarily 
powerful nations to panic. So aroused by the new solidarity and power 
bloc of the Arab oil producing nations has been the United States that 
she spearheaded the moves to bring about a disengagement of the Arab 
and Israeli forces in order to encourage the Arabs to resume oil ship- 
ment to the U.S. Oil as a political weapon has forced the U.S. to modify 
its policies towards the Arabs; at least this is what the Arabs themselves 
have openly stated. The U.S. has been so frightened by the new solidar- 
ity that it brought the oil consuming nations together to form a united 
front aginst the oil producing nations. Although the thirteen nations 
that met in Washington this February issued a disclaimer that theirs 
was not a confrontation, the oil producing nations have not believed 
them. Some Latin American oil producing countries have been reported 
to say that they might employ their oil as a political weapon if it ever 
became necessary. Now that the Arabs have proved the effectiveness 
of oil as a political weapon, other nations might like to try it whenever 
they consider it expedient. The question is then can it be said that the 
international revolution that Nkrumah predicted several years ago is 
about to materialize? 

Over the last several months we have seen a growing discord among 
the NATO powers. Suddenly, the pro-Israel European powers have been 
forced to leave the U.S. alone; apparently, the only ally that the U.S. 
has as far as the Middle East issue goes, is Portugal that depends very 
heavily on the U.S. for its moral, political and material support in her 
colonial wars in Africa. We have seen Japan's Prime Minister rushed 
from a sick bed in a hospital to attend an urgent Cabinet meeting in 
which they frantically changed their foreign policy in favor of the 
Arabs. The U.S. while working diplomatically both openly and behind 
the screen to get the oil embargo lifted, has stigmatized it as "blackmail." 
It is difficult to define what constitutes blackmail, and perhaps the 
use of the World Bank, foreign aid programs and political influence to 
reward friendly countries could be interpreted as blackmail by those 
nations adversely affected. While the impact of the oil embargo in the 

13 



U.S. is not as biting as it has been in Europe and Japan— largely because 
the U.S. derives most of its oil from domestic sources, and also because 
its main suppliers like Canada, Nigeria, and South American countries 
are still shipping their oil as usual— the effect nevertheless has been 
felt enough. But is the revolution predicted by Nkrumah finally here? 

There is little question that the poor nations would be the losers if 
such were the case and particularly if open conflict were to break out, 
and assuming that Russia and China would not side with the poor na- 
tions. But destroying an enemy's economic power could also be seen 
as part of the strategy. Looking at it from this perspective, one could 
now say that the international revolution is gathering momentum. But 
this would be tantamount to reading too much into what apparently 
is not of such a scope. One has to be very careful in assessing the inter- 
national impact of the energy crisis in light of the charges that the oil 
companies contrived it in order to make windfall profits. It becomes 
extremely difficult, if not impossible, to say what fraction of the crisis 
is due to the oil embargo and which is due to the manipulations of the 
oil companies (if the accusations are true). Another difficulty is that the 
U.S. has been accused of blowing the crisis out of proportions in order 
to use it as a means for reasserting its leadership role of Western Europe. 
But this accusation would be hardest to prove. 

However, if all the oil producing nations were to stop selling their 
resources to the capitalist nations, it is conceivable that both Japan 
and France would be the first to collapse economically because of their 
dependency on Arab oil. But since the governments could point to the 
oil producing nations as the villain, it seems most unlikely that one 
could expect a proletarian revolution such as Marx had predicted. Since 
it is unlikely that the capitalist nations would be willing to wage war 
against the poor nations for fear that it might culminate in the annihil- 
ation of mankind, should Russia join in on the side of the poor nations, 
the kind of international revolution predicted by Nkrumah could not 
be expected. There is no question but that the U.S. would feel the 
energy pinch even worse than now and thermostats would be lowered 
even more than they are. Thousands more would be out of work. As 
President Nixon has stated a number of times, the crisis could turn out 
to be a blessing in disguise; a substitute source of energy may be dis- 
covered. But it is the opinion of this writer that worse conditions 
might be experienced before such a discovery could be made. 

Assuming that the poor nations should decide to make it an all out 
war against the industrial powers by cutting off all of their natural re- 
sources of critical importance, there could result a critical economic 
crisis, which could seriously affect the military capacity of the capi- 
talist nations. But such a war could boomerang since the poor countries 
that produce the raw materials still depend quite largely on western 
technology for their industrialization. Russia, which is as imperialistic 
and capitalistic as any western country, has been claiming to be on the 
side of the oppressed peoples. Presumably the poor nations would turn 
to her for their needs. But Russia probably would not have enough mar- 

14 



ket for these raw materials, nor could it provide all of the technology 
so direly needed for their industrialization process. Many poor countries 
in the world receive large volumes of food from the western world but 
particularly from the U.S. Such an all out war could lead to the starva- 
tion of many people. In the final analysis it could turn out to be a war 
in which no one could expect to be the victor. This would mean an al- 
most insurmountable international economic anarchy as the current 
international monetary system could collapse. However, since most 
people in the poor nations have never been exposed to the many com- 
forts that peoples in the industrialized nations have been enjoying for 
years now, the former would not be denied much and would presumably 
absorb the resultant sufferings with equanimity. 

But the confrontation such as we have depicted above seems remote. 
Let us examine why such a conclusion would be made. Joseph Chamber- 
lain in 1898, while Secretary for the Colonies (1895-1903), made an 
impassioned plea for imperialism. He said: 

... I am convinced that it is a necessity as well as a duty for us to 
uphold the dominion and empire which we now possess ... I 
would never lose the hold which we now have over our great 
Indian dependence ... by far the greatest and most valuable 
of all the customers we have or ever shall have in this country. 
For the same reasons I approve of the continued occupation of 
Egypt, and for the same reasons I have urged upon this govern- 
ment, and upon previous governments, the necessity for using 
every legitimate opportunity to extend our influence and con- 
trol in that great African continent which is now being opened 
up to civilization and to commerce; and lastly, it is for the 
same reasons that I hold our navy should be strengthened . . . Un- 
til its supremacy is so assured that we cannot be shaken in any of 
the possessions which we hold or may hold herafter. 

Believe me, if any one of the places to which I have referred 
any change took place which deprived us that control and in- 
fluence of which I have been speaking, the first to suffer would 
be the working men of this country. Then, indeed, we should 
see a distress which would not be temporary, but which would be 
chronic, and we should find England was entirely unable to sup- 
port the enormous population which is now maintained by the 
aid of her foreign trade. If the working men of this country 
understand their own interests, they will never lend any counte- 
nance to the doctrines of those politicians who never lose an 
opportunity of pouring contempt and abuse upon the brave Eng- 
lishmen, who even at this moment, in all parts of the world 
are carving out new dominions for Britain, and are opening up 
fresh markets for British commerce and laying out fresh fields 
for British labor . . .^ 



^ Reprinted in "European Civilization: Students Manual," prepared by SSCSC, 
University High School, Urbana, Illinois, 1967. 

15 



There seems to be little doubt that what Chamberlain predicted 
some 86 years ago is true today. Britain and France have devalued 
their currencies several times since the collapse of their empires in 
Africa. Britain knows that if Rhodesia and South Africa were to have 
majority rule the white supremacists would flee those places for fear 
that the natives whom they have maltreated for centuries now might 
want to pay them back in their own coin. It is certain that most of 
them would flee to Britain as did Asians in Uganda. The economic 
impact of such an exodus would be catastrophic. The capitalist nations 
are aware of their dependency on the poor nations for cheap supplies 
of crucial natural resources; they also know that these poor nations 
remain good markets for their finished products, particularly for their 
obsolete military hardware — most of the so-called foreign aid consists 
of this. The industrial nations know the devastating blow that would be 
dealt their economies and military capacities if those vital resources 
stopped flowing in, although they will not openly acknowledge this 
for fear that the nations producing such vital raw materials might ex- 
ploit it to their advantage. Where the exploited nations are aware of 
the vitality of their resources and demand more money, the threat from 
the industrial powers is always that such a material will be synthesized 
in the laboratory. But we know that every raw material can be syn- 
thesized, at least for now. Because the capitalist are aware of the dis- 
aster that could accompany the loss of their resources, they have not 
hesitated to employ everything possible to preserve the status quo. 
This is demonstrated by the kind of arrangements that the former 
colonial powers made with their African colonies just before inde- 
pendence was granted. Let us briefly elaborate on this point. 

As Dr. Nkrumah once observed: "The greatest danger at present 
facing Africa is neo-colonialism and its major instrument, balkani- 
zation."'' The political frontiers of most of the modern African States 
were drawn by the imperial powers in the nineteenth century during 
the first scramble for Africa, 

without reference to geographical, ethnic, economic or socio- 
logical realities. They reflect little more than the extent to 
which the colonizing powers succeeded in carving empires out 
of coastal areas and extending them into the interior of the 
continent. Africa today, split up into over forty political units, 
is balkanized indeed.^ 

This situation is quite evident in West Africa where France and 
Britain pursued a policy of breaking up the region into many "pocket 
hankerchief" states as the nationalist movements gathered momentum. 
With the possible exception of Nigeria, none of the West African States 
is large enough to be economically viable. This makes their dependence 



' Kwame Nkrumah, Africa Must Unite (New York: International Publishers, 

1970), p. 173. 

^ Green and Seidman, p. 34. 

16 



on their former colonial masters even greater and also makes them vul- 
nerable to the exploitation of the big and powerful capitalist companies. 
As colonial territories, France administered their sub-Saharan 
colonies as two large entities. But on the eve of independence it broke 
them up into tiny states in spite of opposition by some African leaders. 
As Green and Seidman have noted: 

In transferring authority to African political groupings, they 
consistently built up the territorial bodies and reduced the in- 
fluence of the federal grands conseils. At the same time poli- 
ticians favouring single territorial states were backed in dis- 
putes against those such as Bartolemy Boganda of the Central 
African Republic and Leopold Senghor of Senegal who sought 
to preserve the federations in order to give the independent 
states greater bargaining power with France. ^ 
The British had regionalism as a policy. Hence they broke up Ni- 
geria into three regions with one region being more than two-thirds 
the size of the other two put together. This was to ensure that the North, 
least developed of all the other regions and fearful of being dominated 
by the better developed ones, would take over power at independence. 
It did succeed because of the so-called parliamentary democracy in 
which the size of population determines the number of elected officials. 
The imperialists did not hestiate to do any thing that would insure their 
continued dominance in these colonies long after they had left. In the 
words of Basil Davidson: 

For what the colonial Powers thought wise and necessary was 
the formation and promotion to power of 'leading elites' or 
'middle class' (those whom the French have so revealingly called 
interlocuteurs la/o^/es— 'negotiators worth talking to'): groups 
of men who would ensure that post-colonial government should 
be 'moderate and responsible' — should be that is, a reflection 
of colonial government. And it is, here, in no small part, that 
the seat of the trouble has lain.^o 

Through these internal collaborators the former colonial powers 
and their allies, like the U.S. and West Germany, are able to continue 
their exploitation of these so-called independent states. Such leaders 
as Nkrumah who refused to cooperate with the imperialists were styled 
sub-Saharan Hitlers by the western press, the so-called objective writers, 
and their leaders. On the other hand people like Houphouet-Boigny of 
Ivory Coast, one of the greatest political opportunists of all times, have 
been hailed by the capitalists as outstanding African leaders because 
of their submission to western tutlage. 

The NATO powers have carved out a large section, and the richest 
portion, of sub-Saharan Africa and placed it under the tutlage of white 



9 Ibid., pp. 34-35. 

^° Basil Davidson, Which Way Africa (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1967), p. 131. 

17 



supremacists who are a minority. To make sure that the majority who 
happen to be blacks will never break away from their external servitude, 
South Africa, Rhodesia, and Portugal are armed to the teeth. But most 
of the support comes from the U.S. The recent Azores agreement, and 
the training of Portuguese military men are designed to enable Portugal 
to continue its colonial wars in Africa; the decision by the U.S. in 1971 
to ignore the U.N. sanctions against Rhodesia and to import chrome, 
which reportedly was not in short supply, ^^ was an attempt to make 
sure that that illegal regime did not collapse economically; the agree- 
ment between the U.S. and the white supremacist regime of South 
Africa in which the latter was to resume supplying gold to the Inter- 
national Monetary Fund, was an attempt to help South Africa out of 
a critical exchange reserve crisis. All these are designed to maintain 
the status quo in order to insure the continuous flow of raw materials 
from these places. With the help of the NATO powers (according to 
leaders of the South African regime), ammunition factories have been 
constructed, napalm is produced, and planes are manufactured, thereby 
making South Africa a military power. 

The powerful nations know that they must unite in order to suc- 
ceed in their control of world resources. Apart from military cooper- 
ation they also cooperate monetarily. In the words of Nkrumah: 
The principle of mutual inter-imperialist assistance whereby 
American, British, French and West Germany monopoly capital 
extends joint control over the wealth of the non-liberated zones 
of Africa, Latin America and Asia, finds concrete expression 
in the formation of interlocked international financial institu- 
tions and bodies of credit. ^^ 
Among these financial institutions are the International Monetary Fund 
(IMF), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), 
and International Development Association (IDA). 

In the Middle East the industrial nations have very strong economic, 
political and military powers. Outside of Israel which depends enor- 
mously (militarily, economically, and otherwise) on the U.S., several 
other countries in this area depend very much on arm shipments from 
the U.S. to stem the revolutionary forces within their own states. On 
the other hand, the U.S. needs the oil so vital to her economy. Hence 
a sort of mutual dependence is established. Despite the ostensible unity 
by the Arabs, the oil continues to slip through the embargo, which 
demonstrates the influence that the U.S. has in this area of the world. 
On the other hand, cooperation is not total; still, the kind of confron- 
tation we have discussed above is most unlikely. 

In Latin America, the U.S. has tremendous economic, military, 
and political powers. And the Monroe Doctrine is still operative. Just 



" See New York Times, May 31, 1972. 

^2 Kwame Nkrumah, Handbook of Revolutionary Warfare (New York: Inter- 
national Publishers, 1968), p. 7. 

18 



as it is practiced by other European powers (including Russia), the U.S. 
uses its political and economic powers to reward those friendly countries 
while antagonistic or non-cooperative nations are most likely to face 
an invisible economic blockade that inevitably culminates in their 
collapse— except in the case of Cuba, which is sustained by Russia at 
an unbelievable cost. 

In the final analysis, while the oil crisis (if it is real) may cause 
some hardships in the industrial nations, it is not enough to indicate 
the collapse of these nations. But it nevertheless shows that the poor 
nations when united can effect changes in the international alliances. 
The powerful nations know that they need crucial natural resources 
from the poor nations and are willing to do anything to keep things 
the way they are; and they appear well entrenched. Consequently, 
Nkrumah's world revolution must be postponed indefinitely. 



19 



ON THE PROBLEM 
OF HUMAN PROBLEMS 

by JAMES B. KLEE* 

One of the major achievements of Western Man has been science, 
his carefully won understanding of the world especially in its material 
aspects. On hindsight the knowledge so arduously won seems now 
with relative ease to have been convertible into the practical advantages 
of modern technology at least where technology was not itself an in- 
dependent growth. This has not only made living more comfortable, 
less dangerous, but has given each individual a longer life expectancy 
and the opportunity of richer life itself. Few now fail to read, to hear 
music, to see a world visually enriched by the arts if only that of movie, 
pin-up, or calendar. The gains have been fairly general. Statistics even 
show relatively more people attending church and temple than ever 
before. Perhaps any criticism comes more from the new ability to con- 
sciously afford complaint than from a dire necessity. And yet there is 
a touch of depression, of anxiety, of ill feeling about it all. The very 
success of science and technology seems to have touched off a concern 
for human values once again as if the human being was somehow threat- 
ened with inundation by his own knowledge and skills. 

Part of the troubled feeling seems to come from the ease with which 
the insights and techniques of modern man are changed into immediate 
use and resultant pay-offs. To those not directly concerned, and who 
know better, the models created by the scientists seem to need only 
the addition of "wheels" to produce the car, the plane, the dynamo, 
the entire structure of industry. Much more is needed of course, but 
it still seems easy from outside the process as we look back. 

One does not notice the failures. "I can have the music / want 
when / want it," the book, the painting, the food. My expectations 
change, become more demanding, more immediate. What then is more 
tempting than to look forward towards resolving human problems using 
the same tools or at least methods, well in principle anyway. 

But if you understand your mother, have a model of her, and add 
wheels, does "she become a bus"? Is there an emergent aspect in deal- 
ing with human problems not ordinarily emphasized in the popular 
picture of science? Is this emergent problem in basic science or in the 
technological application to human affairs? Or in both? I cannot pre- 
tend to answer these questions. I will feel lucky if they can be shown 
to make some sense as problems. 

I have a feeling that in some fundamental and primitive sense science 
and technology are not in their origins in the human mind too different. 
If I may steal from Leo Bronstein's excellent lecture on Art and Re- 
ligion the important thing is the and. The one without the other is really 

*Professor of Psychology, West Georgia College. 

20 



unthinkable. Science is absolutely necessary for formulation of the 
hypothesis to test or apply, but we would not be beyond the most blatant 
magic if we did not have the skilled means to test our observations. In 
a way, there is a relationship between science and technique not unlike 
that between experience and response with a feedback from the results 
of the skilled response which influences the next experience which in 
turn modifies the next act; and this sequence started when life began. 
If the originating experience is noxious, an adequate understanding of 
its source and nature should help in its removal or alleviation. One drops 
the too close burning match to use a very primitive example. Or, if the 
present experience is pleasant, one seeks to amplify to satiation or if 
possible to prepare for a repetition. In an evolutionary sense the most 
primitive forms of approach and avoidance contain the and of science 
and technology. And yet, this is not entirely an analogy because the 
child, the adolescent, the naive, the ignorant, the colonial, the anxious 
and alarmed do not make much of the distinction but live the and very 
strongly. The public outcry in 1958 even by the "enlightened" to Sput- 
nik I was an excellent demonstration of the wholeness of experience 
and act, knowledge and skill, science and technology. 

In view of this lack of distinction in the "public mind" (to abbreviate 
the above list) one even wonders if science could be reinvented today. 
And one wonders if this relative primitivation, a regression in the values 
that led to the discovery of science itself, has especially obscured those 
values which we formerly held towards other human beings including 
those through which we regarded ourselves. One wonders if even though 
the social organism of science is now separate from the social organism 
of technology the individual scientist and technologist might be less 
different "psychologically," that is each might be more "primitive" in 
himself. The Arab and Jew, the frontiersman and savage, the white and 
the black, the Colon and Algerian are in the face to face encounter very 
similar psychologically. They are usually reduced to the lowest common 
denominator. They lose their greatest differential value. They are now 
forced to be a smaller whole by their very separateness instead of draw- 
ing upon the richness of their former union. 

One senses a growing childishness in the world— a loss of perspec- 
tive and patience. And not just among the youth, who seem somehow to 
be staying young longer, but also among adults. Or maybe our relative 
sense of success merely enables us to face more squarely the deficiencies 
we've always had so that the immaturity is more apparent. Possibly it's 
a little of both. One hopes it is more the latter. Experiments on animals 
have shown that successful animals adjust to change more effectively 
despite the frustration contained in the transition between the failure 
of old habits and the development of new ones than do animals that 
have failed all along and who when offered the opporunities of success 
may not be able to take advantage of it. Yet failure may contribute to 
knowledge also in a positive sense and as we all ultimately fail as in- 
dividuals, we die, this aspect may have to be valued too. One might call 
the sum wisdom. Here I feel with Gabriel Marcel there may have been 

21 



a decline in wisdom as we seem less to fail. 

Some say that the present man is becoming a conformist. Maybe so. 
But perhaps this is not his intention. Perhaps conformity is a result of 
what might be more correctly identified as a narrowed image of man, 
shrunken by his own success with the material world. The ideals of 
purity, respectability, and power of domination he gained so deservedly 
in his mastery of the physical, he is now tempted to apply to himself or 
at least to others as he continues. I frequently get a weird feeling of 
petulant spoiled bratness from the successful scientist. Watching from 
afar some of our major "geniuses," on television especially, one senses 
an inordinately successful child prodigy who never quite got beyond 
twelve as he delighted in his collecting of stamps, coins, facts, microbes, 
electrons, numbers, words, etc. He seems never to have stopped or have 
been stopped and if he were, one might expect the initial reaction to 
be a pout. Of course Western Man shows this even more. But the shock 
comes when we find the scientist doing it, too. We excuse so much in 
the name of science. It is as if the frame of reference of the recipients 
of the benefits of science has reverted to the level of magic, white or 
black. The and has shrunk to the stimulus response level of action and 
reaction. The idea of the challenge with its implications of possible 
failure has been replaced by the sign of hygienic goodness. In brief, 
man falls again. Instead of sticking to the tree of knowledge, he has 
tasted of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. 

What Tm trying to say is that despite the patience which scientific 
method requires and attempts to teach, the success of science may 
achieve a negative sum when applied to the human as the object of 
science or of technology. 

In a historical sense some of the roots of the hopes and ideals of the 
scientists as men came from the religion based civilization which gave 
science house room as a difficult and often unwelcome guest. And yet 
science was "tolerated" where it was thought of as potentially useful, 
where its earliest fruits were found good and were exploited where 
possible. Farrington's list of inventions and discoveries during the so- 
called Dark Ages is most impressive and did much to lay the ground- 
work for the flowering of science in Italy, France, and England centuries 
later. But as the individual scientist took the adventurous step with one 
leg, the other foot was still firmly grounded in the ideals and hopes of 
the Judaeo-Christian-Greek tradition. His was not a problem basically 
of what to do but of how best to accomplish his hopes. The Church was 
criticized not for its ideals so much as for its failure to live up to them. 
These the enlightened man hoped to achieve if only he knew enough 
or had the proper skills. The cosmologies were replaced in this enter- 
prise more than were the hopes that guided the attack. A tremendous 
hope of here and now or at least of the soon, began to grow. But this 
did not change the basic ends towards which the attack was directed. 
Yet today one feels that the science foot is firmly planted and the foot 
formerly rooted in religion-generated hopes is beginning to stir. Early 
forms of the next step, the pseudo science of the pure race of German 

00 



Nazism, Jewish Zionism, the Japanese Shintoism of the "double pa- 
triots," the Utopianism of Russian Communism, the irrelevant auton- 
omous, psychological, individualism of France and of the United States 
(pseudo-democracy), are all signs of the ideological adventurisms to 
which science as science can say nothing and for which the scientist 
has little or no preparation in his role as a human being. Science has 
won the house, the flies captured the fly paper. Now what? What are 
the new goals? Could we by some neoromantic miracle restore the 
deep-rooted hopes of the Judaic-Christian era? One sees their real rem- 
nants, stoning buses on the Sabbath, holy rolling in Yankee Stadium, 
giving the true faith to the heathen Hindu. One realizes immediately 
these examples are too small, too conceited, too restrictive to serve as 
our image for all men. What then? 

Well, one solution has been to re-double the scientific-technological 
effort only now with the human as object of study and the subject of 
the manufacturing response. Psychology here has been a very willing 
tool. When a Jewish girl in Israel declared to her parents her love of an 
Arab neighbor, the first thing the parents did was send her to a psychia- 
trist. That is the normal or typical function of psychology for us even 
though a few old type idealists might object to this as a misuse. But if 
they in turn would have preferred to send the parents to the psychiatrist, 
would the situation be any different? In either case, hasn't the major 
effort been to treat the "other" as raw material for reprocessing towards 
some Utopian ideal? This is what was meant by the possibility that a 
new dimension emerges in our shift of scientific method and technology 
from the inanimate to the animate world. Why not treat the human as 
raw material or reprocessing towards an end product such as an ideal- 
Utopia especially if it can be designed by recognized experts? And as 
B.F. Skinner points out inasmuch as we already have an inefficient 
design for living (our culture) why not put the psychological and socio- 
logical architects to work on it to make a really good one? Why leave 
it to happenstance? But is that what we were doing? Or was there also 
a reconigition of something else called variously, personality, being, 
freedom, or history which gave to each individual a partial responsibility 
for his own destiny, his own life, his own death? Does this not make each 
person more than raw material for the experts' Utopia? The wheels 
added to the model of the mother might make a bus, but one puts the 
wheels on the model, not on ma. On ma — she skates funny. The models 
one does meet, exteriors by Mr. John and Miss Arden, interiors by Rex- 
all and Dr. Freud, leave a great deal to be desired. They lack "humanity" 
in some awful way. They show that peculiar hollowness of so many 
suburban children to whom all the "right things" were done. 

This is not to deny that the human is not also a physical object. 
That shot from a cannon he is not too different from a wheatie or a 
bullet— softer, larger than some, smaller than others. Disintegrated in 
an explosion one might expect some similar range of distribution of 
particles to that of a small motor bike or a calf. The problem here is 
not different. It is the different problem of the unique, historical being 

23 



which usually was of no concern to the older sciences that bothers me. 
In fact,*in order to achieve "objectivity" science did its best to get rid 
of the old "subjectivities" which seemed merely "superstitions." It is the 
intentionally unrepetitive aspect that is once again the newer concern. 
And this is so despite the great similarities from person to person, and 
from hour to hour in the same person, similarities that so often seem 
merely the repetition of identities. Yet despite the endlessly disappoint- 
ing similarity of children, each is a new world afresh. Each is a new hope 
not only in himself but to others as well. It is this existential problem of 
each person at each hour that emerges. And for this our preparations 
are unpreparing because they rob us of the moment's uniqueness, of 
its creative possibilities. This is the emergent issue the life sciences 
must face in addition to all the others. And here the old virtues may 
have to be re-discovered or at least re-invented. Because here at least 
a temporal separation between science and technology becomes essen- 
tial. But now not because as it used to be difficult to connect wish and 
act, but because it has become once again too easy. Because here one's 
action upon one's experience becomes very complicated, and often not 
possible at all. Who can be made to love another? 

At best one comes into a relationship with the person as the object 
of study as does a parent to child, teacher to pupil, a gardener to plant, 
or a farmer to crop or livestock. One may nourish, fertilize, aid, shelter, 
give to the other but one cannot replace in any way this other. Instead 
one may love or hate, cherish or maim, fear of kill the other, but the 
relation is always to an "other". One must not, at least not wisely, relate 
as to so many pounds of raw material with no essential being not ulti- 
mately subject to alchemical changes. One need only think of the Nazi 
soap factories here. One may express limited opinions vigorously, in 
fact must do so, but as opinions they are a few among the many and you 
know they fall on deafened ears of others. No longer are cause and 
effect very strongly manifest in the parent-child, farmer-crop, doctor- 
patient relationship. Triggers, signs, and decisions are the rule, not 
action and reaction. The relationship has become a cybernetic one. 
And the fabulous complexity and varieties of being one encounters! 
No wonder Miss Peaches' "model" pupils detest and are frightened by 
Arthur's collection of variegated weeds. It would be so nice if it were 
all to be pure, rational, simple, organized, and inter-convertible like 
a periodic chart. The inter-changeable Jew, Christian, Vitamin, Ford, 
Scientist, American, Sophomore, Professor, are ideals we, as admin- 
istrators, wish for the other and even ourselves on occasions. But these 
interchangeabilities may merely reflect the desperations of other eras. 
And the desperations are not to be taken lightly. So the surgeon is work- 
ing steadily towards banks or depots of interchangeable hearts, arteries, 
bones, kidneys and eyes and we are grateful and should be. It isn't that 
these are not "real" problems, they are and often a matter of life and 
death. It's that this other problem of the now, the unique, the being, 
the historically present, is here, too. And this we must face also if not 
instead. The and has an additional dimension, that of human freedom. 

24 



BLACK POVERTY: A DIFFERENCE 
IN DEGREE IN THE SOUTH 

by JAMES R. O'MALLEY* 

Poverty in the southeastern United States, when analyzed from the 
viewpoint of percentage famihes poor in 1970, depicts three areas with 
extreme economic conditions (Figure 1). Several other areas exist, but 
are confined to much smaller areal extents. The three extensive con- 
centrations are located in: (1) the Mississippi River flood plain occupy- 
ing parts of Tennessee, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Lx)uisiana; (2) the 
south central sections of Alabama and Mississippi; and (3) portions of 
the eastern third of Kentucky and northeastern Tennessee. The latter 
two of the three areas are similar in their degree of poverty, but here 
the similarity ends. Economic and social characteristics of the popu- 
lation are quite diverse. The area of extreme poverty located in south 
central Alabama and east central Mississippi is formulated around an 
economic base of agriculture. The area encompasses much of the "Black 
Belt" area of Alabama and Mississippi. However, the eastern third of 
the area lies outside this belt which in previous decades has been known 
for its cotton complex. In recent years cotton production has declined 
sharply and agriculture has shifted to soybeans and beef. While the 
crops and activities have changed, the area is still predominately agri- 
culturally oriented. Accompanying agricultural orientation has been 
a large percentage of Blacks with all of the counties having 30 percent 
or more black population. This black population first served as slaves, 
then as "hired hands" and sharecroppers and today remain as vestiges 
of a changing agricultural scene. The area in eastern Kentucky and 
Tennessee has approximately the same severity of poverty as the area 
in central Alabama and eastern Mississippi. The Kentucky-Tennessee 
area, however, is not primarily agricultural, but has mining as its major 
economic activity. The racial composition of the area is very different 
with Black population in the Kentucky counties ranges from .6 to 6 per- 
cent of the total. 1 Therefore, the similarity of poverty coupled with 
the diversity of racial and economic activity produces a unique situation 
in which to test the following hypothesis: Blacks are significantly higher 
in the economic structure in an area with relatively low percentage 
Black population. 

Study Area 

Two of the three large areas of extensive poverty were selected in 

*Instructor of Geography, West Georgia College. 



^ U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, General Social and 
Economic Characteristics, 1970. Kentucky, No. 19, Table 128, p. 418. 

25 



which to test the hypothesis. (Figure 2). The "Black Belt" area of Ala- 
bama and Mississippi and the coal mining area of eastern Kentucky were 
chosen due to contrasting racial and economic make-up. Within the 
two large areas twenty-two counties were selected to serve as areas of 
more detailed analysis. The counties were chosen using two criteria: 
(1) Both areas (seven counties in Kentucky and fifteen in Alabama and 
Mississippi) have poverty levels falling in the upper quartile of per- 
centage poor families: and (2) Each of the areas had a large enough 
Black population to be reported by the U.S. Census of Population. The 
Kentucky area had a significantly lower percentage of Black population 
than did the Alabama-Mississippi area (3 percent and 53 percent respec- 
tively). The minimum number of 400 Blacks in a county before census 
tabulation caused a contraction of the Kentucky study area and selec- 
tion of only those seven counties which had at least 4()0 Blacks. 

Figure 2 




STUDY AREA 
26 



Methods 

Three indicators of poverty were chosen for analysis of relative 
poverty of Blacks in each of the two areas: (1) Percentage of Black 
families poor; (2) Percentage of Black persons poor and (3) Median 
income of Black families. Selection of these variables was based upon 
research concerning poverty by individuals such as Morrill and Woh- 
lenberg2 and by the inclusion of these variables in the U.S. Population 
Census sections dealing with poverty in the United States. ^ 

Each of the variables was mapped by county and a visual compari- 
son was made. Area comparisons utilizing averages of the selected 
variables were calculated to give general levels of poverty for Blacks 
in each of the study areas. Tabular and cartographic comparisons of 
percentage Black families poor to all families poor were made for each 
study area. Similar comparisons of percentage Black persons poor to 
percentage of all people poor were also made for the two areas. By 
comparing mapped and tabular data, the poverty of Blacks in both 
areas was ascertained and inferences made concerning the relative 
economic state of Blacks in the two areas. 

Analysis 

Black poverty in the two study areas depicts various relationships 
dependent upon the variables under analysis. Table 1 shows area aver- 
ages for the selected variables of percent Black families poor and 
percent black persons poor compared to averages for all families poor 
and all persons poor. Approximately 54 percent of all black families 
in the Kentucky area are poor, while more than 66 percent of the Black 
families in the Alabama-Mississippi area are under the poverty level. 
A differential of 12 percent exists between the two areas. However, 
only a 5 percent differential exists between all families poor for the 
study areas. Figure 3 adds additional insight as to why the difference 
between percent Black families poor in Alabama-Mississippi and per- 
cent Black families poor in Kentucky is not larger. Adair County in 
the western portion of the Kentucky area is abnormally higher than 
any of the counties in the Alabama-Mississippi area. Removal of this 
anomaly increases the average percentage of Black families poor in 
the Kentucky area significantly. Figure 4 portrays the relationship be- 
tween all families poor in both study areas. A comparison of Figures 
3 and 4 illustrates that the difference between percent Black families 
poor and percent all families poor in Kentucky is not as large as the dif- 
ference between percent Black families poor and percent all families 
poor in the Alabama-Mississippi area. Such a relationship is supported 
by Table 2 which illustrates that 18 percentage points separate poor 



^ Richard L. Morrill and Ernest H. Wohlenberg, The Geography of Poverty 
in the United States. (McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1971)', pp. 99-100. 
^ U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, General Social and 
Economic Characteristics, 1970, Nos. 26, and 1, Tables 128, 124, and 125. 

27 



Black families and all families poor in Kentucky, while 28.8 percentage 
points separate the two groups in Alabama-Mississippi. 



Table 1 



KENTUCKY AREA 



ALABAMA-MISSISSIPPI AREA 



Counties 



Percent 

AU Families 

Poor 



Percent Black 
Families Poor 



Comities 



Percent 

All Families 

Poor 



Percent Blit 
Families P r 



Adair 


34.4 


53.9 


Butler 


40.8 


70.1 


Bell 


39.2 


41.7 


Crenshaw 


45.4 


73 


Cumberland 


37.9 


85.6 


Hale 


54.9 


72.9 


Harlon 


36.2 


48.3 


Lamar 


38.8 


73.8 


Letcher 


40 


40.4 


Greene 


65.5 


82.1 


Perry 


39.1 


55.3 


Lowndes 


61.8 


76.3 


Pike 


31.8 


42.9 


Perry 


47.5 


67.1 








Pickens 


40.5 


70.6 








Sumter 


53.1 


69.8 








Wilcox 


56.8 


76.3 








Dallas 


40.2 


66.3 








Marengo 


46.4 


72.3 








Kemper 


56.1 


74.3 








Noxubee 


59 


79.8 








Winston 


39.3 


68.7 



Average 



36 



54 



Average 



41.1 



66.9 



Source: U.S. Census of Population, 1970. 



Table 2 



Percent Black 
Families Poor 



Percent All Families 
Poor 



Difference 



Kentucky 


54 


Alabama- 




Mississippi 


66.9 



36 



41.1 



18 

25.8 



Source: Calculations based on U.S. Census of Population, 1970, data. 

28 



PERCENT BLACK FAMILIES POOR 
1970 




FIGURE 3 
29 



KJ 




PERCENT ALL FAMILIES POOP 
1970 



KY, 




TENN. 



mi 1 es 



ITTTTI 30-39.9 

40-49.9 

r^ 50-59.9 




PERCENT 



GA. 



FIGURE 4 
30 



Table 3 



Counties 


Percent 


Percent Black 


Counties 


Percent 


Percent Black 




All Persons 


Persons Poor 




All Persons 


Persons Poor 




Poor 






Poor 




Adair 


43.2 


77.3 


Butler 


6L8 


76.3 


Bell 


35.7 


39.5 


Crenshaw 


40.8 


70.1 


Cumberland 


46.3 


89.3 


Hale 


56.8 


76.3 


rlarlon 


45.3 


52.9 


Lamar 


47.5 


67.1 


Letcher 


42.2 


49.6 


Greene 


46.4 


72.3 


^erry 


44.6 


69.2 


Lowndes 


53.1 


69.8 


Pike 


44.2 


38.2 


Perry 


54.9 


72.9 








Pickens 


65.5 


82.1 








Sumter 


45.4 


73.0 








Wilcox 


40.5 


70.6 


' 






Dallas 


38.8 


73.8 








Marengo 


40.2 


40.2 








Kemper 


56.1 


74.3 








Noxubee 


59 


79.8 








Winston 


39.3 


68.7 


Average 


42 


62 


Average 


49.7 


72.8 



Source: U.S. Census of Population, 1970. 



Table 3 illustrates the relationship of percent Black persons poor 
in the Kentucky area to percent Black persons poor in Alabama. Ap- 
proximately 10 percentage points separate the two groups. However, 
when viewed in the context of all families poor the percentage of Black 
persons poor does not diverge significantly. Approximately 23 per- 
centage points separate Black persons poor in the Kentucky area and 
Black persons poor in the Alabama-Mississippi area, while 20 per- 
centage points separate all persons poor in the two areas. Figure 5 de- 
picts graphically percentage Black persons poor for the two study areas. 
Again with this variable, the county patterns show that Cumberland 
County in the western section of the study areas distorts the average 
for percent Black persons poor. When a comparison of Figure 5 is made 
to Figure 6 (percent all persons poor), it is illustrated that counties 
in the Kentucky area show less discrepancy between percent Black 
persons poor and all persons poor than does the Alabama-Mississippi 
counties. Thus it can be inferred that as with percentage Black families 
poor. Black persons poor are similarily better off in the Kentucky area 
where fewer Blacks live. 

31 \ 



PERCENT BLACK PERSONS POOR 
1970 




FIGURE 5 
32 



KJ 



PERCENT ALL PERSONS POOR 
1970 




KY. 




TENN. 



miles 



lii 55-64.9 
p^;^ 65-74.9 




PERCENT \ GA. 
I: : : ; I 35-44.9 
45-54.9 



FIGURE 6 
33 



MEDIAN BLACK FAMILY INCOME, 1970 



KJ 




KY, 




TENN. 



■ 



mi 1 es 



ITTTl $2,500-$2999 
|y//| $3,000-$3999 

$4,000-$4999 

$5,000+ 




$2,000-$2499 \ GA. 



FIGURE 7 
34 



Figure 7 depicts median Black income for the respective study 
areas. Two counties in the Alabama-Mississippi area have $5000 plus 
median incomes which raises the average of the area considerably. Con- 
versely the Kentucky area has no county with a high median income. 
However, the Kentucky area has over 42 percent of its counties with 
an income between $3000 and $4000. Conversely, the Alabama-Mis- 
sissippi area has only 33 percent of its counties in this range. Similarily, 
the Kentucky area has only 14 percent of its counties with a median 
income in the $2000 to $2499 class while 20 percent of the Alabama- 
Mississippi area falls into this class. 

Table 4 illustrates that when averages for the two variables of per- 
cent Black families and percent Black persons poor are compared to 

Table 4 





Percent 


Percent 


Difference 


Percent 


Percent 


Difference 




Black 


All 




Black 


All 






Families 


Families 




Families 


Families 






Poor 


Poor 




Poor 


Poor 




Kentucky 


54 


36 


18 


62 


42 


20 


Alabama- 














Mississippi 


66.9 


41.1 


25.8 


72.8 


49.7 


23.1 


Differential 






7.8 






3.1 



Source: Calculations from U.S. Census of Population, 1970. 

percent all families and persons poor that a variation in poverty exists 
between the two areas. 

A differential of 7.8 percent exists between poverty of Black fam- 
ilies/all families in the Kentucky areas and poverty of Black families/ 
all families in the Alabama-Mississippi area. Such difference leads one 
to infer that in relative terms. Blacks in the Alabama-Mississippi area 
are poorer than those in the Kentucky area. A differential of 3.1 percent 
also exists between poverty in Black persons/all persons in the Ala- 
bama-Mississippi area. Although the difference is not as large, the same 
conclusion can be drawn. 

Summary 

It has been shown that Blacks in general live in higher economic 

brackets in the seven counties of the eastern portion of Kentucky than 

Blacks in south central Alabama and Mississippi. Therefore, there is 

• cause for the tentative acceptance of the hypothesis that Blacks are 

35 



significantly higher in the economic structure when located in an area 
with a low percentage Black population than when located in an area 
with a high percentage Black population. 

Due to superficial analysis, only guarded inferences can be made 
concerning the effects of social and economic conditions on the relative 
economic state of blacks in the two areas. Two aspects of economic 
and social conditions seem to play an important role. Of primary impor- 
tance is the economic situation which exists in the coal mines of the 
Kentucky area. Blacks are employed in the mines'* and due to small 
total number of Blacks, the mining jobs have a significant effect on the 
standard of living. Conversely, in the Alabama-Mississippi area, the 
agricultural nature of the area provides little choice of economic activity 
for the large numbers of Blacks.^ Secondly, the existence of large 
numbers of Blacks in the Alabama-Mississippi area poses a greater eco- 
nomic threat than do the small number in the Kentucky area. Therefore, 
logically there is more competition between Blacks and other racial 
groups for the better jobs. Such a relationship is intuitively implied 
and only by more depthful analysis can this relationship be verified. 

It is obvious from the data presented that a difference in economic 
status among Blacks exists between the two areas with similar overall 
poverty. However, only by a more wide range analysis of interrelated 
variables can the condition be fully explained. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Morrill, Richard L., and Wohlenberg, Ernest H. The Geography of 
Poverty In the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 
1971. ■ 

Ross, Tom. Past resident of coal mining area. Knoxville, Tennessee. 
1973. 

Tower, J. Allen. "Cotton Change In Alabama 1879-1946." Economic 
Geography, Vol. 26 (January, 1950), pp. 6-27. 

U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. General Social 
and Economic Characteristics, 1970. Nos. 26, 19, and 1. Tables 128, 
124, and 125. 

U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census. General Social 
and Economic Characteristics, 1970. Kentucky. No. 19. Table 128. 



* Interview with Tom Ross past resident of Wyoming County, West Virginia, 
Knoxville, Tennessee, May, 1973. 

^ C.L. White, E.J. Foscue, and T.L. McKnight, Regional Geography of Anglo- 
America. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1964), pp. 165-6. 

36 



SOLAR ECLIPSES 

by B. E. POWELL* 



In ancient times, eclipses of the sun were mysterious, dreaded, and, 
in many cases, terrifying events. Some of the ancient people, such as 
the Chinese and Babylonians, developed procedures to predict the 
occurrence of eclipses, even though they did not understand the cause 
of an eclipse.^ Some people believe that Stonehenge was used to fore- 
tell eclipses. 2 

The cause of a solar eclipse is now understood. As is shown in Figure 
1, an eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the earth and the 
sun and blocks out light which would otherwise illuminate the earth. 
Because the sun has a finite size (instead of being a point source), the 
moon's shadow has two parts: the penumbra (in which part of the light 
from the sun reaches the earth) and umbra (in which all the sunlight is 
blocked). The situation depicted in Figure 1 occurs during the phase of 
the moon known as the new moon. However, a solar eclipse does not 




Figure 1 



occur each time the moon is in this phase because the orbit of the moon 
about the earth is inclined 5° with respect to the orbital plane of the 
earth about the sun, as shown in Figure 2. The only place the earth, 
sun, and moon line up properly for an eclipse is along the intersection 
of the two orbital planes, which is known as the lines of nodes (line 
AA' Figure 2). Hence, a solar eclipse occurs only when the moon is 
new moon phase near the line of nodes. An eclipse may occur nineteen 
days before or after the crossing of the line of nodes. During this period 
of thirty-eight days, (an eclipse season), there may be two eclipses since 
a new moon occurs every 29 1/2 days. Since the moon crosses the line 
of nodes every 173.3 days (which is slightly less than every six months), 
the number of solar eclipses varies from two to five per year. The maxi- 

*Associate Professor of Physics, West Georgia College 



1 S.A. Mitchell, Eclipses of the Sun, Fourth Edition (New York: Columbia 
University Press, 1935), pp. 1-52. 

2 Gerald S. Hawkins, Stonehenge Decoded, (Garden City: Doubleday, 1965), 
pp. 132-159. 

37 



mum number occurs in years in which there is one crossing of the Hne 
of nodes in early January, another in the summer, and a third in late 
December; there would have to be two eclipses in two of the eclipse 



seasons. 



PLANE OF THE MOON'S 
ORBIT AROUND THE EARTH 




PLANE OF THE EARTH'S 
ORBIT AROUND THE SUN 



Figure 2 



Three types of solar eclipses— partial, annular, and total— are 
observed. 

When the new moon is not exactly on the line of nodes, only the 
penumbra of the moon's shadow strikes the earth and a partial eclipse 
is seen. A partial eclipse also accompanies the other two types of 
eclipses. Observers outside the central path would be in the penumbra. 
Before and after the annular phase or total phase of an eclipse, obser- 
vers in the central path would experience a partial eclipse. The area 
in which a partial eclipse may be seen extends 3000 kilometers (about 
2000 miles) on either side of the central path.^ 

When the new moon is sufficiently close to the line of nodes and 
when the apparent size of the sun is greater than that of the moon, an 
annular eclipse is seen. Although the angular sizes of the sun and moon 
are approximately equal (about 30 seconds of an arc), the angular sizes 
of these object vary. The earth revolves the sun in an elliptical orbit 
(with the sun at a focus of the eclipse); the distance between the earth 
and the sun varies from about 91,000,000 miles to about 95,000,000 
miles. The apparent angular sizes of the sun is larger in January when 
the earth is close to the sun than in July when the earth is further from 
the sun. Likewise, as the moon revolves about the earth, its distance 



3 See, for example: Chades H. Huffer, Frederick E. Trinklein, and Mark Bunge, 
An Introduction to Astronomy, Second Edition (New York: Holt, Rinehart 
and Winston, Inc., 1973), pp. 246-253. Donald H. Menzel, Fred L. Whipple, 
Gerald de Vancouleurs, Survey of the Universe, (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice 
Hall, Inc., 1970), pp. 218-227. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin and Katherine Hara- 
mundanis. Introduction to Astronomy, Second Edition (Englewood Cliffs: 
Prentice Hall, Inc. 1970) pp. 174-183. J. Allen Hynck and Necia H. Apfel, As- 
tronomy One, (Menlo Park: W.A. Benjamin, Inc., 1972), pp. 267-277. Lloyd 
Motz and Anneta Duveen, Essentials of Astronomy (Belmont: Wadsworth Pub- 
lishing Company, Inc., 1968), pp. 124-129. 

38 



varies accordingly. When the moon is relatively far from the earth, the 
umbra of the moon's shadow does not reach the earth. The outer por- 
tion of the sun is visible around the moon at a mid-eclipse. The presence 
of this annulus is the origin of the name of this second type of eclipse. 
At the equator, an annular eclipse can last as long as twelve minutes. ^ 
On May 30, 1984, Carrollton, Georgia, will be close to the center of an 
annular eclipse.^ 

When the angular size of the moon is larger than the angular size 
of the sun and the earth, moon and sun line up properly at the new moon 
phase, the third type of an eclipse — a total eclipse— is seen. As the 
eclipse begins (first contact), the moon comes between the observer 
and the sun. More and more of the solar surface is obscured as time 
elapses. Near totality (second contact), the phenomena known as shadow 
bands may be seen; the origin of these moving patterns of variations in 
brightness is not understood but is probably some type of atmospheric 
disturbance. Bailey's beads (caused by light shining through irregularities 
on the moon's surface) may be seen just before totality. If light coming 
through a single depression is unusually bright, the occurence is called 
the diamond ring effect, since it resembles light reflected from a soli- 
tary diamond ring. During totality, the chromasphere (reddish, inner 
part of the sun's atmosphere) and the corona (outer portion of the solar 
atmosphere, which extends millions of miles from the surface of the 
sun) are seen since the light from the brighter photosphere (surface of 
the sun) is hidden by the moon. Bright stars and planets (such as Mercury 
and Venus) may also be seen. Totality may last up to about 7.5 minutes 
and may be experienced in a strip of land (known as the path of totality) 
having a width of less than 200 miles. At third contact, totality ends as 
the sun re-appears from behind the moon. Bailey's beads, the diamond 
ring effect, and shadow bands may be seen. With the passage of time, 
more of the photosphere becomes visible. The partial phase of the 
eclipse ends with the fourth contact, when none of the solar surface 
is covered by the moon. The elapsed time from first contact to fourth 
contact is about two hours. ^ 

The longest total solar eclipses (7 minutes 40 seconds) are seen 
on the equator when the earth is at aphelion (greatest distance from 
the sun), the moon is at perigee (closest to the earth), and the new 
moon occurs at the crossing of the line of nodes. At a latitude of 
45°, the maximum duration of an eclipse is 6 1/2 minutes. The speed 
of the moon's shadow across the earth near the equator is about 
1600 kilometers per hour (or 1000 miles per hour).^ 

It is possible to calculate the occurrences of eclipses for thousands 
of years in the past as well as for hundreds of years in the future.*'^ 



4 Jean Meeus, Carl C. Grosjean, and Willy Vanderleen, Canon of Solar Eclip- 
ses, (New York: Pergamon Press, 1966), pp. 46-74. 
^ Theodor von Oppolzer, Canon der Finsternisse (New York: Dover, 1963). 

39 



There are several interesting applications of knowing the time and 
area experiencing a total eclipse. Archaelogists are able to date ancient 
manuscripts on drawings which describe eclipses. For example, the 
Hebrew prophet Amos had probably seen the solar eclipse of 763 B.C. 
when he wrote (in Amos 8:9) "I will cause the sun to go down at noon, 
and I will darken the earth on a clear day." Scientists have determined 
that the length of the day is increasing, because the calculated path 
of totality lies east of the actual paths of totality observed during well 
documented ancient eclipses. The length of the day changes by 0.0016 
seconds per century. The cause of this increase is the slowing down 
of the rotation of the earth about its axis because of friction associated 
with tides in shallow seas.^ 

Some of the ancient people realized eclipses are repeated in cycles. 
Edmund Halley named this repetition the Saros. The cycle results 
from the fact that 18 years 11 1/3 days is nearly equal to 19 eclipse 
years (the period of time, 346.62 days, between the aligning of the 
earth, sun and moon on the same node), and to 223 synodic months 
(measured relative to the sun and earth). After this time, the earth, 
moon, and sun will be in the same position as occured for the earlier 
eclipse since the moon will be in the proper place each eclipse year 
and in the proper phase each synodic month. However, the eclipse will 
occur about 120° west of the earlier eclipse because of the 1/3 day 
in the repetition period. An eclipse will occur in essentially the same 
place after three such periods. About half of the eclipses in a Saros 
cycle will be total or annular.^ 

Total solar eclipses present an opportunity to study a variety of 
physical phenomena, such as the atmosphere of the sun (corona and 
chromosphere), effect of gravitational forces on light coming from dis- 
tant stars, and effect of solar radiation on the earth's surface and at- 
mosphere. Biological effects have also been observed. The effects of 
a total eclipse on the feeding and sleeping habits of animals have not 
been well documented, even though some references indicate cows will 
go toward a barn at the beginning of the total phase and that roosters 
will crow when totality ends.^ 

The path of totality of the March 7, 1970, eclipse crossed the 
southern and coastal part of Georgia; the author was near the Savannah 
River near Tillman, South Carolina, during the eclipse. The path of 
totality of July 10, 1972, eclipse crossed Alaska and Canada; the author 
was one mile from the center line near Cap Chat, Quebec, during the 
eclipse.^ In both cases, however, totality was obscured by cloudy skies. 
During both eclipses the brightness of the sky did not change appre- 
ciably to the human eye until just before totality. Some observers have 



^ Charles H. Smiley, "An Eclipse of the Sun for North America," Sky and 
Telescope, 35, no. 3 (March, 1968), 147-150. Charles H. Smiley, "The Alcan 
Total Eclipse of July 10, 1972," Sky and Telescope, 41, no. 1 (January, 1971), 
10-13. 

40 



equated the darkness of totality with the brightness of a night when there 
is a full moon. The author did not find either eclipse to be that dark 
since it was not difficult to see nearby objects (such as settings on a 
camera). The decrease in light was also accompanied by a drop in 
temperature. The decrease in temperature was particularly apparent 
during the March 7, 1970 eclipse. As totality ended, the intensity of 
light increased dramatically, and the temperature slowly increased. 
During the July 10, 1972 eclipse, the temperature was measured 
during the eclipse. The results are shown in Figure 3. The decrease was 
not as large as reported by investigators during earlier eclipses.'^ The 






22 1 




U 




' 


q: 

3 


21 . 




H 






< 

q: 


20- 




UJ 






5 


19 - 


• 


UJ 

h- 


18 . 


' 



18:3 19:00 19:30 20:00 2i:30 21:00 

UNIVERSAL TIME 
Figure 3 

temperature decrease was probably moderated by the presence of the 
St. Lawrence River, since the measurements were performed near the 
south bank of this river. The clouds, which became progressively 
thicker, probably prevented the return to the pre-eclipse temperature 
after totality ended. 

The variations in brightness during the July 10, 1972 eclipse were 
measured with a photo-cell and ammeter. Figure 4 shows the variations 
at Cap Chat, Quebec, and the variations at Carrollton, Georgia, where 
approximately 50% of the sun's surface was eclipsed. The zenith light 
intensity was measured at Cap Chat because the clouds prevented a 
study of light coming directly from the sun. The light during totality 
decreased to less than 5% of the value at 4:00 p.m. when only about 
half the sun was eclipsed. The readings at Carrollton were made by 
Robert Mason, a physics major. In this case, the mid-eclipse valve 
was about 55% of the initial reading. 

The last total eclipse visible in the United States during the re- 
mainder of this century will occur on February 26, 1979. The path of 



^ "Total Eclipse Along the Eastern Seaboard", Sky and Telescope, 39, no. 5 
(May, 1970), 285-289. 

41 



totality will cross the state of Washington. ^ Perhaps the skies will be 
clear on that date. 



>- 

(/) 

z 

UJ 



111 
> 

< 
-J 
UJ 

q: 



1.0 - 







. 


0.8 - 


• 


o ' 




0.6 - 


O 






0.4 - 


o 






0.2 - 


o o 

o 
oo 








1 1 


1 


1 1 



20'.00 20'.30 2 1 '.0 21:30 22:00 

UNIVERSAL TIME 

Figure 4 

Light variations at Cap Chat, Quebec and at CarroUton, Georgia. The 
open circles give the zenith light variation at Cap Chat (total eclipse). 
The dots give the variation of light coming directly from the sun as 
measured at CarroUton (50%). 



42 



MANAGEMENT AND THE NATURE OF MAN 

by J. Lincoln DeVillier* and 
Mary Anne G. DeVillier** 

A fundamental principle of management is that responsibility should 
be commensurate with authority. In a free economic society, persons 
holding positions of authority — in business, in labor organizations, and 
in other areas— are ultimately accountable to society for their actions. 
They have social responsibility, that is, the obligation to act in accord 
with socially accepted values and also to place the values of society 
above their own should there be conflict of interest. "Public responsi- 
bility," "public morality," and "social obligation" are terms used synony- 
mously; and the responsibility is generally assigned to management 
in all areas. 

The continually expanding interest in the social responsibility of 
various types of executives would lead a casual observer to conclude 
that enlightened man in his innate goodness has evolved a new philo- 
sophic concept of relations between labor and management, governed 
and government, buyer and seller. Unfortunately, as history reveals, 
social responsibility has not evolved out of the innate goodness of man. 
Rather, society has forced social responsibility on management because 
of social abuses either fostered or tolerated by persons in responsible 
positions. Business management is being forced to accept responsibility 
for training and employment, for truth in advertising, for honesty in 
trading, for alleviation of sub-standard living conditions among workers. 
Labor management is being forced to account for manipulation of 
unions funds, for exploitation of members for prolongation of strikes 
which endanger the stability or the safety of the nation. Political man- 
agement is being held accountable for the solicitation and use of cam- 
paign funds, for conflicts between public and personal interest, for 
kickbacks on contracts. Professionals— accountants and attorneys 
not necessarily in management positions— are being held accountable 
to the public for the trust placed in their professions. 

Some of the pressure by the public for correction of social abuses 
is applied through the Federal Government, but awareness is growing 
that governmental programs may alleviate but do not correct. Involve- 
ment of non-management individuals— especially of the young and the 
poor— is often suggested as the missing ingredient of the recipe by which 
twentieth century America is to become the fulfillment of the eighteenth 
century dream of a new Garden of Eden, a perfect society in which no 
one is poor, no one is miserable. Unfortunately, the root of the prob- 
lems besetting twentieth century society is embedded not in political, 
social, and economic conditions but in the human condition. Obviously, 
people are hungry. People live in housing unfit for habitation. People 



*Professor of Business Administration. **Assistant Professor of English, West 
Georgia College. 

43 



are ignorant, unskilled, unemployed. Basic logic dictates, however, 
that before solutions can be found, the problem itself must be recog- 
nized. The problem is not distribution of wealth. It is not equal oppor- 
tunity. It is not social equality. The problem is this: the nature of man. 

Assessment of the Nature of Man 

Management cannot perform its functions effectively unless it can 
properly assess the nature of the men involved. Is man an intellectual 
being motivated by reason? Or a physiological being motivated by grati- 
fication of the senses? Or perhaps a creature of both reason and emotion 
who may, by virtue of his immortal soul, strive with hope toward per- 
fectibility? In short, those who desire to formulate the social responsi- 
bilities of executives must first examine closely their ideas about the 
nature of man and the relationship of that nature to the social structures 
men devise to attain their goals. Then perhaps men can apply the tech- 
niques and technology of the twentieth century to the solution of the 
social problems which plague mankind. 

A prevalent view in the United States is that Americans, whether or 
not they profess the faith, live in a Christian society and strive for 
Christian goals. Certainly, the founding fathers of the confederation 
which evolved into the United States of America couched their ideas 
in the socially efficacious phrases of Christianity. As a result, many 
Americans believe theirs to be a free society based on the God-fearing 
Protestantism of the Puritans. Actually, social ethics of the United States 
of America— if one can assume any conscious body of thought— are 
far from Christian, and always have been. The founding fathers who 
have probably exerted the strongest influence on the basic concepts of 
this society are Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin, neither of 
whom was a practicing Christian, although both, as was the custom, 
gave lip-service to traditional Christian practice. Their conceptions 
of the nature of man are like those held by other philosophers of the 
Age of Reason; but the philosophers of the eighteenth century were 
the product of the seventeenth, for it was in the seventeenth century 
that the real fragmentation of Christian thought occurred. As S.L. 
Bethell puts it, "the purification of science from contaminating theo- 
logical influence was a permanent achievement" of that century.^ 
The laws of nature became mathematical equations, and reliance on 
faith became reliance on reason. Out of that revolutionary century came 
three basic concepts of the ideal society, each based on a definite con- 
cept of the nature of man, for man's social structures reflect his ideas 
of God, of self, and of other men. Seventeenth and eighteenth century 
philosophers in general and John Milton and Thomas Hobbes in par- 
ticular expressed fully and often eloquently their ideas about man and 



1 S.L. Bethell, The Cultural Revolution of the Seventeenth Century (London: 
Dennis Dobson Ltd., 1951), p. 62. 

44 



society, ideas which are equally relevant today. 

The seventeenth century secularization of religious thought, in ef- 
fect, separated man from God and denied him the fulfillment of his 
deep spiritual need for identification with the Deity. In a very real 
sense, the emancipation of the Enlightenment set man adrift in the 
universe: the faith that bound man securely to God was destroyed by 
the goddess Reason. Locke says of reason and faith: "Nothing that is 
contrary to, and inconsistent with the clear and self-evident Dictates 
of Reason, has a Right to be urged, or assented to, as a Matter of Faith, 
wherein Reason hath nothing to do."^ To Locke has been given credit 
for making acceptable the concept that men. by their own efforts and 
intelligence, could bring their ideas, their conduct, and their institu- 
tions into harmony with the natural order of the universe. The Declara- 
tion of Independence, attributed largely to Thomas Jefferson, echoes 
the thoughts and words of Locke and the French philosophes: "to as- 
sume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station, 
to which the laws of nature and nature's God entitle them." Their 
substitute for faith was human experience. In their new society, man 
would live in a state of felicity. To achieve this goal, however, the 
philosophers must first isolate and enumerate the qualities common to 
all men in all times. Then they could determine which customs, ideas, 
and institutions in their own time were disharmonious and consequently 
evil. The articles of faith which evolved in the Enlightenment are these: 
(1) man is not naturally depraved; (2) the end of life is a good life on 
earth; (3) man can, if he follow the light of reason and experience, per- 
fect that good life; and (4) the essential condition of living the good 
life is freedom of the mind from the bonds of ignorance and supersti- 
tion and of the body from the oppression of civil authority. ^ The im- 
plications are clear: all men are naturally good; only "disharmonious" 
institutions are bad. Given freedom from ignorance and civil oppression, 
man can devise social structures which provide the good life. And the 
seventeenth century philosophers' faith in reason lives on. 

John Milton's concept of man is quite different from that of Locke 
and the other seventeenth century philosophers. Miltonic man is part 
of the One God and is, therefore, free. Motivated by love of God, he 
lives by "right reason," his God-given passions governed by his God- 
given reason. "For, indeed," he says, "none can love freedom heartily 
but good men; the rest love not freedom but license."'* Discipline is 



2 Quoted by Bethell, p. 15. 

^ Carl L. Becker, The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers 
(New Haven: Yale University Press, 1932), pp. 102-102. The discussion of eigh- 
teenth century humanism, particularly that pertaining to the tenets of the philo- 
sophes. is based largely on Professor Becker's book. 

"* John Milton, "Tenure of Kings and Magistrates" in John Milton: Complete 
Poems and Major Prose, Merritt Y. Hughes, ed. (New York: Odyssey Press, 
1957), p. 750. 

45 



the key to the Mihonic man, self-discipline. By exercise of free will— 
the power to choose— a man may discipline his pride into Christian tem- 
perance, his vices into Christian virtues. His intellect is disciplined by 
study; his body, by exercise. He fulfills his moral, religious, and civil 
obligations, not grudgingly as a duty but cheerfully as a privilege. Friend- 
ly, courteous, thoughtful, he loves his neighbor as himself. He is kind. 
He goes the second mile; but he is stern in righteous anger when prin- 
ciples are violated. Rendering unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, 
he guards jealously the religious liberty upon which his whole way of 
life is based. Those who hold wealth and power do so by God's grace. 
They act as God's stewards. Those who are chosen to control others 
will first have demonstrated their ability to control themselves. 

On the surface, Milton would appear to agree with the scientifically 
oriented philosophers that man is a reasoning creature who, if given 
freedom to do so. will build a social structure which provides peace and 
tranquility for all. The reason of the philosophers, however, is the logi- 
cal faculty of a Locke, a Descartes, or a Hobbes. Milton's reason is "right 
reason," the recta ratio which includes virtue as well as knowledge, 
faith and intuition, and feeling as well as rational processes. Swift's 
Houyhnhnms, those highly intellectual creatures guided solely by 
reason, are no farther from Milton's conception of man than the logi- 
cal man of the philosophers. 

The Hobbesian concept of man, on the other hand, scarcely seems 
to qualify man as a rational creature. He is a materialistic creature 
driven by his passions, not governed by reason. In fact, says Thomas 
Hobbes in Leviathan, reason is "nothing but reckoning," the sum of 
experience.^ "For there is no conception in a man's mind, which hath 
not first, totally, or by parts, been begotten upon the organs of Sense" 
(L, p. 1); he can merely add, subtract, multiply, or divide experience. 
Since he believes the future to be a mere "fiction of the mind," he can 
scarcely believe in God. Consequently, he has no religious or ethical 
basis for his life. There are, for him, no absolutes. Good and evil exist 
only as relative values: what is desirable is good; what is undersirable, 
evil.^ Hope is merely appetite; courage, merely anger. The one con- 
stant in the life of Hobbesian man is fear; upon this rock he built his 



^ Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, A.D. Lindsay, ed. (New York: E.P. Dutton, 
1950), p. 142. Subsequent citations will be indicated by L and page numbers 
in parentheses. 

® In The Hunting of Leviathan (Cambridge: The University Press, 1962), p. 27, 
n. 1. Samuel L Mintz points out that he and Michael Oakeshott agree that 
Hobbes does not ground natural law in absolute morality and that Leo Strauss 
and Howard Warrender argue that Hobbes does. In an appendix "Other Inter- 
pretations" to The Political Philosophy of Hobbes (Oxford: The Clarendon 
Press, 1957), Howard Warrender compares his own interpretation to that ex- 
pressed by Michael Oakeshott in the introduction to the latter's edition of 
Hobbe's Leviathan (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1946). 

46 



house. The first law of nature, for Hobbes, is self-preservation. A man 
is justified in doing anything which preserves his life and averts injury 
or harm to his person or well-being. For him, free will is his "natural 
right" to take what he wants, to do what he desires within the limits of 
his physical and mental capacity to defeat his competitors. Selfish and 
brutish, he seeks only ease and sensuous pleasures. His general inclina- 
tion is "a perpetual and restless desire of Power after power, that 
ceaseth only in Death" (L, p. 79). He is consequently, constantly at war 
in one way or another, seeking self-gratification at the expense of others. 
His "liberty" is that of the jungle. The only feasible social structure for 
such a creature is a power structure which can exercise firm control 
over all phases of his life. 

The contrast between Milton and Hobbes is obvious. Milton's em- 
phasis is on freedom: Self-disciplined men of integrity serve as guides 
so that all may exercise wisely their God-given freedom of choice. 
Hobbe's emphasis is on power: Fearful men subject themselves to the 
holder of power, purchasing security by the surrender of will and 
judgment. 



A Historical Perspective 

On the surface, it would appear that the United States enjoys a 
largely Miltonic society. The citizens freely elect representatives to 
guide them in the exercise of their free will, whether by voting at the 
polls or by investing in a business or by retaining a professional to repre- 
sent them. Apparently, however, these leaders are not all Miltonic 
men governed by "right reason." Especially around the end of the nine- 
teenth and the beginning of the twentieth century was much evil con- 
doned in the name of progress. In spite of the professed humanistic 
philosophy of the nation, human life and suffering counted for little. 
In the name of progress, the weak were exploited by the strong. In de- 
scribing business practices at the turn of the century, the editors of 
Fortune commented that at that time "American capitalism seemed to 
be what Marx predicted it would be and what all the muckrakers said 
it was— the inhuman offspring of greed and irresponsibility."^ Harold 
Underwood Faulkner, the historian, remarked in The Quest for Social 
Justice that "to many thoughtful men in opening years of the twentieth 
century it seemed that America in making her fortune was in peril of 
losing her soul."^ 

Today, however, the concept of social responsibility on the part of 



'' Morrell Heald, "Management's Responsibility to Society: The Growth of an 
Idea," Business History Review, XXXI (Autumn, 1947), 376. 
8 Harold Underwood Faulkner, The Quest for Social Justice, 1898-1914, Vol. 
XI in A History of American Life, series edited by Arthur M. Schlesinger and 
Dixon Ryan Fix (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1931), p. xv. 

47 



executives is firmly established. But this concept has not been volun- 
tarily accepted. History is replete with examples that support the earlier 
statement that "society has forced social responsibility on management 
because of social abuses either fostered or tolerated by persons in re- 
sponsible positions." Keith Davis has observed that "the avoidance of 
social responsibility leads to gradual erosion of social power. "^ Davis 
points out that because business long denied any major responsibility 
for unemployment, it subsequently lost to government some of its 
power. Now business finds itself paying unemployment costs for which 
it originally denied responsibility and at the same time exercising less 
authority than before. That is, business has lost some of its social power. 
Also, continual management abuses brought on a succession of legis- 
lation favorable to labor, notably the Norris-LaGuardia Anti- Injunction 
Act of 1932 and the Wagner Act of 1935. Subsequent abuses of newly 
won power by labor and its representatives resulted in legislation to 
curb the newly gained power of labor: the Lea Act of 1946 (sometimes 
known as the Anti-Petrillo Act), the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, and the 
Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959. Passage of the Wagner Act was the result 
of long public displeasure over lack of public morality evidenced by 
the activities of employers and managers. Passage of the Taft-Hartley 
Act and the Landrum-Griffin Act resulted from public displeasure 
over the socially irresponsible activities of labor. Each of these facets 
of the economy — management and labor— had chosen to exercise au- 
thority while neglecting social obligations; and the public responded 
by forcing executives of both management and labor into more socially 
acceptable behavior. This pressure for social responsibility has now 
spread to professional fields formerly concerned with use of their 
skills solely for the benefit of their clients without regard for society 
as a whole. Now accounting and legal firms are held responsible for 
considering the interest of public investors when representing their 
clients. Action against such firms by the Securities and Exchange Com- 
mission was reported in a February 15, 1972, issue of the Wall Street 
Journal. The success of Ralph Nader in the matter of automobile safety, 
the passage of conservation laws restricting industrial practices, the 
passage of consumer protection laws and the creation of consumer 
protection agencies all attest the power of public pressure to force 
more and more segments of the economy to accept social responsibility. 



The Nature of the Problem 

The concept of social responsibility on the part of executives has 
been firmly established. When executives of labor or management 



^ Keith Davis. "The Changing Climate of Business Social Responsibilities," 
Current Issues and Emerging Concepts in Management, Paul M. Dauten, ed. 
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1962), p. 72. 

48 



disregard such responsibilities, the public places restriction on their 
operations and also forces them to assume responsibility in some in- 
direct way. The problem begins to reveal itself, then, as not economic 
or even political but philosophical. The philosophical assumptions of 
the seventeenth century about the nature of man which form the bases 
for current thinking offer several solutions to the problems of man in 
society. If one accepts the premise of the seventeenth century philo- 
sophes that men are both innately good and guided by reason, that in- 
stitutions corrupt, then one may logically conclude that elimination of 
institutions will solve man's problems. But not even the most optimistic 
of American Transcendentalists advocated elimination of institutions 
as a solution to even the social problems of man. 

If one accepts the premise of Hobbes that men are motivated by 
appetite and fear, then one may logically conclude that some power 
structure must exercise strict control over all phases of life. But an Or- 
wellian world can evolve just as easily from a socialist left as from a 
facist right. Neither Lenin nor Hitler disproved the lesson of history 
that absolute power corrupts. Hobbesian controls are applicable only 
to Hobbesian men, and the Hobbesian ruler has no interest but his own. 

If one accepts the premise of Milton that men are essentially good 
and can discipline themselves, by God's guidance, to proper exercise 
of their free will in the public interest, one may conclude that men are 
able to structure a free and open society in which no one will be op- 
pressed or exploited. Yet history reveals no such society before or since 
the seventeenth century. 

As a matter of fact, the twentieth century has not rejected the seven- 
teenth century myth that research and analysis can supply a solution to 
the problem of the human condition. People cry, "If we can go to the 
moon, we can eliminate poverty." So the population, wittingly or not, 
spends millions yearly on studies such as analysis of "personality traits 
fostered in school and on the job."i° Nor has the twentieth century 
rejected Hobbes's concept of human nature. The increasing arrogation 
by central authority of the exercise of both will and judgment is clear 
evidence that both political right and left believe in the necessity for 
^'irm control. Men must be forced to share the cost of regulated relief 
of financial distress, forced to restructure their cultural patterns, forced 
to assume whatever sociological obligations the current power group 
dictates. Neither has the twentieth century rejected Miltonic optimism 
that man can structure a perfect society in which, as Walt Whitman 
phrased it, ". . . all . . . men ever born are also my brothers, and the 
women my sisters and lovers. "i^ The ideological lines are not, however, 



10 A. Kent MacDougall, "A Different View: The Unorthodox Ideas of Radical 
Economists Win a Wider Hearing," Wall Street Journah February 11, 1972, 
p. 1. 

11 Walt Whitman, "Song of Myself," Leaves of Grass, in The Collected Writ- 
ings of Walt Whitman, Gay Wilson Allen and Sculley Bradley, eds. (New York: 
New York University Press, 1965), p. 33. 

49 



clearly drawn. Many Miltonic humanists who advocate brotherly con- 
cern wish to assure it by strict, Hobbesian controls. In their concern 
for public welfare, they would, by seizing undelegated authority, exer- 
cise their own will and judgment and force others to follow at what- 
ever cost to individual conviction. Many carefully constructed welfare 
schemes have proved to do more harm than good because the nature 
of man was ignored in the planning. 

Conclusion 

The problems persist, the nature of man remains a mystery, and 
humanity continues to suffer. If management hopes to manage, if it 
expects to exercise the authority it holds— and even, it seems to hold 
on to that authority— then some intelligent and realistic assumptions 
must be made about the nature of man. The lessons from history are 
clear: society forces responsibility on management. At the same time, 
society lessens the authority of management whenever it forces man- 
agement to assume responsibility. Since responsibility without authority 
is an untenable situation, management in all areas— industry, labor, 
government, education, and so forth— must assume social obligations 
and proceed to find ways of meeting them. The place to begin is the 
acknowledgement that the problem of the human condition is insepar- 
able from that of the nature of man. In setting up institutions and in 
dealing with people, we should consider the complex nature of man 
and arrange for checks and balances accordingly. 



50 



ABSTRACTS 

of 
MASTERS THESES 

and 

SPECIALIST IN EDUCA TION PROJECTS 

Baraff, James A. (MA, Psychology, August, 1973) 

UNCONVENTIONAL HEALING OF GROUP C STREPTOCOCCUS 

INFECTION IN WHITE MICE: 

A COMPARISON OF PR A YER EFFECTIVENESS 

UNDER TWO CONDITIONS 

This study was designed to research some paranormal aspects of 
unconventional healing. Previous research has concerned itself only 
with present (laying on of hands) paranormal healing. This study uti- 
lized both present healing by an individual and distant healing (healer 
does not see patient) by a group. 

White mice were used as "patients." Three groups of mice were 
infected equally with an LD50 — concentration of the pathogen 
Streptococcus C. All groups were kept together in an identical environ- 
ment. One group (Group S) received present healing treatments. One 
group (Group I) received distance healing treatments. A control group 
(Group O) received no treatment. A research assistant, blind to the 
coding of the groups, counted the number of dead animals daily during 
the course of the infection (8 days). A chi square was computed to 
determine any significant differences between the three treatment 
levels. 

No significant differences were found between the three treatment 
levels. It was concluded that in this study no evidence of paranormal 
healing was evident. However, interviews with members of the distant 
prayer healing group, and the present healer, revealed negative emotion- 
al reactions which may have affected the results of the study. These 
reactions were not revealed until the completion of the study when final 
interviews were conducted. Specifically, the reactions were: 1.) the 
question of the morality of infecting laboratory animals for use as sub- 
jects; 2.) personal antipathy by some group members toward the sub- 
jects (mice); 3.) severe personal stress felt by the present healer due to 
family difficulties throughout the duration of the study. 

It would be desirable for future investigators to control for personal 
variables affecting the healers, and to consult with the healer or healers 
regarding research design. 

51 



Baxley, Jr., Brett L. (MA, Psychology, June, 1973) 

TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR HEROIN ADDICTION 

Problem: Patients who are addicted to heroin are currently being 
treated for their addiction by hospitals, clinics, inpatient treatment 
facilities, and persons in private practice. Inpatient and outpatient 
treatment is given. Many different methods of treatment are being 
used to treat these patients including drug therapy, various kinds of 
psychoterapy and religious appeals. These are traditional kinds of treat- 
ment. Newspapers and magazines, from time to time, report on new 
methods of treatment such as medication and acupuncture. Varied 
reports of success are given for these new methods with little or no 
real evidence being offered for verification of the claims. 

Many addicts receive treatment for their addiction and still continue 
to use heroin. Their case records show that they received certain treat- 
ments and were discharged from the treatment program, but they sel- 
dom contain a statement of what happened to the patients after treat- 
ment. The prescribed methods of treatment are determined as proper 
by the person prescribing them and the patient is seldom asked to 
give his opinion of the treatment methods. Value of treatment is usually 
determined by persons other than the patient. 

The study reported here was made to find out how heroin addicts, 
who had given up the use of heroin, felt about the treatment methods 
they had experienced in their prescribed program of treatment, and 
which methods of treatment they felt were the most valuable for treat- 
ing heroin addiction. 

Method: Five patients who had not used heroin for periods of up 
to 20 months, and who were currently enrolled in a resident treatment 
program, were used in the study. They evaluated methods of treatment 
used in previous unsuccessful programs of treatment they had under- 
gone. They also evaluated 18, non-medical, therapeutic techniques and 
experiences used in their current program of treatment. The subjects 
evaluated these items in terms of how the techniques had helped them as 
well as how valuable they felt the items were for use in other heroin 
treatment programs. 

Conclusion: The study found that medical methods of treatment 
for heroin addiction were not effective. Methadone maintenance pro- 
grams and other chemical therapies were particularly ineffective. 
Volunteer drug abuse programs were found to be ineffective and it 
was shown that compulsory treatment is required for successful pro- 
grams. The particular kinds of psychoterapies used in treatment pro- 
grams for heroin addiction were found to be not critical, as most seem 
to be equally effective. The techniques and experiences found to be 
most valuable in treatment of heroin addiction were those which helped 
the patient improve his self esteem and physical body awareness. 

52 



Bell, Mae C. (MA, Guidance and Counseling, December, 1973) 

A COMPARISON OF RESPONSES ON GUIDANCE SERVICES 
IN GEORGIA, CLAYTON COUNTY, AND BABB JUNIOR HIGH 

SCHOOL 

This descriptive study investigated the perceptions held of guidance 
services by four populations: students, teachers, administrators, and 
counselors. The Georgia Guidance Services Inventory was the instru- 
ment used to determine noticeable differences in state, system, and 
local school responses. The populations responded to sections on what 
is occurring and what should be occurring. Mean factor scores were 
examined. Findings indicated a need for more interpretation to 
teachers and students on state, system, and local level. These two 
populations responded in a similar manner as did administrators and 
counselors. Local school administrators exhibited noticeable differences 
in most factors. 

Bledsoe, Mildred Rowe (MA, Elementary Education, August, 1973) 

A COMPARISON STUDY OF GLOBE AND MAP SKILLS 

AS LEARNED FROM A UNIT ON SKILLS COMPARED 

WITH A GROUP USING MAP SKILLS ONLY AS 

NEEDED IN OTHER UNITS OF WORK 

This research study was designed to report and compare findings 
of a research study which was to investigate scientifically the value 
of teaching globe and map skills in a unit compared to teaching the 
skills as needed in context from the beginning of the school year until 
the delayed posttest was given. 

Subjects used in the study were students of two seventh grade classes 
with an IQ range of 80 to 121. Both the experimental and control groups 
contained twenty-six students. The subjects involved in the study were 
from two separate schools, which are located in a rural area. The sub- 
jects of the experimental group and the comparison group were similar 
in age, sex, and economic status. 

A teacher-made test was used in the study. A total test score of fifty 
was possible with each correct response receiving one point. The same 
test was administered for each testing period. 

The pretest over globe and map skills was given to all students 
involved in this study on November 27, 1972. A posttest was given to 
all the students on February 2, 1973 when the experimental group com- 
pleted the unit of globe and map skills. After a two months period, the 
delayed posttest was administered to subjects in the experimental and 
comparison groups. 

Three null hypotheses were tested by Analyses of Covariance 
(ANOCOVA) and the fourth by the paired t test. The four null hy- 

53 



potheses were rejected at the .05 level of confidence. The experimental 
group scored significantly higher on the posttest and the delayed post- 
test. The fourth hypothesis was rejected because the experimental group 
lost retention significantly at the .05 level, evidently because the use 
of skills had not been reinforced. 

The conclusion was that a unit of globe and map skills should be 
taught seventh grade students early in the school year and the skills 
should be reinforced throughout the school year. The students would 
be better prepared to use these skills in high school, college, and the 
remainder of their adult lives. 



Bottoms, Jr., David H. (MA, English, August, 1973) 

ROMANTIC INFLUENCES ON THE POETRY 
AND CRITICAL THEORY OF HENRY TIMROD 

Henry Timrod was, perhaps, the first American who attempted to 
resolve the theoretical differences between the poetic schools of Edgar 
Allan Poe and William Wordsworth. Timrod's early influences were 
solely toward the musical aspects of poetry. As Timrod matured and 
became acquainted with the poems of William Wordsworth, he dras- 
tically altered his concept of poetry and sought to make truth, not music, 
the goal of his poems. He was quick to recognize the shortcomings of 
both theories of poetry and became concerned with creating an all- 
encompassing theory of verse. He believed, however, that for any theory 
of poetry to be workable, it must not exclude even one great poem. The 
major fault of Poe and Wordsworth was the narrowness of their theories. 
Timrod believed that a real theory of poetry must include both the 
musical and the philosophical aspects of poetry. In developing his all- 
encompassing theory, he pointed to Alfred Tennyson as a living example 
of a poet with vision broad enough to employ the best of both poetic 
theories successfully. 

Though critics have found small traces of Keats, Shelley, Arnold, 
and Browning in the poetry of Timrod, the influence of these poets 
was minimal and failed to effect the development of Timrod's poetic 
theory. This thesis will trace the development of Timrod's critical theory 
through his initial influences toward the musical aspect of poetry, the 
change of concept Timrod experienced from an acquaintance with the 
poetry of William Wordsworth, and the critical solution he found in 
the poetry of Alfred Tennyson. 



54 



Carmichael, Leon ClydeiMA, Guidance and Counseling, August, 1973) 

NINTH AND TENTH GRADE PUPILS' OPINIONS OF 
COUNSELING SERVICES AT SYLVAN HIGH SCHOOL 

The counseling services at Sylvan High School have been evaluated 
twice during the last six years. In 1967-68 the evaluation was part of a 
school-wide evaluation required by the accrediting association. In 1973 
a follow-up evaluation to the 1967-68 study was made, in which it was 
recommended that the counselors be aware of the changing needs of 
the students— both academic, vocational, and personal. This recom- 
mendation indicated the need for a survey of pupils' opinions of the 
counseling services. 

The purpose of this study was to obtain and analyze ninth and tenth 
grade pupils' opinions of the counseling services offered. The cate- 
gories used in this pupil evaluation were the following: orientation and 
general information, occupational information and counseling, educa- 
tional information and counseling, and personal problems and coun- 
seling. The study was limited to ninth and tenth grade pupils, since the 
investigator was assigned to these grades. 

It is hypothesized that counseling services at Sylvan High School 
are not reaching the majority of ninth and tenth grade pupils. 

A stratified sample of 78 pupils— 43 ninth and 35 tenth— comprising 
about 20% of these two grades— was selected and administered a 32- 
item questionnaire (Appendix). Items 1-20 covered the four categories 
above. Items 21-31 dealt with possible counselor services. Subjects were 
asked to check "yes," "no," or "not sure." Item 32 was open-ended and 
asked the pupil to list additional ways the counselor could be of assis- 
tance. The questionnaire was administered in a group setting in order 
to gain a higher degree of cooperation. 

The responses to the questionnaire were tabulated and converted 
to percentages. The data were presented under the following headings: 

(a) Distribution of respondents according to grade and sex 

{b) Orientation and general information 

(c) Occupational information and counseling 

{d) Educational information and counseling 

{e) Personal problems and counseling 

(f ) Possible counselor services 

{g) Ways in which counselors could be of more assistance to 
students 

{h) Mean percentages of the four categories of counseling services 

The results of the study led to the following conclusions: 

(a) A majority of the students seemed to know the counselor and 
about the counseling program, and had had at least one conference 
with him a year. 

{b) The students felt rather definitely that occupational information 

55 



and counseling was lacking. 

(c) Most of the pupils reported that they had taken an intelligence 
or achievement test but that they had not received an explanation of 
the results. 

(d) A majority of the pupils indicated that the counselor had helped 
them plan their high school program, but they did not feel that they had 
received adequate information about post-high school education. 

ie) Pupils' concern about personal problems (44%) was about 
equivalent to the percentage of pupils saying they had received help 
from the counselor (40%). 

(f) Most of the students reported satisfaction with the help re- 
ceived from the counselor, although only 38% felt that some change in 
their thinking had resulted. 

ig) In connection with possible counselor services, a clear-cut 
majority favored help with course selection, occupational information, 
and school-related problems; a little over half (56%) felt that counse- 
lors should help with moral and religious problems. 

(h) Of the 41 suggestions given in answer to the open-ended item, 
18 related to educational planning and eight suggested help with various 
school problems. 



Douglas, Judy C. (MA, Secondary Education, August, 1973) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENT IN AND 

ATTITUDE TOWARD AMERICAN HISTORY USING THE 

TRADITIONAL LECTURE DISCUSSION AND 

INQUIRY METHODS 

Using two classes of twenty-seven each this study attempted to dis- 
cover if the use of the inquiry approach of instruction would result in 
a significant gain in achievement and attitude as compared with the use 
of the traditional lecture-discussion method. Null hypotheses were 
used. 

The two classes were determined to contain no significant dif- 
ferences in either achievement nor attitude through the t-test for the 
difference between means computed on pretest scores from form A 
of Reemer's Any School Subject Survey and test four of the Coopera- 
tive Topical Tests in American History Series. A nine week treatment 
followed with the control class taught by the traditional lecture-dis- 
cussion method and the experimental class taught by the inquiry 
method. At the end of the treatment form B of Reemer's Any School 
Subject Survey and test four of the Cooperative Topical Tests in Ameri- 
can History Series were administered as post tests. Appropriate statis- 
tical treatment found no significant difference in attitude but a signifi- 
cant difference in achievement at the .05 level of significance. Hypothe- 
sis one was rejected. Hypothesis two was accepted. 

56 



Fidler, II, Leland Willis (MA, History, August, 1973) 

A RE-EXAMINATION OF OPPOSITION TO 
IMMEDIATE SECESSION IN GEORGIA, 1860-1861 

From the moment Georgia seceded historians have argued over 
the nature of the secession movement. Was secession a popular move- 
ment, or was secession the resuk of a conspiracy of Southern leaders? 
The purpose of this work is to determine the strength of the group op- 
posed to secession. 

To understand Georgia's relations with the Union in 1860 and 1861, 
it is helpful to look at Georgia's stand in 1850. In this year of crisis, 
Georgia was a leader among Southern states in accepting the Com- 
promise of 1850. During the 1850's some Georgia political leaders began 
changing their positions regarding secession. The presidential campaign 
of 1860 influenced Georgians as they thought of secession. Moreover, 
the campaign waged in electing delegates to the secession convention 
in 1861 was significant for understanding the state's final decision. 

I have tried to use both primary and secondary sources in this 
project. Although I have used no manuscripts, I have used many news- 
papers, diaries, and collected works of individuals from antebellum 
and Civil War Georgia. County histories were used to try to determine 
the opinion of the "little men" in each county regarding secession. 
"Unionism in Georgia, 1860-1861," an unpublished thesis by Ellen 
Louise Sumner, was a valuable aid because of its thorough bibliography. 

After investigating the evidence it appears that a substantial minor- 
ity of Georgians opposed secession in 1861. Numbers and percentages 
are virtually impossible to determine, since in many cases differences 
between "Unionists," "Cooperationists," and "Secessionists" are seman- 
tic. Although I do not subscribe to a "conspiracy thesis," it seems that 
the success of the secessionists was due to the fact that their "party" 
included more of the state's political leaders. Moreover, their cam- 
paign was more vigorously waged and more easily argued. 

Gibson, Elizabeth Josephine (MA, Secondary Education, August, 
1973) 

A STUDY OF SELECTED FACTORS WHICH AFFECT THE 

REGISTRATION OF STUDENTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES 

CLASSES AT OSBORNE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN COBB 

COUNTY, GEORGIA 

This study examined the attitudes of students toward social studies 
as compared to English, science, and math, and also examined selected 
factors which affected registration for social studies courses. There were 
814 students from Osborne Senior High School in the group study. 
Slightly more than half the boys and girls showed favorable attitudes 

57 



toward social studies. Social studies ranked third in the order of pref- 
erence of boys and last among girls. Teacher recommendations, liking 
the teacher, and graduation requirements were significant factors af- 
fecting registration but counselor recommendations had virtually no 
effect. 



Glover, Inez Taylor (MA, Elementary Education, June, 1973) 

A METHOD TO PROVIDE INDIVIDUAL 
HELP FOR A READING CLASS 

This study was designed to provide experimental data on the ef- 
fectiveness of students helping younger students in reading on an in- 
dividual basis. The research design of this study was the pretest posttest 
control group design. Half of a second grade underachieving reading 
class was randomly chosen for the experimental group. These 16 ex- 
perimental subjects were paired with 16 fourth grade achieving readers 
for a 15-minute daily help session for a period of 6 weeks. These help 
sessions were held in the fourth grade reading class during the reading 
period for both groups involved. The help sessions involved assistance 
with assigned seatwork and other individual help with reading. 

The control group consisted of the 16 second grade underachievers 
that remained in the reading class from which the experimental group 
was selected. They received no student help with seatwork but were 
paired with the remaining fourth graders for certain play activities. 

Alternate forms of the California Reading Test were administered 
as pretests and posttests. A t test was computed to ascertain any signi- 
ficant statistical differences between the mean gain of the 2 groups. 
These gains were measured in 3 areas: (1) Total reading, (2) Vocabulary, 
and (3) Comprehension. The 3 null hypotheses that there would be no 
difference between gains of the 2 groups were not rejected. 

While there was no measurable statistical mean gains which could 
be evidenced on the t test, it should be noted that the experimental 
group made raw score gains in each area tested over the gains of the 
control group. The raw score gain in comprehension was nearly twice 
as great as the gain of the control group in this area. 



Hardy, Jr., James Eldred (MA, Guidance and Counseling, August, 
1973) 

THE EFFECTS OF GROUP COUNSELING WITH SOCIALLY 
WITHDRAWN SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS 

A counseling group composed of quiet, shy, and withdrawn seventh 
grade students was set up at Lindley Junior High School for the purpose 
of helping these students learn the skills needed for meeting new people 

58 



and for expressing ideas and thoughts openly without fear of rejection. 
Through the use of group discussions, games, puzzles, and filmstrips, 
the students were able to look at themselves and the others around them 
and openly discuss their ideas and thoughts. Although there was not a 
significant change in the self concept of the group, there was a signifi- 
cant change noticed by the classroom teachers in the interaction of the 
group members in classroom activities and in the making of new friends. 



Heard, Philip Spurgeon (MA, Secondary Education, June, 1973) 

A COMPARISON OF DECLARED SOCIAL SCIENCE MAJORS 

AND DECLARED BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE MAJORS WITH 

RESPECT TO PERSONALITY FACTORS 

This study has considered whether there is a difference between 
the personalities of social science students and behavioral science stu- 
dents. Samples were selected from history, political science, psychology 
and sociology students who took the Sixteen Personality Factor Ques- 
tionnaire in Education 201 classes at West Georgia College. Statistical 
treatment found that there was a significant difference at the .05 level 
on Factors B (low mental capacity — high general mental capacity), 
C (affected by feelings— emotionally stable), G (expedient— conscien- 
tious), H (shy— venturesome), M (practical — imaginative), O (self- 
assured— apprehensive) and Ql (conservative — experimenting). 



Hoomes, E/eanor (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
December, 1973) 

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GRADES GIVEN BY ENGLISH 

TEACHERS AND LANGUAGE AND NON-LANGUAGE ABILITY 

AS MEASURED ON THE CALIFORNIA SHORT FORM TEST OF 

MENTAL MATURITY AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 

GRADES GIVEN BY ENGLISH TEACHERS AND 

AGE, SEX, AND RACE 

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship be- 
tween teacher-given English grades and language ability as measured on 
the California Short Form Test of Mental Maturity and between 
teacher-given English grades and non-language ability as measured on 
the California Short Form Test of Mental Maturity. A correlation tech- 
nique, using the 0.05 level of confidence, was used to determine the 
relationship between the treatment variable (English grades) and the 
control variables (language and non-language ability scores). In addi- 
tion, the relationship between English grades and age, sex, and race 
was observed. 

59 



A group of seventy-five Junior English students at Bowdon High 
School in Carroll County, Georgia, was used as the population. The 
findings showed a positive relationship between English grades and 
language ability as measured on the California Short Form Test of 
Mental Maturity and between English grades and non-language ability 
as measured on the California Short Form Test of Mental Maturity. 
In addition, there were positive relationships between English grades 
and age and between English grades and sex. The relationship was 
negative between English grades and race. 



Jackson, Ruth Aldridge (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, June, 1973) 



A STUDY TO COMPARE THE USE OF GAMES AND 

ACTIVITIES VERSUS NO GAMES AND ACTIVITIES IN THE 

INSTRUCTION OF GEOMETRY 

The study was an attempt to determine any differences in achieve- 
ment and attitude between two groups of students, who were taught 
the same unit of geometry by two different methods. 

During the six-weeks period from February 5, 1973 through March 
16, 1973 two fifth grade arithmetic classes at Alabama Street School, 
CarroUton, Georgia were taught the same unit of geometry by the same 
teacher. One group of thirty-one students became the control group, 
which was taught by the traditional approach of teacher demonstra- 
tions, student demonstrations, and practice through drill. The other 
group of thirty-one students became the experimental group, which 
was taught as the control group, but with the addition of games and 
activities. Both groups used as the basic text. Modern Mathematics 
Through Discovery 5, published by the Silver Burdette Company. 

The grade level in mathematics of the two groups was compared 
by an examination of the scores attained on the mathematics section 
of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. The mean comparison for the two 
groups was third grade seventh month. Hence the two groups were ob- 
viously equivalent with respect to grade level in mathematics. 

A pretest over concepts of geometry and a preattitude scale over 
arithmetic in general and geometry in particular were given to all stu- 
dents involved in this study. At the end of the six-weeks period, they 
were given the same tests as posttests. Fisher's "t" technique was used 
to test the significance of differences between the two groups. 

There was no significant difference in the mean gain between the 
control group and the experimental group. The obtained / value in con- 
cepts of geometry was .065, in attitude toward arithmetic was 0.100, 
and in attitude toward geometry was — 1.174. The t values required 
for significance were 1.714 at the .05 level and 2.500 at the .01 level 
of significance. 

60 



The conclusion was that there was no significance in the mean gain 
for the subjects being compared by this study. There was no signifi- 
cance in the mean gain pertaining to attitude. Students achieved as 
much concerning concepts of geometry by the traditional method of 
teaching without the use of games and activities as those students, from 
the same population sample, achieved with the addition of games and 
activities. 



Jenkins, Jane Luck (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1973) 

DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF AN INDIVIDUAL TUTORING 
PROGRAM ON DISABLED FIFTH GRADE READERS 

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness in reading 
vocabulary, reading comprehension, total reading achievement and in 
attitude toward reading as a result of a structured tutorial reading 
program. 

A purposive method of sampling was employed to select 35 subjects 
from the two fifth grade teams. The experimental and control groups 
consisted of subjects who were reading approximately two years below 
grade level as determined from the pupils' Cumulative Reading Records, 
The McMillan Basal Reading Program. Eighteen subjects in the experi- 
mental group received assistance beyond their regular reading instruc- 
tion. Seventeen subjects in the control group did not receive additional 
help. 

A structured tutoring program was conducted for nine weeks with 
college students enrolled in Education 351, West Georgia College, How 
to Teach Reading, working with their subject on an individual basis 
twice a week for one hour. 

For evaluation purposes, alternate forms of the California Reading 
Test and the same form of the Intermediate Reading Index were admin- 
istered as pretests and posttests. A t test was computed to ascertain 
any significant statistical differences between the mean gain of the 
two groups in reading vocabulary, reading comprehension, total reading 
achievement and in attitude toward reading. The four null hypotheses 
stated that there would be no significant differences between the two 
groups. 

From the statistical computation which was used to test the four 
hypotheses, there was no significant differences shown in reading vo- 
cabulary, reading comprehension and in total reading achievement 
at the .05 level of confidence therefore these three hypotheses were not 
rejected. The fourth hypothesis, attitude toward reading, showed a 
significant difference at the .05 level of confidence according to the 
t value, therefore the fourth hypothesis was rejected. 

61 



Kaufman, Jr., Gus B. (MA, Psychology, June, 1973) 

CULTURAL MEANINGS OF THE TRICKSTER FIGURE 

The objective of this study is to begin to define a cultural and psy- 
chic force in man to be called the trickster figure or archetype, to give 
some idea of its variety and universality, and to show its importance 
for individual and cultural well-being. 

The thesis is developed that the trickster is closely related to the 
animal, the primitive, and the unconscious, that man has usually felt 
conflicting needs to suppress or to recognize and express these parts of 
himself, and that the conscious expression of these needs is closely 
related to change and growth processes. 

Awareness is proposed as a key variable in determining whether 
trickster behaviors are constructive or destructive for an individual 
or a society. In the explication of the psychological nature of the trick- 
ster figure, cultural ambivalences regarding change, wandering, aggres- 
sion, sexuality and the body are considered as they are embodied in 
taboos, customs, and myths. 

Current American examples of expression or liberation of these 
forces, and the possible benefits and dangers of this are also considered. 

Finally, the author considers the significance of the trickster theme 
in his own life; he creates and explicates a personal trickster myth. 

Legge, Thomas J., (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
August, 1973) 

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP 

BETWEEN SELECTED VARIABLES AND INTEREST 

IN SOCIAL STUDIES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 

The problem of this study was to determine if there is any relation- 
ship between intellectual variables of intelligence quotient, grade point 
average, and reading ability and the non-intellectual variables of parents' 
educational level, and the students' sex and a student's interest in social 
studies. 

The subjects used in the study were sixty high school students. 
Thirty of these students were classified as those with low interest in 
social studies and thirty of these students were classified as those with 
high interest in social studies. Analysis of variance and correlations 
were run to determine if there was a significant difference between the 
two groups. 

The following conclusions were drawn: 

A. With reference to the variables of sex and interest in social 
studies, there was indication that male students had slightly more 
interest in social studies than female students. 

B. Intellectual variables had no significant relation to interest in 

62 



social studies. 
C. Non-intellectual variables had no significant relation to interest 
in social studies. 



Lemmon, Elizabeth Bullard, (Specialist in Education, Guidance and 
Counseling, August 1973) 

EFFECTS OF GROUP COUNSELING UPON 

ATTITUDES AND SELF-CONCEPTS OF MINORITY STUDENTS 

IN A MIDDLE SCHOOL 

The purpose of this research was to determine if the self-concepts 
and attitudes of nine black boys and seven black girls in a middle school 
could be changed in twelve group sessions. The attempt was made to 
develop the ego strength of the students. This was done by stressing and 
reinforcing the positive aspects of each student's personality until he 
saw himself as worthwhile. It is suggested that group counseling, for 
more than the twelve sessions given these students, may be a means 
by which the minority student can receive aid in developing better 
self-concepts and attitudes. 



Lobovits, Francine Segal (MA, Psychology, August, 1973) 

A CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INTO 

MUTUAL HYPNOSIS AS A MEANS OF EXPANDING 

CONSCIOUSNESS IN AN INTIMATE MALE-FEMALE 

RELATIONSHIP 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of mutual 
hypnosis as a technique for facilitating unity in a married couple. By 
"unity" I am also referring to the expansion of consciousness: for the 
male, by integrating feminine principles into his psyche, and for the 
female, the integration of masculine principles. 

There were three different mutual hypnosis sessions, at each of 
which a different symbolic text was read to the subjects. The texts em- 
phasized archetypes and symbols of the union of male and female 
energies. 

The sessions were successful though not dramatic. The subjects 
could not single out any direct effects of the sessions in their daily 
lives, but, they were able to relate easily to the symbols used, and felt 
'he experiences to be highly meaningful. 



63 



McLendon, Larry Leonidas (MA, Psychology, June, 1973) 

ADDITIONAL NORMS ON THE HARVARD GROUP 
SCALE OF HYPNOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY, FORM A 

Normative data were collected on the Harvard Group Scale of 
Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS) from a sample of students 
at West Georgia College, Carrollton, Georgia. The results are compared 
with the findings of the normative studies done at Harvard and the 
University of California in order to determine if the normative data 
reported in these studies are broadly representative of American college 
students. 

The HGHS was administered by means of a tape-recorded stan- 
dardized induction procedure to 226 undergraduate and graduate 
students in volunteer and non-volunteer groups. An analysis of vari- 
ance was conducted on the raw data collected from the sample. The 
Kuder-Richardson reliability co-efficient and item-pass percentages 
were calculated. 

The findings lend support to the previous normative studies. There 
are discrepancies between the means of the samples studied, but these 
may be explained by the nature of the sample compositions rather than 
by weaknesses in the scale itself. 

A minor rearrangement of the order of two items in the scale is 
suggested, as well as deletion of an ambiguous suggestion in the induc- 
tion procedure. 



Moyers, Ruth L. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
August, 1973) 

THE ROLE OF A READINESS CLASS IN THE 

DEVELOPMENTAL PLACEMENT PROGRAM OF 

NORTON PARK ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

A description is given of the role of a readiness class in the develop- 
mental placement program at Norton Park Elementary School, Smyrna, 
Georgia. It presents an educational plan which allows for more individ- 
ualized instruction based on the philosophy that all children do not 
develop at the same rate. Materials are presented which help in de- 
veloping certain skills which are prerequisites for reading success. 
The children in the readiness class are those who are not develop- 
mentally ready for formal instruction. By grouping these children, 
provision is made for the kinds of experiences and activities suited to 
their present level of development. 



64 



Peterson, W. Martin (MA, Psychology, August, 1974) 

THE EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION ON THE 

CONCEPTS OF TRUST AND INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 

OF THE MILDLY RETARDED ADOLESCENT MALE 

The mildly retarded institutionalized male has entered a state of 
basic mistrust, both of himself and his environment. Institutional life 
has removed many of the choices they, as humans, have by supplying 
objective treatment and rehabilitation in its place. 

Both the retardate and worker have entered an "it-it" relation. 
Thus, each has objectified the other. Objectification has occurred to 
the extent that the mentally retarded adolescent male does not have a 
concept of trust, nor does he enter interpersonal relationships. 

The information presented in this thesis represents my attempt, 
within an institutional setting, to reintroduce and foster self-evaluation 
and interpersonal trust relationships. 



Prickett, Jr., Harvard Pittman (Specialist in Education, Secondary 
Education, August, 1973) 

A STUDY OF FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE STUDENT 

CHOICES OF SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES AT DOUGLAS 

COUNTY COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL 

This study has considered factors that influence student choices 
of social studies courses. Samples were selected from English classes 
at Douglas County Comprehensive High School during Spring Quarter 
of 1973. Three hundred students were given H.H. Remmer's scale, 
"A Scale to Measure Attitude Twoard Any School Subject," Form A. 
Of these three hundred students, sixty were selected for the sample 
consisting of the thirty students who scored highest in interest in social 
studies and the thirty who scored lowest in interest in social studies. 
These students were compared on the following variables: intelligence 
quotient, grade point average, family economic background, home 
reading materials, educational level of the mother, educational level 
of the father, reading ability, and sex. Means, standard deviations, and 
t-scores were derived for each factor. Statistical treatment found that 
students with high interest in social studies appear to have higher in- 
telligence quotient scores, higher grade point averages, higher family 
incomes, more reading materials in the home, higher educational levels 
of parents, and higher reading scores than do students who have low 
interest in social studies. 



65 



Raulston, M. Greer (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
August, 1973) 

A LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY OUTLINE 
FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

This course is designed to meet the needs of accelerated students 
on the senior high school level who plan to attend college. It is struc- 
tured for presentation under the quarter system. 

The first quarter surveys the geography, the pre-CoIombian era, 
the Spanish and Portuguese conquests, and the colonial period. 

The second quarter deals with the various independence movements 
and each country's struggle for stability. 

The third quarter considers the strong-arm rule of dictators and the 
development of contemporary nationalism. 



Rowe, Helen Hutson (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1973) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE METHODS OF 

INSTRUCTION IN TEACHING DIVISION TO FIFTH 

GRADE STUDENTS 

A study was conducted to compare the gain, if any, in arithmetic 
achievement in division of one group taught individually or in small 
groups (Group A), another group taught by the class-as-a-whole ap- 
proach (Group B), and one group taught by a combination of these 
approaches (Group C). There were thirty-three students in Group A, 
thirty-one in Group B, and thirty in Group C. All classes were hetero- 
geneously grouped and taught by the investigator. 

Three null hypotheses were tested to determine if significant dif- 
ferences existed between the groups. The t test was used to test the 
hypotheses. The findings indicated that no significant difference was 
found between the groups, but the class-as-a-whole approach was much 
more effective than the individualized approach, but it was not signifi- 
cantly more effective than the method which used a combination of 
approaches. Recommendations for further study were included. 



Sanders, Marian Elizabeth (MS, Physics, August, 1973) 

A MOSSBAUER STUDY OF Fe-Ni-Al ALLOYS 

For samples of atomically disordered fee Fe-Ni-Al, a study of their 
magnetic properties was done using room temperature Mossbauer spec- 

66 



troscopy. The samples used consisted of (FexNij.j^)yAlj.y, where x 

equaled 0.167 with y equaling 1.00, 0.90, 0.85, and 0.95 for one series 
of alloys and x equaled 0.450, 0.333, 0.167, and 0.050 with y equaling 
0.10 for the second series used. 

The main results indicated that the addition of paramagnetic Al 
and ferromagnetic Ni decreased the hyperfine field, H, of ferromagnetic 
Fe. Ni and Al were found to have different effects on the spectral lines 
of the alloy. The greater the Al concentration in a Fe-Ni-Al alloy the 
larger the energy spread (or atomic disorder) in the Mdssbauer spectral 
lines, while the dependence on Ni showed a constant amount of dis- 
order. The third result was an anomaly at (Fe j57Ni §33) 9qA1 jq, which 

could have been due to atomic ordering. However, this sample and all 
others were fast quenched from 1200°C (thermally disordered) and 
cold worked (mechanically disordered). 

For alloys with x =0.167, the quadrupole splitting of the spectral 
lines was found to be directly related to the Al concentration in the 
same manner as H. On the other hand, the quadrupole splitting and 
isomer shift for y=0.10 were inversely related to H. 



Savage, Vince (MA, Psychology, December, 1973) 

CAMERAS BETWEEN PERSONS 

The phenomena of experiencing one's self and one another visually 
typically engenders considerable feeling or affective processes which 
normally are not understood and often are unnoticed. This thesis ex- 
plores the intrapersonal and interpersonal feeling processes present 
in situations of two persons and a camera. This discourse is not primarily 
concerned with photographic process or physiology of vision, but rather 
is a critical inquiry into the ordinary approaches to photographing per- 
sons and deals with the emotional aspects of experiencing one's self 
visually. As an alternative way of being and as a possible solution to 
problems of cameras between persons, some theoretical postulation and 
demonstration is suggested as to how accelerating personal growth can 
affect such phenomena to happen differently. Moreover, it is an entreaty 
for authentic involvement with one's self and other persons and for an 
artist's integrity in visually experiencing one another. 

Shaye, Seymour (MA, Psychology, June, 1973) 

TOWARD A THEORY OF POSTURAL IDENTIFICATION: 
A COMPARISON OF EAST AND WEST, WOMAN AND MAN 
THROUGH THE POSTURES OF SITTING AND STANDING 

The manner in which man identifies with various postures has pro- 
found implications for the life that he lives. If he chooses to live an 

67 



upright life to the exclusion of other postures, as he has done in the 
West, then he will manipulate nature and others to meet his own per- 
sonal needs. If he chooses to identify with horizontal postures, as he 
has done in the East, then he will hesitate to alter his relationship with 
nature. 

The meaning of an upright postural world is distance and manipu- 
lation of that world. The meaning of a horizontal postural world is 
closeness and acceptance of the world as it is. If we are to grow into 
full human beings, then we will have to inhabit all postures. The inte- 
gration of these two postural worlds is necessary for growth. Without 
living in both worlds we neither understand nor accept what is not 
found in our world. If our communication is aimed at bringing us closer 
together, then for it to be effective, we must be able to live in many 
different worlds. In order for man to meet man, he must inhabit both 
horizontal and vertical postural spaces. 



Smith, Deborah Sherre (MA, Psychology, August, 1973) 

INSTITUTIONALIZATION: A SOURCE OF 
FRUSTRATION AND ALIENATION 

The question which is dealt with in this paper is that of the mental 
institution and more specifically, its functions, goals, and effectiveness 
in the treatment of mental illness. The material presented has been 
gathered from two main sources: (1) my own empirical observations 
based upon five years' work in a mental hospital and (2) the research 
and findings of others. The main objective of this paper is twofold. The 
first is to show that a mental institution is an unnatural environment 
and is a source of frustration and alienation which does little to aid a 
person in learning how to function adequately in a community. The 
second is to explore possibilities for more effective treatment of psy- 
chological disorders. 



Smith, Jimmy L (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
August, 1973) 

INTRODUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION 
CAREER EDUCATION (K-6) 

The elementary school teacher and administrator must make the 
concept of Career Education into an effective program for all children. 
Realistic planning during the formative years will cause the formation 
of attitudes and habits which will carry over to the adult life of the child. 
Provisions should be made to give every elementary child the oppor- 

68 



tunity to explore the world of work and to relate his own interests to 
potential careers. 

The grades K-6 are an excellent time for introducing the Career 
Education concepts and providing for exploration of the work world. 
The school itself must be so organized that full support is given to the 
career program. Bottoms and Matheny suggest that the following ob- 
jectives be utilized in the establishment of such a program. 

1. Students learn to know themselves in their immediate environ- 
ment and begin to relate to the broader environment beyond 
family and school. 

2. Students develop identifications with workers, fathers, mothers, 
and other significant persons. 

3. Students learn and relate manual and mental skills in the per- 
formance of a number of work tasks. 

4. Students acquire satisfaction in the task of learning itself. 

5. Students learn to get along and work with peers. These objectives 
should be a viable portion of every school's central purpose. 
(Bottoms, 1969) 



Starnes, Eddie (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1973) 

A STUDY TO MEASURE MATHEMATICS COMPETENCE 

UTILIZING THE OBJECTIVES IN MATHEMATICS 

FOR GEORGIA SCHOOLS 

A multiple-choice test was constructed utilizing the objectives in 
the state mathematics guide for elementary schools. The test was ad- 
ministered to all sixth grade students in the Polk School District. The 
two major questions in the study were: (1) Can a reliable test be con- 
structed utilizing the objectives in Mathematics for Georgia Schools'^ 
(2) To what extent are sixth grade students accomplishing these 
objectives? 

The split-half method was used to determine the reliability coef- 
ficient, .88, which was significant at the .01 confidence level. A histo- 
gram showed that of the 540 students in the study, only thirty scored 
above seventy per cent. There were 276 students who scored less than 
fifty per cent on the test. On this test, the students demonstrated the 
highest level of competency in those mathematical concepts related to 
relations and functions. They scored lowest in those concepts related to 
probability and statistics. Recommendations for further study were 
included. 



69 



Whitt, Michael Emmett (MA, Psychology, August, 1973) 

INTROSPECTION: A PRECURSOR OF 
EXPANDED CONSCIOUSNESS 

Each individual finds himself submerged within his own subjective 
relationship with existence. This unique position places man at the 
center of a variety of tensions which assist and diminish him as he at- 
tempts to fulfill his life. There is an enormous variety of these tensions 
which each individual must face, and these tensions are usually per- 
ceived in the form of dichotomies. A few of these dichotomies are: 
subject-object, intellectual-emotional, rational-irrational, and scienti- 
fic-humanistic. All of these dichotomies are contained within the human 
situation. The human situation, then, is somewhat of a predicament. 
This human predicament (i.e., being-in-the-world) can perhaps be 
better understood if one considers man as he relates to himself, to 
others, and to the world. Being human means that life calls into play 
all the resources of an individual. The manifestations of the tensions 
of our human predicament are sometimes direct, other times indirect; 
yet, to some extent, they continually are interacting with us. A basic 
underlying assumption is being made concerning man, i.e., that if an 
individual can partially realize the complex nature of himself, especially 
in terms of self-concept, identity, and attitudes, then the responsibility 
(no more nor less can be assumed) of one's attaining his own fulfillment, 
reaches the domain of possible outcome. 

To be aware of the diversity, complexity, and multiple dimensions 
of oneself seemingly is a prerequisite for the aggrandizement of the 
individual. The primary goal of this thesis is to stress a more radical 
shift in the quality and quantity of one's own perspectives, with an em- 
phasis on subjective attitudes concerning these views. The three major 
chapter divisions direct attention toward the perception of specific 
manifestations of being seen essentially as a complex, diversified, and 
multidimensional personality. 



Wilkinson, Doris (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1973) 

A STUDY TO IMPROVE THE SUPERVISORY TECHNIQUES OF 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS IN THE AREA OF 

READING/LANGUAGE ARTS THROUGH INVOLVEMENT 

IN AN IN-SERVICE PROGRAM 

The purpose of this study was to improve the supervisory tech- 
niques of elementary school principals in the area of reading/language 
arts through involvement in an in-service program. 

This study involved five elementary school principals of the Harris 

70 



County School System during the 1971-1972 and 1972-1973 school 
terms. 

The Gates MacGinitie Reading Test (pretest) was administered to 
students in grades two through seven in October, 1971. These reading 
scores were compared with data obtained from the Gates MacGinitie 
Reading Test (post test) administered to students in grades two through 
seven in April, 1973. 

An instrument was devised and utilized for measuring any change 
in the attitudes of a principal toward his supervisory role in the reading/ 
language arts program. 

The effectiveness of the principal is determined in part by his abil- 
ity to improve instruction and his ability to furnish competent super- 
vision. The most important work of the principal is the improvement 
of teaching in the school; therefore, his dominant function is super- 
vision. The principals became involved in an in-service program that 
dealt specifically with supervisory techniques in the area of reading/ 
language arts. Major topics of concern were: exploration of needs in 
a reading program, materials used in the reading/language arts program, 
study of reading test scores, needs of individual children, classroom 
visitation, and effective supervisory techniques. 

In providing themselves with appropriate background information 
for the in-service program, the principals of Harris County (1) made 
a general survey of their reading program, (2) examined the present 
status in Harris County regarding reading/language arts and methods 
of teaching, (3) evaluated the existing reading/language arts program 
and methods of teaching in light of the philosophy and objectives, 
(4) identified areas in reading/language arts which needed special study 
and further development, and (5) appraised from time to time the ef- 
fectiveness of the improvement program. 

Because of the many variables, the writer was not able to make any 
significant statistical comparison between pre and post data obtained 
from the administration of the Gates MacGinitie Reading Test. 

The following conclusions were drawn from the study: 

1. There did appear to be a positive change in the attitude of prin- 
cipals toward their supervisory role in the reading/language 
arts program. 

2. The principals had a positive change in attitude about their be- 
liefs concerning the teaching of basal reading as a result of the 
in-service program. 

3. Participants in the study now have a better understanding of a 
developmental reading program in the primary and elementary 
grades. 

4. The effects of the study had begun to reach some of the class- 
rooms in schools of the participants before the study had been 
completed; an increasing number of principals had employed 
successfully some of the supervisory techniques learned during 
class participation. 

71 



Addison, Ann Dendy (Specialist of Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, Spring, 1974) 

A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF GROUP COUNSELING 

AND PEER TUTORING ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF EIGHTH 

GRADE UNDERACHIEVERS AT LAKESIDE HIGH SCHOOL 

Twenty-four eighth grade students at Lakeside High School were 
identified as underachievers. These were students who scored 100 or 
above on the Otis Lennon Ability Test and who made two or more D's 
or F's on their first quarter grade reports. These students were divided 
into three groups of eight. The counselor did not work with the control 
group. Another group was assigned peer tutors. A third group had group 
counseling once a week for the purpose of improving study skills and 
habits. At the end of the second quarter the change in grade averages 
from first quarter to second quarter of the three groups was compared. 
There was no significant difference in the change in grades of the three 
groups. 

Addison, John Robert (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, Spring, 1974) 

THE EFFECTS OF GROUP COUNSELING ON THE GRADES, 

ATTENDANCE AND PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL ACTIVITIES 

OF NINTH GRADE MALE POTENTIAL DROPOUTS AT 

PEACHTREE HIGH SCHOOL 



Sixteen male ninth grade students at Peachtree High School were 
identified as potential dropouts by their teachers and/or counselor. 
These students were randomly divided into two groups. The counselor 
did not work with the control group at all. The experimental group had 
group counseling fifty minutes once a week for ten weeks. At the end 
of ten weeks the change in grades, participation in school activities and 
attendance of the two groups was compared. The counseling group 
differed significantly from the control group in change in grades for 
second quarter. There was no significant difference in change in atten- 
dance or participation in school activities for either group, although two 
members of the experimental group joined a school activity second 
quarter while none of the control group did. 

Burgess, Donnie E. (MS, Biology, Spring, 1974) 

THE FINE STRUCTURE OF THE METACERCARIAL 
CYST OF Posthodiplostomum minimum 

The cyst wall of Posthodiplostomum minimum (Trematoda: Diplo- 

72 



stomidae) consists of two main parts: 1) an outermost, cellular layer, 
about 3.0 u in thickness, composed of attenuated, endothelial-like cells 
containing granules, and interconnected by desmosomes; 2) an inner 
area with a membrane peripheral to a compact, hyalin-like layer aver- 
aging 1.46 u in thickness. The cyst is filled with a flocculant material. 
The tegument of the worm inside the cyst is spinous with vesicles near 
the surface. Beneath the limiting membrane of the tegument are cir- 
cular and longitudinal muscle bundles and cells with numerous granules, 
cytoplasmic processes, inclusions, and baccilli-form bodies. Evidence 
suggests that the tegument and underlying cells are involved in active 
transport and synthesis of substances constituting the inner cyst wall. 



Chapman, George W. (MA, Psychology, Spring, 1974) 

SELF-DISCLOSURE AND PHYSICAL TOUCHING: AN 
INQUIRY INTO RELATIONSHIPS 
BETWEEN BLACKS AND WHITES 

One hundred and twenty-four undergraduate students, black and 
white, male and female, between 18 and 23 years old, volunteered to 
answer Jourard's and Rubin's (1968) Bodily Touching Inventory, and 
Jourard's (1964) Self-Disclosure Questionnarie, to determine which 
racial group disclosed more and touched more, and any relationship 
between these modes of communication. Results indicate whites touch 
and disclose more than blacks, but the modes of communication in 
either racial group show little relatedness. 



Givens, William Wyatt (MA, History, Spring, 1974) 

THE CENTENNIAL HISTORY 

OF THE 

CARROLLTON (GEORGIA) BAPTIST ASSOCIATION 

This thesis is a project dealing with local history in which the organ- 
ization and the activities of the Carrollton Baptist Association will be 
examined. The Association is a voluntary group of missionary Baptist 
churches which are located primarily in Carroll County, Georgia. The 
Association was formed on October 24, 1874, and for one hundred 
years it has supported various mission activities both locally and in 
cooperation with the Southern Baptist and the Georgia Baptist Conven- 
tions. The local activity and the cooperation in wider activities is the 
scope of this thesis. 

The primary sources consulted in the preparation of this thesis 
were: Minutes of the Carrollton Association for the one hundred years 
of its existence; Minutes of the Tallapoosa and Arbacoochee Baptist 

73 



Associations; Minutes of the Alabama and Georgia Conventions of 
Baptists; The Christian Index; the Carroll Free Press; and private 
letters. 

The major secondary sources that were used were: histories of the 
Baptist denomination in Georgia by Samuel Boykin, B.D. Ragsdale, 
and James Adams Lester; articles on Georgia Baptist history by Robert 
G. Gardner and Emerson C. Proctor which were published in View- 
points by the Georgia Baptist Historical Society; histories and an article 
dealing with basic Baptist principles; and two histories which deal 
with issues in the Southern Baptist Convention. 

The plan of work which was followed in preparing this history of 
the Carrollton Association was chronological and was based on five 
distinct periods in the affairs of the Baptists of the area. The background 
and organization of the Association are covered in chapter one; chapter 
two examines the formative years from 1874-1897; in chapter three the 
relation of the Association to wider Baptist interests is the theme of 
the period from 1898 to 1910; the fourth chapter considers the struggle 
to promote mission work between 1911 and 1944; and chapter five sur- 
veys the progressive post-war years from 1945 until the present. In each 
period there is a consideration of the major issues which arose and an 
examination of relations with wider Baptist interests. 

The basic conclusion of this thesis is that the Carrollton Association, 
operating on fundamental Baptist principles which are deeply rooted 
in the history of the denomination, has accomplished its work because 
it has had the general support of the majority of the individual Baptist 
church members. The Association has maintained a forward look and 
has been able to do those things which had the approval of the man in 
the pew whose voluntary support was always necessary for the success 
of any effort. The Association has been active, progressive, and co- 
operative with the wider efforts of Southern Baptists and Georgia 
Baptists. 



Hollander, Steven Alan (MS, Biology, Spring, 1974) 

A NUMERICAL TAXONOMIC STUDY OF SPECIMENS 
OF THE PELECYPOD FAMILY VENERIDAE 



A numerical taxonomic study of specimens of the molluscan family 
Veneridae was performed, based on the cluster analysis methods of 
Sokal and Sneath. Only the calcified shells of organisms collected in 
Florida were examined. Biometric analysis was not fruitful. However, 
numerical analysis produced results consistent with current ideas of 
the family Veneridae. 



74 



Week, Edna-Earle (MA, Psychology, Spring, 1974) 

THE RELATIONSHIP OF SEXUAL FUNCTIONING 

TO 
INNER/OTHER DIRECTEDNESS 

The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between 
sexual functioning and other-directedness. An experimental group of 
12 subjects who were being treated for sexual dysfunction were com- 
pared, on the O-I scale of the POI, to 12 control subjects who were being 
counseled for non-sexual related problems. Statistical analysis indicated 
that the experimental group scored consistently more other-directed 
than the control group. The conclusion drawn was that psychosocial 
orientation, as measured by the O-I scale of the POI, is related to the 
incidence of sexual dysfunction. 



75 



ANNUAL FACULTY BIBLIOGRAPHY 
AS OF JANUARY 1, 1974 



Austin, Roger S. 

"Distinction Between Cretaceous and Teritiary Kaolins of The Irwin- 
ton District, Georgia." Southeastern Section Program of Geologi- 
cal Society of America, (1973), 18. (Asbtract) 



Belt, Bobby, D. 

"A Gaussian Fitting Computer Routine for the Analysis of Gamma- 
Ray Spectra." With G.E. Keller. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy 
of Science, XXXI (1973), 89. (Abstract) 

"Inhibited E2 Transitions in i^T^d and io«Pd." With R.E. Holland 
and F.J. Lynch. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, XXXI 
(1973), 89. (Abstract) 

Blumenthal, Warner 

"Father and Son in the East: A New Look at Werfel's The Forty Days 
ofMusa Daghr Ararat, XIV (Winter, 1973), 24-29. 

"The Incomprehensible Fate in Werfel's The Forty Days of Musa 
Dagh." Paper read at the Twenty- Third Annual Mountain Inter- 
state Foreign Language Conference, Richmond, Kentucky, Oct., 
1973. 

"Accelerated Basic German." Paper read at the Foreign Language 
Association of Georgia, Macon, Georgia, Nov., 1973. 

"An Accelerated Total Immersion in Lower Division French, Ger- 
man, and Spanish at West Georgia College." With K.E. Bunting 
and Mildred Lipham. Paper read at the South Atlantic Modern 
Language Association, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov., 1973. 

Bryson, J. Gilbert 

"Data Processing for Business Teachers." With D.L. Crawford. 
Business Education Forum, XXVIII (Nov., 1973), 33-34. 

Bryon, Dora L. 

"Teen-Age Jury." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Magazine, Oct. 
7, 1973, 14-17. 

"Homecoming." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution Magazine, Oct. 
14, 1973, 16-18. 

76 



Chalfant, Fran C. 

"Changing Trends in Shakespearean Production." Paper read at 
the First Monday Series, Carrollton, Georgia, Mar., 1973. 

"The Life of Shakespeare: Facts and Fantasies— Parts I and II." 
Radio lecture on WWGC, Carrollton, Georgia, Apr., 1973. 

"The Dark Lady of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Radio lecture on 
WWGC, Carrollton, Georgia, May, 1973. 

Chowns, Timothy M. 

"Environmental and Diamagnetic Studies of the Cleveland Ironstone 
Formation of Northeast Yorkshire." Unpublished PhD dissertation 
(geology), University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, England, 1968. 

"Depositional Environment of the Cleveland Ironstone Series." 
Nature. CCXI (1966), 1286-1287. 

"A Chamosite-Hematite Oolite From the Sequatchie Formation in 
Northwest Georgia." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, 
XXVIII (1970), sl9. (Abstract) 

"Stratigraphy of the Ordovician and Silurian Section Exposed in 
the Ringgold Road Cuts: A Proposed Geological Monument." 
Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science, XXIX (1971), 123. 
(Abstract) 

"Origin of Geodes From the Fort Payne Formation, Woodbury, Ten- 
nessee." With J.E. Elkins. Geological Society of America Abstracts 
with Programs, III (1971), 303. (Abstract) 

"Recurrent Sabkha Facies in the Mississippian of the Eastern In- 
terior, U.S.A." Geological Society of America Abstracts with Pro- 
grams, IV (1972), 67. (Asbtract) 

Sedimentary Environments in the Paleozoic Rocks of Northwest 
Georgia. Guide Book II. Compiler. Atlanta: Geological Survey of 
Georgia, 1972. 

"Depositional Environments in the Upper Ordovician of Northwest 
Georgia and Southeast Tennessee." Sedimentary Environments in 
the Paleozoic Rocks of Northwest Georgia. Guidebook II Atlanta: 
Geological Survey of Georgia, 1972, pp. 3-12. 

"Molasse Sedimentation in the Silurian Rocks of Northwest Georgia. " 
Sedimentary Environments in the Paleozoic Rocks of Northwest 
Georgia. Guidebook II Atlanta: Geological Survey of Georgia, 
1972, pp. 13-23. 

"Trace Fossils From the Ringgold Road Cut (Ordovician and Silu- 
rian), Georgia." With R.W. Frey. Sedimentary Environments in the 
Paleozoic Rocks of Northwest Georgia. Guidebook II Atlanta: 
Geological Survey of Georgia, 1972, pp. 24-44. 

"Promolasse Sedimentation in Silurian Rocks of the Southern Ap- 

77 



palachians." Geological Society of America Abstracts with Pro- 
grams, IV (1972), 472. (Abstract) 

Review of Geologic References Sources: A Subject and Regional 
Bibliography of Publications and Maps in the Geological Sciences 
by D.C. Ward, Marjorie W. Wheeler and M.W. Pangborn. South- 
eastern Librarian, XXIII, No. 1 (1973), 36-37. 

Claxton, Robert H. 

"Miguel Rivera Maestre: Guatemalan Scientist— Engineer." Tech- 
nology and Culture, XIV (Jul., 1973), 384-403. 
Review of Religion in Cuba Today edited by Alice Hageman and 
P.E. Wheaton. Fides et Historia, VI (Fall, 1973), 75-77. 

"Forests and Cities: Georgia's History of Land Use Planning." The 
Georgia Conservancy Magazine, (Winter, 1973), 12-13. 

"Sources of the Anticlericalism of Lorenzo Montufar." Paper read 
at the State University of New York Latin Americanists' Conference, 
Brockport, New York, Apr. 7, 1973. 

"University Reform in Central America." Paper read at the Annual 
Southern Historical Association, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov. 8, 1973. 

Cooper, Donald B. 

Exhibitions: Visual Arts Gallery, Athens, Georgia; Frankenburg/ 
Guthrie Gallery, Athens, Georgia; Swann Coach House Gallery, 
Atlanta, Georgia, 1973. 

Simon, Dutchess Looking On. Painting purchased by the Atlanta 
High Museum of Art for the Permanent Collection. Atlanta, Geor- 
gia, Sep., 1973. 

Invitational Exhibition: Simon-Formal Portrait, Georgia Artist's 
II (Purchase Award), Atlanta High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Geor- 
gia, Nov., 1972. 

Cowrie re Alex 

"La Bruyere and Humor." Revue de Louisiane, II, No. 1 (1973), 

92-97. 

deMayo, Benjamin 

"A Mossbauer Study of Disordered Iron-Cobalt-Aluminum Alloys." 

With L.J. Brown. Bulletin of the American Phvsical Societv, XVIII 

(1973), 257. (Abstract) 
"The 3d Band in Iron-Cobalt-Aluminum." Bulletin of the American 

Physical Society, XVIII (1973), 781. (Abstract) 
"A Street Light Photometric Project." With J.E. Hogan. Bulletin of 

the Georgia Academy of Sciences, XXXI (1973), 87. (Abstract) 

78 



DeVillier, J. Lincoln 

"Organization and Format: Aids to Comprehension or Aesthetic 
Preference?" Paper read at the Southwestern Social Science As- 
sociation, Dallas, Texas, Mar. 23, 1973. 

"Business Communications— Ideas for Solution." Group discussion 
leader at the American Business Communication Association, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, Dec. 28-29, 1973. 

Edwards, C.H., Jr. 

"Dickey's Deliverance: The Owl and the Eye." Critique, XV, No. 2 
(1973), 95-101. 

Eslinger, Eric V. 

"The Mechanism of Burial Diagenetic Reactions in Argillaceous 
Sediments. 1. Mineralogical and Chemical Evidence." With John 
Hower. Transactions, American Geophysical Union, LIV (Apr., 
1973), (Abstract) 

"Oxygen Isotope Exchange During Burial Metamorphism of Sedi- 
ments and O^^ / O^^ Evolution of the Ocean." Bulletin of the 
Georgia Academy of Science, XXXI, No. 2 (1973), 85. (Abstract) 

"Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Geochemistry of the Hydrother- 
mally Altered Rocks of the Ohaki-Broadlands, New Zealand Geo- 
thermal Area." With S.M. Savin. American Journal of Science, 
CCLXXIII (1973), 240-267. 

"An X-Ray Technique for Distinguishing Between Detrital and 
Secondary Quartz in the Fine-Grained Fraction of Sedimentary 
Rocks." With L.M. Mayer, T.L. Durst, John Hower, and S.M. Savin. 
Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, XLIII (1973), 540-543. 

"Oxygen Isotope Geothermometry of the Burial Metamorphic Rocks 
of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup, Glacier National Park, Mon- 
tana." With S.M. Savin Geological Society of America Bulletin, 
LXXXIV (1973), 2549-2560. 

Ferling, John E. 

Review of From Resistance to Revolution: Colonial Radicals and 
the Development of an American Opposition to Britain, 1765- 
1776 by Pauline Maier. Pennsylvania History, LX (Apr., 1973), 

277-79. 

Ford, James T. 

"The Development of an Instrument for Evaluating Administrative 
Process on the Department Level in Higher Education." Unpub- 
lished EdD dissertation (education). Auburn University, 1973. 

79 



Garmon, Gerald M. 

"J.R.R. Tolkien's Modern Fairyland." West Georgia College Review, 
VI (May, 1973), 10-15. 

"Lawrence at Sotheby's." With E.A. Bojarski. D.H. Lawrence Re- 
view, VI, No. 1(1973), 113-114. 

"Theses on D.H. Uwrence: 1931-1972." With P.C. Howard and E.A. 
Bojarski. D.H. Lawrence Review, VI, No. 2 (1973), 217-231. 

"Emerson's 'Moral Sentiment' and Poe's 'Poetic Sentiment': A Re- 
consideration." Poe Studies, VI, No. 1 (1973), 19-21. 
Assistant Editor, West Georgia College Review, II, 1969- 

Gay. James T. 

"Harrison, Blaine and Cronyism." The Alaska Journal, III, No. 1 

(1973), 12-19. 
"Henry W. Elliott: Crusading Conservationist." The Alaska Journal, 

III, No. 4 (1973), 211-216. 

Gibbons, Don E. 

Beyond Hypnosis: Explorations in Hyperempiria. South Orange, 
New Jersey: Power Publisher Inc., 1973. 

"Hyperempiria." Paper read at the pre-convention symposium of 
the Georgia Psychological Association, Carrollton, Georgia, Feb., 
1973. 

"Beyond Hypnosis." Paper read at the Southeastern Regional Con- 
vention of the Association for Humanistic Psychology, Eatonton, 
Georgia, Mar., 1973. 

"Hyperempiria." Paper read at the Georgia Psychological Associa- 
tion, Atlanta, Georgia, Apr., 1973. 

"Hyperempiria: Hypnosis Awakened." Workshop presented at the 
American Psychological Association, Montreal, Canada, Sep., 

1973. 

"Hyperempiria: A New ASC." Paper read at the Parapsychological 
Association, Durham, North Carolina, Sep., 1973. 

"Hyperempiria: A New Altered State of Consciousness Induced by 
Suggestion." Paper read at the Society for Clinical and Experi- 
mental Hypnosis, Newport Beach, California, Dec, 1973. 

Griffith, Benjamin W. 

"Robinson Jeffers's 'The Bloody Sire' and Stephen Crane's 'War is 
Kind'." Notes on Contemporary Literature, III (Jan., 1973), 14-15. 

"Keats's 'On Seeing the Elgin Marbles'." The Explicator, XXXI 
(May, 1973), 76. 

80 



Hall, Gerald W. 

"A Study of the Relationships Among High School Achievement and 
Perceptions Regarding Maternal Control and Locus of Control 
Among University of Alabama Freshman Males." Unpublished EdD 
dissertation (education), University of Alabama, 1973. 

Haltresht, Michael 

"Interpreting Dreams and Visions in Literature." Journal of English 

Teaching Techniques, VL No. 2 (1973), 1-8. 
"Dreams, Visions, and Myths in John Mersey's White Lotus." West 

Georgia College Review, VI (May, 1973), 24-28. 
"Qualitative Analysis in the Study of Imagery: Dostoevski's Notes 

from Underground." Notes on Teaching English, I, No. 1 (1973), 

12-14. 

"The Interpretation of Dreams" and "Joseph Conrad, Novelist." 

Texts for two sets of cassettes manufactured and distributed by 

Omniquest Co. 

Hecht, Alan D. 

"A New Model for Determining Pleistocene Paleotemperatures 

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Kennedy, W. Benjamin 

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81 



The Beehive Press, 1973, pp. 1-15. 

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Mathews, James W. 

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Meehan, Virginia M. 

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Offiong, Daniel A. 

"The Role of Organized Labor in the Political Development of Ni- 
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Apathy and Optimism Among Negroes of North End Champaign, 
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82 



O' Ma I ley, James R. 

"A Case for the T House, Union County, Tennessee." Tennessee 
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"Combinations of Third-Order Elastic Constants of Zinc and Cad- 
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"A Physics Workshop for General Science Teachers." Bulletin of 
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"The July 10, 1972 Solar Eclipse." Bulletin of the Georgia Academy 
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Rao, Jaganmohan L. 

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"Status Inconsistency and Communication Behavior of Indian Pea- 
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"Industrialization and the Family." Paper read at the Southern Socio- 
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Reeves, Robert Milton 

"The Influence of a Modified Racket on the Learning of Certain 
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Roberts, Paul Craig 

"Oskar Lange's Theory of Socialist Planning." Unpublished PhD 
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83 



Alienation and the Soviet Economy: Toward a General Theory of 
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Marx's Theory of Exchange, Alienation and Crisis. With M.A. 
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"Oskar Lange, Hierarchy, Polycentricity, and the Soviet Economy." 
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"The Economic Theory of Socialism: The Lange-Lerner Model 
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"Michael Polanyi, A Keynesian Monetarist: Money in the Keynesian 
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"The Concept of Planning in the Soviet Union." Paper read at the 
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Roland, Ronald W. 

"A Study of Organizational Climate and Attitude of Selected Schools 
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Ryback, David 

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"10 and Responsivity to Verbal Operant Conditioning." Psycho- 
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"Confidence and Accuracy as a Function of Experience in Judgment- 
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"A Critical Incident Simulation Technique for Nurse Selection." 
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"Optimism-Pessimism as a Consequence of Success or Failure in 
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84 



"The Dilemma of Initiative." Journal of Human Relations, (1970), 
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"Stimulus, Respondent and Response Characteristics of Social Dis- 
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"Parents as Behavior Therapy- Technicians in Treating Reading 
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"Sub-Professional Behavior Modification and the Development of 
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"Verbal Operant Conditioning of an Active-Non-Active Verbal 
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"Existentialism and Behaviorism: Some Differences Settled." Cana- 
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"Therapeutic Approaches in Theravad Buddhism and Existen- 
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"Behaviorial Method in the Treatment of Functional Dyslexia." 
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"A Vector Model for Existential Behaviorism." Psychotherapy: 

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Short. Verl M. 

A Point In Time. . . Readings In Early Childhood Education. Co- 
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Skinner, James L 

Seven monographs with computer tapes. Population Projections for 
Austria; Columbia; Costa Rica; Finland; Nicaragua; South Africa; 

85 



Switzerland, respectively. Washington: Foreign Demographic 
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Four monographs with computer tapes. Population Projections for 
Botswana; Kenya; Sierra Leone; Sudan, respectively. Washington: 
Demographic Analysis Division, Bureau of the Census, 1968. 
Two monographs with computer tapes. Population Projections for 
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Projections of the 1980 Areas of the 50 Largest U. S. Urban Agglom- 
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''A Point in Time . . . Readings in Early Childhood Education. Co- 
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"Intersubjectivity and Schizophrenia." Unpublished PhD disserta- 
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What is a Thing? by Martin Heidegger. Chicago: Henry Regnery, 
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(Oct., 1956), 2, 21-23. 

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Review of Two Story World by James K. Feibleman. Georgia Re- 
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"Phenomenology of Schizophrenia." Psychiatric Spectator, IV 

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(Jun., 1967), 22-23. 

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Southern Journal of Philosophy, VII (Spring, 1969), 65-74. 

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Thomas, H Glyn 

Historic Sites in Tennessee. With W.T. Alderson. Nashville, Ten- 
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"Highlander Folk School: The Depression Years." Paper read at 
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"Highlander Folk School: The Depression Years." Tennessee His- 
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87 



Apr., 1967. 

Reviews of The Forgotten Farmers: The Story of Sharecroppers 
in the New Deal by David E. Conrad and Labor Revolt in the South: 
The Great Strike of 1894 by Robert D. Ward and William W. 
Rogers. Tennessee Historical Quarterly, XXVI (Spring, 1967), 
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Highlander Folk School Manuscript Collection, Register #9. Nash- 
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Upchurch, John C. 

Co-editor with D.C. Weaver, West Georgia College Studies in the 
Social Sciences, XII, 1973. 

Weaver, David C 

Co-editor with J.C. Upchurch, West Georgia College Studies in 
the Social Sciences, XII, 1973. 

Woods, Walter A. 

"Comments on Attitudinal and Perceptual Correlates as Bases for 

Segmentation." Applications, Issues, Developments and Strategies 

in the Decision Sciences, (Mar., 1973), 128. 
"A Motivation, Information, Manipulation Model for Consumer 

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Youngblood, Betty J. 

"The Teaching of Political Science in Secondary Schools." American 
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88 



7 



ir/^ 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEG 



REVIE 




Vol. VIII 



May, 1975 



Published By 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



A Division of the University System of Georgia 



CARROLLTON, GEORGIA 



Published by 
WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



Ward B. Pafford, President 
John M. Martin, Academic Dean 



Learning Resources Committee 
Chairman, Chester Gibson 



Tom Carrere Lynn Holmes 

Mary Creamer Al Irby 

Thomas Davidson James M. Robertson 

Ben DeMayo J. Phillip Scott 

Judy DeMayo Vernon Zander 

Gerald M. Garmon, Editor 

William L. Lockhart, Associate Editor 

Martha Saundei< Assistant Editor 



The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the facutly of 
West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major re- 
citals and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or accepted 
are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is comprehensive and 
appears in the issue of the year of his employment. The abstracts of all 
master's theses and educational specialist's projects written at West 
Georgia College are included as they are awarded. 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



REVIEW 



Volume VIII May. 1975 

TABLE 

of 

CONTENTS 

The Iliad and Veblen's "Quasi-Peaceable 

Barbarian Culture" Paul H. Bowdre 3 

Historiography of Science Textbooks Lucille B. Garmon 12 

Renaissance Literary Theory: Sidney. Milton, and 

The Angel Raphael Martha A. Saunders 20 

A Quasi-Statistical Analysis of Performance in a 

Self-Paced General Chemistry Course Jimmy C. Stokes 

William L. Lock hart and Hughlan W. Pope 23 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 28 

Annual Bibliography of West Georgia College 

Faculty as of January 1. 1974 50 



Copyright © 1975. West Georgia College 
Printed in U.S.A. 
Thomasson Printing Co.. Carrollton, Georgia 30117 



THE ILIAD AND VEBLEN'S 

"QUASI-PEACEABLE 

BARBARIAN CULTURE" 

by PAUL H. BOWDRE* 



I suppose we have all had the experience (perhaps when we were 
trying to stimulate some discussion in class on the part of our students) 
of having somebody speak up and say "Sir, why do we have to read 
this stuff anyway— what's the point in it?" Something similar to this 
happened to me recently when we were about halfway through the 
Iliad. A male student slouched comfortably on the back row joined 
the discussion by remarking in a rather loud voice. "What's the use 
of learning about all these gods and goddesses and keeping up with 
one fight after another and who killed who? How are we ever going to 
use any of this stuff about a bunch of ancient Greeks?" 

Well, there is a very brief, to-the-point answer for questions of 
this sort which is as follows: "If you don't learn it you won't pass this 
course, and if you don't pass this course maybe you won't graduate, 
and if you don't graduate maybe you won't get a desirable job and 
make a good salary." This usually takes care of the situation nicely, 
as it did in this case. For some reason though, the question of "rele- 
vance" having been raised about the Iliad, I found myself wishing I 
had taken time to present something better in justification of teaching it. 

This matter of the relevance of the Iliad must have embedded it- 
self in my subconscious, since a few nights later I had a rather discon- 
certing dream— a dream in which I found myself convicted of the crime 
of teaching that particular epic and standing before a jury consisting 
of several of my brighter students, while one of them reviewed the 
charges before sentence was passed. As well as I can recall the charges 
went like this: 

Item I: that in an era recently marked by student protest of the 
Vietnam War through anti-war demonstrations, giving the 
"peace sign," boycotting Dow Chemical, and setting up agencies 
to give advice on avoiding the draft, you have the nerve to teach 
us a work of literature which glorifies battle and individual 
prowess, which dwells on the savagery of war, and which has as 
its heroes men with little to recommend them other than their 
fitness to make war 

Item 2: that to a generation which seeks honesty and "mean- 
ingful relationships," which believes other persons should be 
treated (to quote Buber) according to an "I-thou" relationship 
and not an "I-it" relationship, you have presented an epic which 

* Professor of English, West Georgia College. 

3 



glorifies fraud, particularly in the person of Odysseus, but in 
many others as well, including a number of the "so-called" gods 

Item 3: that in the face of a blossoming and promising "Wo- 
men's Lib Movement" you see fit to dwell on a work in which 
women are. for the most part, chattel slaves to be bargained with 

Item 4: that though we have been led to believe all our lives 
that there is only one God. and that he is logical, reasonable, 
and good, you instead present us with a multitude of deities, 
few of whom seem little if any better morally than the warriors 
who are so busily trying to hack each other to death 

Item 5: that despite the fact that our generation has had the 
benefits of modern science from Galileo to Einstein, we are 
asked to take seriously the most laughable superstitions, such 
as attributing almost any and everything to the direct inter- 
vention of gods and goddesses in human affairs, not to mention 
the superstitious nonsense having to do with interminable sacri- 
ficing of goats and sheep to the gods at the slightest provocation 

Item 6: based on the five preceding charges, we find nothing to 
support your claim that the poem known as the Iliad has any 
actual relevance to students of today, and we therefore sen- 
tence you ... 

At this point I fortunately awakened, greatly relieved not to be 
"sentenced." but rather indignant that I hadn't had time to cry out 
to all concerned that there is danger in judging a work of art out of 
its own time and context, and that any examination of a work's "rele- 
vance" must of necessity begin by understanding what it "stood for" 
in its own era. 

I would now like to leave this somewhat apocryphal dream (hop- 
ing it has served its purpose) to raise the question "How are we to 
understand the time and context of the Iliad?" Works there are in 
abundance which attempt the explanation needed, but the ones 
I have sampled always seem to miss the crucial point. They speak of 
"Heroic ideals" or "the pursuit of excellence" or "artistocratic ideals" 
or "the foundations of western culture" or "the beginnings of human- 
ism." but these are simply pieces of nomenclature. The phrases quoted 
seem primarily names given to attributes of the Homeric period which 
certain critics have deemed it advisable to lump together and label. 
What is needed is FIRST some explanation for why the "heroic ideals" 
or "excellence" or "aristocracy," or "culture" or "humanism" take the 
particular form they do in the Iliad— that is. how and why are they mani- 
fested in the particular events of the poem. To be even more specific, 
how are the heroic ideals manifested in the quarrel over Briseis. or 
Hector's prayer for his son. or the sacrificing of animals to Apollo? 
SECOND, and even more basic. "What is the origin of these ideals- 
how and why did they come about?" It is one thing to talk of "heroic 
ideals" but another thing to show historically why the ideals are what 

4 



they are and why they take the form they do in a particular work of art. 
What is needed is a theory which reaches "explanatory adequacy" 
rather than merely "descriptive adequacy." 

I believe that to attempt an explanation of the sort mentioned it 
is necessary to recognize two things about the Iliad: First, it is essen- 
tially a poem about an aristocracy or leisure class as opposed to being 
a poem about the common man; second, it is a poem which reflects 
not a unique early Greek culture but rather barbarian culture in general, 
as it manifests itself at a particular stage of its development. The first 
of these points I feel is fairly obvious— the poem is almost entirely about 
the Greek and Trojan leaders, not the rank and file. We read a lot about 
Achilles, Agamemnon, and Hector, but next to nothing about Thersites, 
for example. The second point is a refutation of (what I consider) a 
somewhat unfortunate and misinformed view which sees the early 
Greeks as a people appearing mysteriously and suddenly on the scene, 
entirely different from other barbarian peoples of the time, whose mani- 
fest destiny was to found Western Culture and begin humanistic thought. 
What is needed is a general theory of barbarian culture, and, in parti- 
cular, a theory concerned with that culture's ruling class. If the Greeks 
are indeed )iot unique, such a theory might throw light on the questions 
previously raised in regard to the "heroic ideals" found in the Iliad. 

Undoubtedly there are a number of such theories which research 
by anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians has contributed to. 
But in the remainder of this paper I would like to consider the theory 
of barbarian culture put forth by Thorstein Veblen in his Theory of 
the Leisure Class, a book which carries the sub-title "An Economic 
Study of Institutions." Veblen's work is something of a classic in that 
general area which might be described as "Economics-Sociology." 
It has been standard reading on a number of "Great Books" lists and 
I will not attempt to provide Veblen's credentials here. What interests 
me is the apparent lack of any attempt to apply this socio-economic 
theory to the Homeric epics, and the fact that it explains much about 
them which needs explaining. 

I shall attempt to sketch briefly the primary features of his Theory 
of the Leisure Class while freely admitting the impossibility of doing 
justice to a work of some four hundred pages in a few remarks. What I 
put forth must of necessity be suggestive rather than definitive. 

According to Veblen. from an economic point of view, culture may 
be divided into three main types: savage, barbarian and industrial. 
The savage culture, which seems to account for a very small percentage 
of the human race, is typified by "small groups and a simple structure. "^ 
These groups are "commonly peaceable and sedentary." "They are 
poor and individual ownership is not a dominant feature of their eco- 
nomic system." Their culture differs from the barbarian culture in 



1 All Veblen quotations are from Thorstein Veblen. The Theory of the Leisure 
Class (New York: Viking Press, 1935). 

5 



"the absence of a leisure class, and the absence, in great measure, of 
the animus or spiritual attitude on which the institution of a leisure 
class rests." "It is to be noted that this class seems to include the most 
peaceable— perhaps all the characteristically peaceable— primitive 
groups of men." Indeed, the most notable trait common to members 
of the savage culture is "a certain amiable inefficiency when confronted 
with force or fraud." Perhaps it would be safe to guess that those Indians 
who sold Manhattan Island to our forefathers for the equivalent of 
$24.00 were part of the savage culture. 

The barbarian culture, which is the type of primary interest to the 
matter at hand, will be discussed in considerably greater detail. Accord- 
ing to Veblen, the barbarian culture may be said to begin when the 
community passes from peaceable savagery to a predatory phase of 
life. This predatory phase of life ordinarily coincides with the com- 
mencement of the hunting of wild beasts for food, and often with the 
beginnings of conflicts of a military nature with neighboring tribes. 
As Veblen points out, there arises in this primitive barbarian culture a 
distinction between the kind of activity which involves prowess or ex- 
ploit (such as big-game hunting and warfare) and the type of activity 
which might be classified as either service or industry (such as cooking, 
making of tools other than weapons, cutting up the kill, caring for 
children, etc.) which was usually carried on by the women, old people, 
slaves (if any), and others considered unfit by physique, age, or status 
for acts of exploit. The primitive barbarian warrior begins to view the 
exploitive or predatory activites as honorable, and the industrial or 
service activities as dishonorable or "women's work." It is a well known 
fact that in some tribes of today which are still at this level of culture, 
the hunters will not drag their kill home or cut it up— it becomes the 
duty of the women to take care of these non-exploitive functions. 

Thus, in primitive barbarian culture, status is largely based on 
prowess in hunting and warfare, and although no real leisure class, as 
such, has developed, still an invidious comparison, from the standpoint 
of status, is made between the activities involving prowess, which are 
honorable, and those involving productive industry or service, which 
are base. 

In the next stage of barbarian culture, referred to by Veblen as 
the "quasi-peaceable" stage, one finds that the earlier reliance on 
prowess or exploit for status has been elaborated on in a number of 
ways: First, the institution of private (rather than community) owner- 
ship has developed, probably as a result of the successful capture of 
female slaves. Then, the initial phase of ownership, based on seizure 
of captives, begins to pass into a subsequent stage which sees industry 
beginning to be organized on the basis of slave labor. Now status no 
longer depends entirely on direct exhibition of prowess in hunting and 
battle, but also depends on the evidence of ownership of slaves and 
the goods they produce. A leisure class of warrior-slave owners develops 
whose requirements as to status include both evidence of wealth in 
slaves and goods and the necessity of refraining from all activities of 

6 



an industrial or service nature— that is, refraining from ail pursuits 
except those which someway relate to exploit. The approved activities 
for the warrior-slave owner of this period are government, warfare, 
religious observances, and sports, none of which, from a strictly eco- 
nomic point of view, exhibit any of the undesirable characteristics 
associated with productive industry or service. 

As long as the barbarian community is small and close-knit, one's 
status is well-known to one's neighbors, but as the community expands 
it becomes more and more necessary for the warrior-slave owner to 
make his status generally known by putting his goods and slaves on 
public display. From this necessity there develop what Veblen calls 
"conspicuous consumption" and "conspicuous leisure." "Conspicuous 
consumption" takes the form of a public display of the consumption 
of expensive goods such as in dress, food, entertainment, habitation, 
gifts, etc. "Conspicuous leisure" usually takes the form of demonstrating 
one's status as exempt from any form of productive labor by the exhibit- 
ing of a collection of servants and retainers whose presence indicates 
conspicuously that their owner is so exempt. These servants and re- 
tainers often wear some insignia designating the master they serve, so 
that there will be no mistaking whose status is being enhanced by 
their service. 

To keep this essay to a reasonable length, I must of necessity end 
my discussion of the theory itself here. Having given this brief, capsule 
version of certain salient features of Veblen's theory, I wish to raise 
the question as to whether the theory has any explanatory value in con- 
nection with the Iliad. I think it does, if one recognizes that the Greeks 
and Trojans of the time of the Iliad belong to the early stages of the 
quasi-peaceable barbarian culture described above. I say "early stages" 
because, as Veblen points out, this culture reaches its greatest develop- 
ment during the feudal days of the Middle Ages before eventually giv- 
ing way to modern industrial culture. 

Let us now return to the charges made against the relevance of 
the Iliad and try to re-consider the charges within the context of a 
quasi-peaceable barbarian culture. It has been charged that the Iliad 
presents us with a glorification of force and fraud. True, but these are 
the basic tools of exploit and prowess, and one's status in the quasi- 
peaceable barbarian culture depends on one's success with these tools. 
It is not too much to say that a man's worth, at least in the eyes of 
the barbarian leisure class, depends upon evidence of prowess through 
success in battle, taking of slaves, and exhibition of trophies and goods. 
Consider the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon. The quarrel 
is essentially a disagreement over the fair disposition of slaves and 
goods captured from certain allies of the Trojans. Achilles feels that 
he is not getting his fair share of the booty. Since the captured goods 
and slaves are status symbols, neither wants to lose face by having less 
than he considers his rightful share. It is quite unbelievable that Achilles 
so loved Briseis that his anger is caused by having to give her up— in 
fact, he later offers to let Agamemnon keep her. But his personal worth 

7 



in the eyes of others depends on his being able to exhibit the trophies 
of exploit, and Agamemnon's action threatens him directly in this area. 
Or consider the rather odd prayer (by our standards, at least!) 
which Hector prays for his small son. Hector has been seen in the 
role of father and husband in the earlier part of the scene, and strikes 
one as being more humane and less glory-hungry than the other main 
characters. However, his prayer for his son says in part: 

Grant that my infant son may live 

To gather fame superlative .... 

May the whole city muse upon 

His feats, as often as the car 

Brings him spoil-laden home from war 

(Spoil reddened with the owner's gore) 

To cheer his mother's heart once more.^ 

This prayer is not unnecessarily blood-thirsty; it simply recognizes 
that predatory success and the spoils that go with it are the greatest 
goal of the barbarian warrior— his status depends on them. 

Since the greatest victories of a predatory sort are often achieved 
through fraud rather than force, the culture also holds an honored spot 
for the warrior who excels in this talent. Far from condemning Odysseus 
for his "Trojan Horse" trickery, the quasi-peaceable barbarian culture 
would have granted him status little if any behind that coming from the 
direct application of force. That Dante puts Odysseus deep in the In- 
ferno as punishment for his fraudulent acts, only shows Dante to be 
operating under an entirely foreign set of values to that which permeates 
the Iliad. 

I now turn to the charge which deals with woman's position in the 
Iliad. It is indeed true that women are bartered in somewhat the same 
manner that goods and cattle are in the ///ac?— Achilles, for example, 
is offered "not only a shipload of gold and bronze treasures but 
the twenty loveliest women in Troy— Queen Helen alone excepted" 
if he will return to the fight. At the funeral games for Patroclus, Achilles 
announces the following prizes for a wrestling match: "The winner 
would obtain a large three-legged cauldron, valued at twelve cows; 
the loser, a highly-skilled slave-woman valued at four cows." In fact, 
there is considerable doubt as to the status of Helen herself— she is 
fought over as a prize by Paris and Menelaus. and there is no indication 
that her wishes have any bearing at all on the question of which man 
she will end up with. Andromache expects to do the work of a slave if 
she is captured, even though she is the wife of Hector. None of these 
examples is peculiar, however, in view of what Veblen says of the status 
of women in the quasi-peaceable barbarian period. Their normal role 
is that of chattel slave to a master, and their normal duties are those 



2 This quotation from the Iliad, and others cited later, are from The Anger of 
Achilles— Homer's Illiad. translated by Robert Graves (Garden City, N.Y.: 
Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1959). 



classified as non-exploitive. such as weaving, farming, or personal ser- 
vice. Only a few of "gentle blood" (defined by Veblen as "blood which 
has been ennobled by protracted contact with accumulated wealth or 
unbroken prerogative") have gradually become exempt from industrial 
employment. Usually it is the chief wife, where there is more than one 
wife, who is exempt, and her new role serves to enhance her husband's 
status by demonstrating his economic ability to keep an ornament 
exempt from productive duties. However, even Helen, who seems to 
fit this role of ornament, is diligent in weaving battle scenes into tapes- 
tries, and we suspect that there remains, even for her. the necessity 
of justifying her existence with some "woman's work"— that is. some 
non-exploitive productive labor. 

I would now like to turn to the charges made against the Iliad 
which have to do with the gods and goddesses. It is charged that they 
are moral delinquents on the one hand, and that their role in the Iliad 
bespeaks the gross superstition of the Greeks themselves. As to their 
moral fitness, more than one critic has remarked that Homer purposely 
portrays the gods as worse than they normally are, either for satiric 
purposes or in order to inject some humor into what might otherwise 
be long, dull battle passages. I suspect this is an entirely erroneous 
viewpoint. When one examines the gods and goddesses from the view- 
point of the quasi-peaceable barbarian, they appear to be admirable 
personages indeed. Almost all their interference and intervention in 
the affairs of humans may be traced directly to their own competitive- 
ness and desire for invidious comparison with each other in the area 
of status. They are effectively the agents of force (as when Apollo 
sends a pestilence among the Greeks) and fraud (as when Zeus sends 
Agamemnon a false dream, or Athena disguises herself as Deiphobus 
to lure Hector to his death). They stay strictly away from any activity 
which might be associated with industry or service. (An apparent ex- 
ception to this would appear to be the forging of arms for Achilles by 
Hephaestus. But, as Veblen points out, the making of weapons and the 
caring for them, because of their close relationship to the activities 
of prowess, are exempt from the taint connected with most productive 
industry.) 

The gods and goddesses use not only direct force and fraud to 
establish their position of honor, but also "conspicuous consumption" 
and "conspicuous leisure." The power of a god is enhanced by the 
public display of regular and costly sacrifices to him— the more waste 
of sacrificial sheep and goats in his behalf, the greater he is honored. 
Thus "conspicuous consumption" is found at the divine level as well 
as the human. Furthermore, just as the "conspicuous leisure" of the 
leisure-class barbarian is conveyed by his putting in evidence a large 
number of servants and other retainers, so is the "conspicuous leisure" 
of the god established through a large number of priests and other 
religious followers. In fact, it is argued by Veblen that such religious 
customs as observing days of rest in honor of a god, and the wearing 
of religious costumes such as vestments, owe their origin to the idea 

9 



of "conspicuous leisure." After all. it must be a great god who can 
afford for large numbers of his retainers to refrain from any productive 
work on certain days, and who can provide them with costumes which 
help demonstrate the impossibility of their performing any economi- 
cally productive task. 

In short, the gods and goddesses of the Iliad are not capricious, 
undependable, or malignant forces. Rather they exhibit the quasi- 
peaceable barbarian ideals at their best. In fact, there is much truth 
in the remark that "the Greeks created their gods in their own image," 
if it is understood that the gods represent the image of that most honored 
part of the Greek culture, the leisure-class. 

As to whether the Greeks' belief in the frequent intervention of 
gods and goddesses in human affairs should be deplored as primitive 
superstition, let me at least argue that such intervention makes good 
logical sense. Given divine beings with the traits of the barbarian leisure 
class, would it not be peculiar if they failed to seize the glorious oppor- 
tunities for assertion of individual prowess afforded by an event like 
the Trojan War. Indeed, how can it be imagined that they would 
stand aloof? 

Having made these remarks about the gods and goddesses, I would 
now like to return to the overall matter of the Iliad and relevance. 
I have attempted to show in the discussion above that Veblen's Theory 
of the Leisure Class does offer an interesting and helpful theory for 
trying to understand the Iliad in terms of its time and context. But this 
is only the first step toward establishing relevance. If it could be shown 
that the quasi-peaceable barbarian culture and its ideals are still of 
importance in our present day, the matter of relevance would be much 
more firmly established. Once again Veblen's theory is helpful. I have 
made some mention of the savage and barbarian cultures as described 
in his theory, but have said little about his description of the third 
culture, the modern industrial culture. I think it is particularly inter- 
esting that Veblen finds in our modern industrial culture so many sur- 
vivals of the predatory barbarian ideals. Unfortunately, because of 
space limitations, I will only be able to allude to them briefly. 

I think it is fairly clear, for example, that there are certain obvious 
ways in which the ideals of barbarian culture have survived. Exploit 
and prowess are still admired under the system we usually refer to as 
"competition." It is often pointed out today that "life is competitive" 
and that "the best man wins." In fact, when we use the term "success" 
as in "That man is a success" it may reasonably be taken to mean that 
evidence has been given of prowess in competition with others, and that 
this prowess is evidenced in the accumulation and conspicuous con- 
sumption of goods. There is also the survival of the barbarian culture's 
views of the honorable status of employment which involves prowess 
as opposed to the lack of honor in the productive and service functions. 
Today one tries to be an "executive." if possible, rather than a producing 
worker on the assembly line. Veblen goes into considerable detail in 
tracing the survival of predatory traits in our modern institutions. It 

10 



is almost as though the same underlying principles which manifest 
themselves in the events of the Iliad manifest themselves in many ways 
in our modern industrial life, only of course, in different forms. If 
Veblen is right in this, then his theory links Homeric times with modern 
times in a most meaningful way, which is another way of saying it estab- 
lishes a basic "relevance" of one period for the other. 

Finally I would like to suggest, as a postscript to this essay, that 
the recent "hippie revolution" may have had as its unconscious guiding 
principle an attempt to break away from the barbarian ideals as they 
survive in our modern society. The advocacy by many of the hippies 
of love, peace and the simple life, along with their disdain of status and 
the conspicuous consumption of goods, argues a basic disagreement 
with barbarian ideals. It is, however, a breaking away which itself echoes 
an earlier culture— the savage culture which was referred to earlier 
in this paper, and which is typified by the peacefulness, poverty and 
"amiable inefficiency" of its members. This is a suggestion only, but 
one which bears, I think, further exploration, and which points up once 
again the utility of Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class as an explana- 
tory theory. 



11 



HISTORIOGRAPHY OF SCIENCE 
TEXTBOOKS 

by LUCILLE B. GARMON* 

In 1962 Thomas S. Kuhn, then teaching history of science at Berke- 
ley after having obtained a PhD in physics, published a long essay called 
"The Structure of Scientific Revolutions."^ The impact of this work 
was so great that interpretation of science history in terms of Kuhn's 
"paradigm-^normal science^revolution— >new paradigm" concept is 
now de rigueur. 

Briefly, Kuhn's thesis is that any given branch of science emerges 
from its "pre-scientific" stages when someone enunciates a theory of 
sufficient reasonableness and explanatory power to unify and give a 
foundation to what had previously been disconnected and poorly de- 
veloped work on a subject. Kuhn refers to this unifying theory, model, 
concept, or "universally recognized scientific achievement that for a 
time provides model problems and solutions to a community of practi- 
tioners"2 as a paradigm. From this paradigm, "normal science" pro- 
ceeds by established rules and methods until anomalies force a revolu- 
tion in which the original paradigm is replaced by another and normal 
science in that disciphne then carries on from the new paradigm. 

The paradigm switch is more than a modification of theory; it is 
a Gestalt-like switch in a whole world-view, and woe betide the older 
scientist who cannot blink his eyes and behold reality from the new 
perspective. 

Except for a few areas such as mechanics and astronomy, which 
developed operational explanatory models in antiquity, it is easy to 
find the point in history at which a paradigm is first established. Even 
if the preceding absence of a unifying theory and accepted approach 
were not obvious, succeeding writers in the discipline will in general 
agree on when and by whom their specialty was founded, even if they 
agree on little else. 

Once a paradigm has been accepted, what had been an area of 
speculation becomes a branch of science, and once that recognition 
comes, textbooks in the subject are not far behind. For tracing the 
development of a scientific line of thought to its modern expression, 
old textbooks can be a science historian's gold mine. 

How much a science has changed since it became established as 
a science can often be gauged by the extent of the brief historical ac- 

* Associate Professor of Physics and Chemistry, West Georgia College. 



^ Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1st Edition. The 
University of Chicago Press, 1962; 2nd Edition, The University of Chicago Press, 
1970). Quotations in this paper will be taken from the Second Edition. 
2 Il>id., p. viii. 

12 



counts found in textbooks, and especially in the attitudes displayed 
toward whoever is recognized as the founder of the science or specialty. 

Unless a textbook deliberately sets out to emphasize the historical 
approach, or is written during a pedagogical fad for "throwing in some 
historical stuff", there is a tendency for the amount of history included 
to decrease with time. Reasons for this may easily be speculated upon. 
The more time has elapsed since the founders original publications, 
the more is likely to have happened, and the more of a chore it would 
be to recount it all. Also, it is not the purpose of a textbook to "confuse" 
the student with issues long since resolved; as more time passes it 
becomes less and less likely that the textbook writer himself has heard 
of them. So the text preface may contain a few remarks attempting to 
show the current relevance of the subject, from which its recent his- 
tory may be inferred, and let it go at that. 

The discipline of crystallograph. "founded" in 1784, serves as an 
excellent example of how historical treatment in texts varies as the 
discipline itself varies. Crystallography is narrow enough in scope to 
be traced with some thoroughness in the textbooks published through- 
out the nineteenth century. 

Up until the seventeenth century, crystallography was little more 
than a branch of folklore. It was thought, for instance, that metals and 
minerals underwent an organic-like growth underground. ^ The mineral 
kingdom was not rigorously distinguished from the animal and vege- 
table kingdoms, "for minerals were thought of as bred in the womb 
of the earth,"'' and animals were thought to be sometimes spontane- 
ously generated from inanimate matter. In the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries certain aspects of crystal regularity were noted, some 
generalizations established, and a few classification schemes proposed. 
Toward the end of the eighteenth century. Rene Just Haiiy (1743-1822) 
made crystallography a science by establishing the first paradigm. 

Hauy's concept of the internal structure of crystals was more so- 
phisticated than that of any of his predecessors, and also could be 
more easily and firmly fitted to the known facts about external crystal 
structure. The story of his accidentally dropping a large specimen of 
calcite and noting the shape of the cleavage fragments is well known, 
as is his deliberately breaking other crystals of calcite to see whether 
they yielded similar fragments, and when they did crying out Eureka- 
like, "Tout est trouve. " 

As modern historians point out, Haiiy was not the first to notice 
regular shapes in crystals.^ Yet he did what others had not: derive 



3 Stephen S. Mason. A History of the Sciences, Revised Edidon (New York: 
Collier Books, 1962), p. 77. 

4 C.C. Gillispie, The Edge of Objectivity: An Essay in the History of Scientific 
Ideas (Princeton University Press. 1960), pp. 58-59. 

5 John G. Burke, Origins of the Science of Crystals (University of California 
Press, 1966), p. 83. 

13 



laws which could serve as a basis for explaining a wide variety of crystal 
forms. Briefly. Haiiy's theory was based on the assumption of a different 
kind of solid, flat-sided nucleus for each species of crystal, the external 
form being produced by building up these nuclei like bricks. He identi- 
fied the nucleus with a molecule constituente (Later molecule inte- 
grante) of the crystal.^ The theory of "decrements", or the building 
up of secondary forms from stacking "molecules" in such a way that 
each layer was decreased a certain number of units in height and/or 
breadth from the preceding layer, was one of the greatest successes 
in Haiiy's system, and lies at the basis of what is today called the law 
of rational indices. 

The first English-language text on crystallography appeared in 1819, 
written by a Robert Bakewell as part of a more comprehensive text 
on mineralogy.'^ New textbooks and new editions of old books have 
been coming out regularly ever since. The changes in amount and na- 
ture of historical backgrounds found in a selection of nineteenth-century 
textbooks reflect this science's changing attitude toward its own state 
of development. BakewelTs book contains no history because there 
was, to his mind, practically no history of crystallography at that time. 
He devotes two chapters (67 pages) to explicating, in Platonic dialog 
style, Haiiy's system of analyzing crystal forms. ^ 

A much more widely read volume by Henry James Brooke, pub- 
lished in 1823, contains several pages of historical background in the 
science of crystallography, which Brooke considers to have begun in 
the last third of the preceding century. He states, "The regularity and 
symmetry of crystallized bodies do not appear to have attracted much 
attention as an object of scientific research until the time of Linnaeus, 
who attempted to construct a theory concerning crystals somewhat 
analogous to his system of Botany.^ In amongst a number of other 



^ Rene Just Haiiy, Essai dune theorie sur la structure des cristaux appUquee a 
plusieurs genres de substances crystallisees (Paris, 1784). 

'^ An Introduction to Mineralogy: Comprising the Natural History and Char- 
acters of Minerals: and a Description of Rocks. Both Simple and Aggregated: 
with a New Tabular Arrangement of Earthy Minerals, on a Plan Designed to 
Facilitate the Knowledge of that Class of Substances, To which is Prefixed: 
a Series of Conversations explaining the Principles of the Science and the 
Elements of Crystallography. (London, 1819). Apparently Mr. Bakewell was 
a self-employed mineralogist, or one who did consulting work on the side, 
for the title page of his book contains an N.B. "The Author undertakes the 
Mineralogical Survey and Examination of Estates. Letters may be addressed 
to him at Mr. Harding's, 36 St. James Street." 
8 Ibid., pp. 97-164. 

^ A Familiar Introduction to Crystallography: including an Explanation of 
the use of Goniometer, with an Appendix containing mathematical Relations 
of Crystals: Rules for drawing the Figures: and an alphabetic arrangement of 
Minerals, their Symmetry and Primitive Forms. (London, 1823), p. 33. Linnaeus 
(Carl Von Linne, 1707-1778) was a Swedish botanist well known for the delight 
he took in devising classifications and systems of nomenclature for everything: 
animals, vegetables, minerals, diseases, etc. 

14 



names, Haiiy is recognized for "completing the theory of decrements"; 
others worlcing between 1800 and 1823 are given credit for simplifying 
Haiiy's system. ^^ 

Crystallography had become well enough established by the 1840's 
to make even this brief background seem superfluous in a text; at that 
time no system of classification and nomenclature had received uni- 
versal acceptance; in fact, proposed systems were multiplying. John 
Joseph Griffin's 1841 text, A System of Crystallography, thus limits 
its historical background to a recounting of various classification 
schemes. Linnaeus is much too outdated for him to bother with, so 
is Haiiy. The names he is concerned with are mostly those of his own 
contemporaries, all competing for recognition of their own notational 
schemes.i^ Throughout the fifth through ninth decades of the nine- 
teenth century, writers of crystallography textbooks generally presented 
only enough "historical" background so that the student could under- 
stand the current unresolved questions.^^ To show even further the 
decay of historical material in later textbooks, George H. Williams, 
publishing Elements of Crystallography in 1890, contents himself with 
a bibliography. Of the thirty-eight books listed, over half were published 
within the preceding dozen years, and only three (two of which are 
works of Haiiy) appeared before 1830.^^ 

Williams' dutiful inclusion of Haiiy in his bibliography brings up 
another point. Despite their general paucity of historical material a 
majority of textbook writers consider themselves under a sort of obli- 
gation to make at least a passing reference to "the father of 

ology", especially if he is distant enough in the past 

so that his reputation, like George Washington's, has become pretty 
well ossified. 

In works written during his own lifetime and shortly thereafter, 
the founder of a scientific specialty is treated as a colleague, to be 
priased or criticized according to the writer's convictions and tastes. 
Later he may undergo an eclipse during which a "normal science" has 
been established different enough from the original paradigm so that 



10 Ibid., pp. 33-35. 

11 A System of Crystallography, with its Application to Mineralogy (Glasgow, 
1841), p. 149. In another context, that of mathematical intelligibility (pp. vii-ix). 
Griffin does mention Haiiy. This is not so much to give a history of the develop- 
ment, however, as it is to show the superiority of his own approach. It is interest- 
ing that Griffin's main objection to the mathematics of Hauy is that it's too 
complicated. To the students of 1841, as to their descendents today, the superior 
mathematical approach is the less mathematical approach. 

12 For example, cf. James D. Dana, A System of Mineralogy comprising the 
Most Recent Developments, including a Treatise on Mathematical Crystallog- 
raphy. 4th edition (New York, 1859). 

13 Elements of Crystallography for Students of Chemistry, Physics and Mineral- 
ogy (New York, 1890), pp. vii, viii. 

15 



writers are not quite sure whether to talk about him or not, and if so 
what to say, and so say nothing. Then, as at the end of the tunnel, the 
great man assumes the distance required for a casual "homage to the 
god" approach. 

During his lifetime, Haiiy was much honored, but generally treated 
as a fallible human being. Some accepted his ideas m'ore wholeheart- 
edly than others. Bakewell is downright deferential and refers to no 
other authority. Brooke's account, on the other hand, seems to con- 
sider Haiay as one among many contributors, perhaps a forehead (rather 
than head and shoulders) above the rest. He mentions some short- 
comings, and points to a few instances of erroneous judgment made 
toward the end of Haiiy's career: 

I am perfectly disposed to [praise him] for having elevated crys- 
tallography to the rank of a science, but I cannot agree in that 
unqualified approbation of his recent works which some of his 
surviving friends have so liberally bestowed upon them. For 
these works will be found to contain errors of so remarkable 
a character as to excite our surprise when we recollect the gen- 
erally accepted and esteemed judgement of their author. i"* 
Brooke clucks over several inaccuracies of angle measurement 
"probably occasioned by the comparatively imperfect instrument with 
which these measurements were taken. That he continued to prefer 
this to the more perfect goniometer invented by Dr. Wollaston," Brooke 
attributes to decay of eyesight and dislike of change. ^^ Brooke then 
closes his remarks by saying, "With all their faults. . . those works (a 
new edition of Haiiy's treatise on crystallography and three volumes 
of a new edition of his treatise on mineralogy) present to the reader 
truly philosophic views of the sciences which they treat, and they cannot 
be perused without frequently affording him both gratification and 
improvement. "16 

William WhewelTs History of the Inductive Sciences^'^ may also 
be discussed in this section, even though it is not a textbook of crys- 
tallography. Whewell was Professor of Mineralogy at the University 
of Cambridge, and if he had written a textbook on crystallography it 
would have doubtless reflected the same attitudes about Haiiy shown 
in his History. When Whewell published the 1847 edition of his History, 
Haiiy was still a recent enough figure to have been known by people 
yet living. Whewell himself began his own acquaintance with crystal 
theory during Haiiy's lifetime, and published his "General Method of 
Calculating the Angles made by any Planes of Crystals, and the Laws 



1^ Ibid., p. X. Brooke dedicated his book "to the inventor of the reflective 

goniometer." 

16 Ibid. 

1^ History of the Inductive Sciences from tlie Earliest to thie Present Time, 

New, revised edition (London, 1847). 

16 



\v 



According to Which They Are Formed'"i8 only three years after Hauy's 
death. Whewell's History acknowledges Haiiy to be the founder of the 
"modern school of crystallography, for all those who have, since him, 
pursued their studies with success, having taken his views for their 
basis."^^ This may be an exaggeration for 1847. but Whewell is very 
matter-of-fact in assessing Hauy's system: 

In Hauy's views, as generally happens in new systems, however 
true, there was involved something that was arbitrary, some- 
thing that was false or doubtful, and something that was unnec- 
cessarily limited. The principal points of this kind were; —his 
having made the laws of crystalline derivation depend so much 
upon cleavage; —his having assumed an atomic constitution of 
bodies as an essentia! part of his system; —and his having taken 
a set of primary forms, which, being selected by no general 
view, were partly superfluous, and partly defective. ^^^ 
Whewell sums up Hauy by saying: 

Without being a great mathematician, he was enough of a geo- 
meter and more mathematical generalization could not have 
been done without making the subject less accessible and attrac- 
tive to persons with little mathematical discipline. Hauy's reason- 
ing was acute and clear. While his views are suggested more by 
lively fancy than by sage inductive spirit, so he misses the char- 
acter of style, and felicity and happiness of illustration. ^i 
which is as objective a view as any presented until the rise of modern 
historical scholarship. 

Most texts written qua texts in the fourth, fifth, and sixth decades 
of the nineteenth century do not enter into much discussion of Hauy 
and his contributions. This is the eclipse period. In 1860 one can find 
evidence that Haiiy is headed for enshrinement. In that year appeared 
Prof. Smithson Tennant and Rev. W. Mitchell's chapter on crystallog- 
raphy in Orr's Circle of the Sciences. Tennant's exposition gives no 
history per 5e; however, the introductory page of the section bears the 
likenesses of three men, assumed to be the outstanding giants of crys- 
tallography; first, Haiiy; second, Wollaston; third, Tennant. ^^ 



18 Ibid., p. 241, 

19 Ibid., p. 223. 

20 Ibid., p. 234. 

21 Ibid., p. 229. 

22 Tennant and Mitchell, "Mineralogy and Crystallography," in Vol. IV, Inor- 
ganic Nature, of W.S. Orr's Circle of the Sciences (London and Glasgow, 1860), 
p. 289. Wollaston was the inventor of the reflecting goniometer, to whom Brooke 
dedicated his treatise in 1823; Tennant was a well-known crystallographer and 
mineralogist of the time, but hardly one of the all-time greats, Burke does not 
mention him in his Origins of the Science of Crystals, nor does Phillips in his 
highly historically oriented crystallography text, [F.C. Phillips, An Introduction 
to Crystallography 2nd edition (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1956),] 
There is a mineral, CU3ASS3, named tennantite. 

17 



The inclusion of Haiiy in Williams' 1890 bibliography has been 
noted. A text by William J. Lewis, written in 1899, devotes four pages 
in the first chapter to Haiiy's theory, beginning 'Tn the year 1784 the 
celebrated 'Essai d'une theorie sur la structure des crystaux" was pub- 
lished, which fully established the correctness of the [constant inter- 
facial angles] law and placed the science on a firm basis, "^^ and cred- 
iting him with finding that "cleavage-rhombohedra could be obtained 
which had identically the same angles, however different might be the 
shape of the original crystals. "^'^ 

In 1918 there was a celebration organized in honor of the 175th 
anniversary of Haiiy's birth. The issue of the American Mineralogist 
for June of that year carries a number of articles written as part of that 
celebration. Though not part of a textbook, these articles constitute 
too juicy an example of hero worship. Whig history, ^^ or what-have- 
you not to quote from at least one of them. Perhaps the ultimate in 
fantasized history is the following: 

The broken calcite crystal, which lay at his feet, revealed to a 
very keen mind an interpretation of mineral forms that em- 
bodied, if not exactly the deepest truth, such a very considerable 
portion of crystallographic precision, as to ensure mineralogy's 
development upon mathematical principles. A crystallized cal- 
cite fragment slipped from the observer's hand and was sundered 
into cleavage pieces, which were rhombohedrons. A moment's 
hestiating inspection, and soon the observer, now become an 
experimenter, was engaged in slicing the rhombohedrons into 
smaller ones. The process continued, under the excitement of 
an illuminating suspicion, and as in the progressive subdivision, 
the endless rhombohedrons sprang repetitively into view, the 
suspicion became a conviction, and the formative theory of 
molecules integrantes— irreducible nuclei— was born. And a 
structure of geometrical symmetry, built up by ultimate and 
equivalent particles, ushered in at once the conception of the 



23 A Treatise on Crystallography (Cambridge: at the University Press, 1899), 
p. 10. 

24 Ibid., pp. 10-11. 

2^ "Whig history" has been neatly defined by Rhoda Rappaport in her article 
"Problems and Sources in the History of Geology, 1749-1810." (History of 
Science Vol. 3, 1964, p. 60), though the term is not original with her. She des- 
cribed "Whig" or "inductivist" thinking as "a tendency— now thankfully on 
the decline— to view the history of science as a succession of important dis- 
coveries which led inevitably to the abandonment of 'wrong' ideas and the for- 
mulation and acceptance of 'correct" theories," and added that this approach 
"leads to the selection and discussion of those figures and ideas deemed Good, 
while it precludes any reconstruction of the climate of opinion characteristic 
of a historical era." 

18 



"law of equal numbers. "^6 

As another historian of crystallography has commented, "The truth 
is less romantic. "■^'^ 

Little remains in today's crystallography of Haiiy's system, yet 
the textbooks still honor his name without going into any detail on 
just what he contributed. His position as a paradigm founder is well- 
deserved, for before him many philosophers could say, as did Count 
Buffon writing in 1785, "All the work of the crystallographers serves 
only to demonstrate that there is only variety everywhere where th y 
supposed uniformity .... that in nature there is nothing absolute, 
nothing perfectly regular."^^ After 1800, thanks to Rene Just Hauy, 
no one said that anymore. 

What they did say, in each succeeding generation, may be read in 
the texts they wrote to inform the next generation. The revolutions are 
not outlined there. They must be inferred from a decade-by-decade 
comparison of books, for textbooks, as Kuhn pointed out, are rewritten 
whenever the language or standards of normal sciences change. And 
"once rewritten, they inevitably disguise not only the role but the very 
existence of the revolutions that produced them . . . the historical 
sense of a working scientest. .. [generally] extends only to the out- 
come of the most recent revolutions in the field. '"^^ 

So old texts are valuable archives for scientist and historian alike. 
As Kuhn stated about the effect of his own delving into the history of 
science, "exposure to out-of-date scientific theory and practice radi- 
cally undermined some of my basic conceptions about the nature of 
science and the reasons for its special success. "^•^ 



26 Louis Pope Gratacap, "Haiiy's Traite de Mineralogie, Am. Mineralogist 
3 (1918), p. 101. 

2'^ R. Hooykaas, "Torbern Bergman's Crystal Theory," Lychnos 1952, p. 54. 
2^ Burke, p. 54. Quoted from Historie naturelle des mineraux, vol. Ill, p. 433. 

29 Kuhn, p. 137. 

30 Ibid., p. V. 



19 



RENAISSANCE LITERARY THEORY: 
SIDNEY, MILTON, AND 
THE ANGEL RAPHAEL 

by MARTHA A. SAUNDERS* 

In the area of literary criticism. Sir Philip Sidney's A Defense of 
Poesie is considered the chief representative work of the Elizabethan 
period. J.E. Spingarn writes "that no other work ... can be said to 
give so complete and so noble a conception of the temper and prin- 
ciples of Renaissance criticism."^ Being published posthumously only 
thirteen years before Milton's birth and being the compendium of lit- 
erary thought that it is, Sidney's work contains ideas certain to have 
influenced contemporary literature. Milton, naturally, would have 
inherited these ideas. It is not surprising then to find that in Book V 
of Milton's Paradise Lost when the angel Raphael contemplates the 
means by which he will attempt to educate Adam, he outlines a theory 
of literature containing many of the major Elizabethan ideas previously 
proclaimed by Sidney. In lines 564-576 of Book V Raphael briefly 
touches on the ideas of the nature, form, and function of poetry: 
for how shall I relate 

To human sense th' invisible exploits 

Of warring Spirits; how without remorse 

The ruin of so many glorious once 

And perfect while they stood; how last unfold 

The secrets of another World, perhaps 

Not lawful to reveal? yet for thy good 

This is dispens't, and what surmounts the reach 

Of human sense, I shall delineate so. 

By lik'ning spiritual to corporal forms. 

As may express them best, though what if Earth 

Be but the shadow of Heav'n, and things therein 

Each to other like, more than on Earth is thought?^ 

The nature of poetry, according to Sidney, is imitation: "poesy 
therefore is an art of imitation, for so Aristotle termeth it in the word 
mimesis, that is to say, a representing, counterfeiting, or figuring forth— 
to speak metaphorically, a speaking picture . ..." (p. 414)^ This "speak- 

*Assistant Professor of English, West Georgia College. 



^ J.E. Spingarn, A History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance (New York: 

Columbia University Press, 1924; orig. pub. 1899), p. 268. 

2 John Milton, Paradise Lost, as found in John Milton: Complete Poems and 

Major Prose, ed. Merritt Y. Hughes (New York: The Odyssey Press, 1957). 

All references to this work will be to this edition. 

^ Sir Philip Sidney, The Defense of Poesy, as found in Literary Criticism: Plato 

to Dryden. ed. Allan H. Gilbert (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1962; 

orig. pub. 1940). All references to this work will be to this edition. 

20 



ing picture" is what Raphael wishes to present to Adam, but Raphael 
encounters a problem. What he wants to depict is invisible: "for how 
shall I relate / To human sense th' invisible exploits / Of warring 
spirits. . . ?" (564-566) The problem that Raphael faces. Sidney would 
say, is the problem faced by all "right poets." for in the subject of their 
imitations they "borrow nothing of what is. hath been, or shall be; but 
range, only reined with learned discretion, into the divine considera- 
tion of what may be and should be." (p. 415) Thus, for Sidney, the poet, 
like Raphael, must find the solution of "how |to| last unfold / The 
secrets of another world" (568-569). 

For the men of the Renaissance, however, there was a way to solve 
this problem, which lay in their concept of God's relation to his created 
universe. Man and poet as man live in a world of sense, of physical 
objects, which are real in themselves but are at the same time a mirror 
or shadow of the ideal nature of the Creator himself. Raphael makes 
this point when he speculates "though what if Earth / Be but the shadow 
of Heav'n. and things therein / Each to other like, more than on Earth 
is thought?" (574-576) Thus, in an identification of Platonic and Hebrew 
doctrines, man reads the Book of Nature in order to learn the Book 
of God. On this point Raphael is explicit: "for Heav'n / Is as the Book 
of God before thee set. / Wherein to read his wond'rous Works" (VIII. 
66-68). 

It is the poet, however, who is most able to see the analogy between 
God and God's creation. In order for him to explain "the divine con- 
sideration of what may be and should be." (p. 415) he must use the lan- 
guage of accomodation: the presentation of "what surmounts the 
reach / Of human sense" (571-572). both Raphael and Sidney are con- 
vinced, can be accomplished only by giving the abstract or divine 
Idea a concrete and sensory form which can be comprehended by the 
reader from his experience of the world. Sidney's "speaking picture" 
will be one which "coupleth the general notion with the particular 
example" (p. 420): and Raphael's problem will be solved "By lik'ning 
spiritual to corporal forms, / As may express them best" (573-574). 

The device of using the concrete likeness to express the abstract, 
the device of analogy, can be extended beyond the particular word 
choice to the larger fiction itself. Sometimes analogy is the only way 
to present an idea, as Raphael realizes when he attempts to describe 
to Adam the effects of the War in Heaven. He finds that he must use 
other terms, that he must "set forth / Great things by small" (VI. 310- 
311). Sidney too finds merit in the use of extended analogies, citing for 
examples the parables of Christ and the "pretty allegories" of Aesop 
(pp. 422-423). 

For Raphael and Sidney, however, the mere fact of the existence 
of poetry as a concrete analogy of the spiritual world is not enough. 
This "speaking picture" must exist for some reason, and the reason 
for both is pragmatic. The function of poetry, as they see it. is primarily 
pedagogical, but pedagogical with a particular end in view— that of 
moral purpose. The end of poetry, writes Sidney, is "to teach and to 

21 



delight," (p. 414) but he further adds that "the highest end of the mis- 
tress knowledge" is "of well doing and not of well knowing only." 
(p. 418) That Raphael has "well doing" as his aim in presenting his tale 
to Adam is evident: he tells Adam at the beginning of his narration 
that "yet for thy good / This is dispens't" (570-571); and later he reit- 
erates, "let it profit thee to have heard / By terrible Example the re- 
ward / Of disobedience; firm they might have stood, / Yet fell; remem- 
ber, and fear to transgress." (VI. 909-912) 

If poetry, therefore, is to move a person to "virtuous action," (p. 418) 
according to Sidney that poet will be most effective who entices men 
with promises of delight, thereby moving them unaware "to see the 
form of goodness, which seen they cannot but love ere themselves 
be aware, as if they took a medicine of cherries." (p. 429) One of the 
best ways for the poet to entice a man "from wickedness to virtue," 
(p. 427) Sidney believes, is with a tale— "a tale which holdeth children 
from play, and old men from the chimney corner." (p. 427) The tale, 
also, seems to fill Raphael's needs in order to make Adam understand 
the necessity of obedience. 

Of all tales, however, the one best fitted to be the king of poetry, 
according to Sidney, is the heroical. which "doth not only teach and 
move to a truth, but teacheth and moveth to the most high and excel- 
lent truth." (p. 434) Although not making use of all the conventions 
of the genre, Raphael, in his narration to Adam of the War in Heaven, 
employs in a small way the form of the epic, realizing with Sidney 
that the image of those worthy of emulation "most inflameth the mind 
with desire to be worthy." (p. 434) 

Poetry, thus, for Sidney and Raphael is the imitation of spiritual 
or ideal concepts, in the form of concrete sensory likenesses, disguised 
with delightful tales, to the end that men may learn virtue in order to 
be moved to emulate it. The pragmatic consideration, therefore, of 
what will have the most positive effect upon the audience is of prime 
importance. Much of Sidney's Defense is concerned with the problems 
of right poets and right poetry— what it is that will move men toward 
virtuous action. Raphael, also, is aware of the problem of finding the 
proper means of moving men toward the divine: 

for who. though with the tongue 
Of Angels, can relate, or to what things 
Liken on Earth conspicuous, that may lift 
Human imagination to such highth 
Of Godlike power .... ( VI.297-301) 



22 



A QUASI-STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 

OF PERFORMANCE IN 

A SELF-PACED GENERAL 

GENERAL CHEMISTRY COURSE 

by JIMMY C. STOKESf WILLIAM L. LOCKHART?* 
and HUGHLAN W. POPE*** 

Programs involving the individualization of instruction have been 
the topic of a number of symposia recently, such as the Symposium 
on Self-Paced Instruction in Chemistry held at the 165th Meeting of 
the American Chemical Society in Dallas. Texas during April of 1973. 
The development of such academic programs are almost invariably 
followed by quantitative assessments of their effectiveness. 

The effectiveness of a self-paced or individualized program can 
be approached from a number of viewpoints. The major premises to 
be tested are the effectiveness of a self-paced program on student 
achievement and the student's subsequent response to such a program 
of instruction. Several recent reports measuring student attitudes 
toward self-paced and other forms of individualized instruction are 
available. Charles Howard^ and J.L. Hedrick^, after rather extensive 
investigations, have shown overwhelming student response in favor 
of self-paced and individualized instruction. Other studies^-^ report 
similar findings. In addition to improved student attitudes and respon- 
siveness, many investigators agree with Hedrick that the instructors 
experience a substantial positive response to self-paced instruction 
with respect to improved professional awareness. ^•^■'^ 

* Assistant Professor of Chemistry. ** Associate Professor of Chemistry, ***Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, West Georgia College. 



1 Charles Howard, "A Quantitative Appraisal of A-V-T Program." Journal 
of College Science Teaching, IV (1974). 338. 

2 J.L. Hedrick, "The Keller Plan and Student Evaluation." Journal of Chemi- 
cal Education. Lll (1975). 65. 

3 G.E. Parker and T.R. Mertens. "Programmed Instruction, Test Performance, 
and Classroom Discussion. "/oz/rna/ of College Science Teaching, IV ( 1974), 107. 
"^ George Gilbert, "Self-Pacing: Evangelism and Effectiveness," in Bassam Z. 
Shakhashiri (editor). Proceedings of the Symposium on Self-Paced Instruction 
in Chemistry (Easton, Pennsylvania: American Chemical Society, 1974), p. 35. 
5 Robert F. Pasternack. "A Self-Paced Instruction Chemistry Course at Ithaca 
College," ibid., p. 3. 

^ Daniel Steffenson, John Crump, and Dennis Gaswick, "Keller Units for Some 
Topics in General Chemistry: The Design for a Modular Chemistry Course," 
ibid., p. 17. 

■^ R.L. Kuczkowski, H. Brintzinger, D. Dull, and J. Thomas, "Experiments 
with Keller Type General Chemistry Courses at Michigan," ibid., p. 43. 

23 



Several investigations regarding student achievement in self-paced 
instruction have been made.^'^'^" Many of these concur with Lewis 
and Wolf who found improved but not statistically significant gains in 
student achievement. Even though there are usually higher levels of 
achievement in the self-paced programs, no statistically significant 
differences have been demonstrated between individualized instruction 
in normal college courses and traditional academic instruction. ^^'^^'^^ 
Numerous reports show increases in performance with remedial type 
programs.^"* 

This paper describes a program of self-paced instruction in general 
chemistry which is reasonably different from most of the new programs 
for individualized instruction in general chemistry. The report compares 
achievement of students in traditional versus a lecture-oriented self- 
paced general chemistry program. 

The Program. The course under evaluation was the general chem- 
istry course offered Fall Quarter, 1974, at West Georgia College, Car- 
rollton, Georgia. It was offered in two sections and team taught by 
the authors. The same instructor lectured to both sections of the course. 
At the beginning of the course, students in each section were allowed 
to select traditional or modular (self-paced) instruction. Students elect- 
ing traditional instruction were given four, fifty minute examinations 
and a fifty question comprehensive final examination. Questions on the 
traditional final examination were taken from the self-paced examina- 
tions given during the quarter. For students selecting the modular pro- 
gram, the course was divided into eighteen units or modules. Students 
were allowed to take the examinations at their discretion during the 
quarter. Examinations had to be taken sequentially and students who 
scored less than seventy percent had to repeat examinations. The 
second examination in each unit was designed to be more difficult, 
thereby emphasizing the importance of passing the first examination 
given on each unit. 

Students in the modular program followed a study guide, detailing 
performance expected, and appropriate references for material covered 
in lecture. Lectures were videotaped and placed on reserve in the 



^ G.E. Parker and T.R. Mertens, "Programmed Instruction, Test Performance, 

and Classroom Discussion," Journal of College Science Teaching, IV (1974), 

107. 

^ Charles Howard. 

^^ D.A. Lewis and W.A. Wolf, "Student Performance Before and After the 

Keller Plan,'' Journal of Chemical Education. LI (1974), 665. 

11 G.E. Parker and T.R. Mertens. 

12 Charles Howard. 

13 D.A. Lewis and W.A. Wolf. 

1^ Education Professions Development Act (EPDA) Workshop on Recruiting 
and Instructing the Deprived Student, Clayton Junior College, Morrow, Geor- 
gia, August 21-30, 1972. 

24 



college library. Both modular and traditional students had access to 
study guides and the videotaped lectures. Lecture attendance was not 
required for either the traditional or modular group. Essentially, modu- 
lar and traditional students could approach the program in exactly 
the same method except for the self-pacing concept. From a final 
course enrollment of 78 students, 53 elected modular instruction and 
25 students chose the traditional instruction. 

Testing Statistics 

A comparison of modular and traditional student performance 
was achieved through examining scores on the eighteen modular exami- 
nations for self-paced students compared with a comprehensive fifty 
question examination for the traditional students. (This comprehensive 
examination was a composite of questions from the eighteen modular 
examinations). No questions appeared on the composite examination 
which had not been included in the modular program. 

The mean of the student performance on the modular examinations 
was 78.9%. the mean score of the traditional students on the composite 
final examination was 66.4%. A statistical comparison was made using 
the chi square technique. The chi square determination was selected 
because of the lack of an absolute testing model. ^^ It should be pointed 
out that no attempt was made to randomize the two groups, and they 
were generated as a result of student enrollment. This was the first 
quarter that such a program was offered by the Chemistry Department 
at West Georgia College, and, therefore, no predetermined bias and 
been established concerning the two programs. Every attempt was made 
by the instructors to maintain a neutral position concerning the pro- 
gram elected by the students. 

Student interest in the use of self-paced instruction was also exam- 
ined. Many such studies are evaluated on student surveys. It is more 
realistic to analyze the response of the same students to a second quarter 
sequential course taught in the same fashion. Sixty-nine of the students 
taking the first course enrolled in the second. Of these, nearly ninety 
percent took the modular option as compared with nearly seventy per- 
cent in the first course. Therefore, by comparing the number of students 
electing modular instruction in the second course with those in the 
first course, a true level of student response to such a program can 
be determined. 

Results 

Table I indicates the performance of traditional and self-paced 
students. (Testing described earlier in paper). 

Table II indicates the numbers of students involved in modular 
and traditional programs Fall Quarter compared with Winter Quarter. 



1^ Phillip H. DuBois. An Introduction to Psychological Statistics (New York: 
Harper and Row, 1965), pp. 52-72 and 486. 

25 



TABLE I 
STUDENT PERFORMANCE 

Chemistry 121 Modular Instruction Mean, 78.9% 

53 students 

Chemistry 121 Traditional Instruction Mean, 66.47o 

17 students (8 students did not take 

the composite examination) 

Chi Square Value, 1 degree of 2.353 

freedom 

Chi Square Value for significant 2.706 

difference at 0.10 confidence 
level 

(The fact that the test chi square value, 2.353, is just less than the value 
established for the 0.10 confidence level indicates that with greater 
than 50% confidence but just less than 90% confidence it can be statis- 
tically stated that the above means differ significantly.) 

TABLE II 

STUDENT ENROLLMENT IN COROLLARY PROGRAMS 

Chemistry 121 Chemistry 122 

(Fall) (Winter) 

Traditional Program 25 8 

Self-Paced (Modular) Program 53 61 

Chi Square Value, 1 degree of 13.276 

freedom 

Chi Square Value for significant 10.827 

difference at 0.01 confidence 
level 

(The fact that the test chi square value, 13.276, is greater than the es- 
tablished value for the 0.01 confidence level indicates that with 99.9% 
confidence it can be statistically stated that the above distributions 
differ significantly.) 

Conclusions 

Based on the data generated in this study and realizing that the 
study is based on pragmatic conditions and not ideal statistical param- 

26 



eters, it is felt that the following conclusions are justified. 

I. Student achievement in self-paced general chemistry at West 
Georgia College is substantially higher than with the traditional ap- 
proach. Although the results show a statistical significance, at approxi- 
mately the 90% confidence level, it is possible to rationalize that the 
difference may be even more than it appears in view of the limited 
range of grade results, usually falling between 60 and 90 percent. It 
is interesting to note that the grade result differential in this study 
is quite pronounced compared with studies by Lewis^^ and Gilbert^'^. 

II. Most students definitely prefer the self-paced program of in- 
struction to the traditional system. Still, some do perform better with 
traditional programs. Therefore, we plan to continue offering both 
programs, allowing students to select the plan best suiting their needs. 

III. Concurring with other studies, it is felt that the instructors 
are making a more significant contribution to the overall improvement 
of the quality of teaching and instruction in the department through 
involvement in this program. The program requires more individual 
effort, especially in a laboratory science and the need for an open, 
self-paced laboratory in addition to the lecture program. The program 
requires more concentration on the part of the instructors, making 
sure that videotape programs are adequate, maintaining office hours 
for testing schedules, and making a more concerted effort toward in- 
volvement with the individual student. Self-paced instruction is de- 
manding on the instructor, but the rewards far outweigh the demands. 

Acknowledgemenl 

We would like to express our most sincere appreciation to Mr. Jerry 
Mock, Dr. David Seiber, and the Instructional Media Staff for their 
cooperation, patience, and encouragement in the development of 
this program. 



16 D.A. Lewis and W.A. Wolf. 
1'^ George Gilbert. 



27 



ABSTRACTS 

of 
MASTERS THESES 

and 

SPECIALIST IN EDUCA TION PROIECTS 

Balcerak, Mary (MA, Psychology, June, 1974) 

EMPATHY 



A survey of the literature for studies indicating the therapeutic conditions 
necessary for positive behavior change in patients. The author provides a review 
of past studies with a summary of the indications and then presents more recent 
studies, including methodology and results, as well as implications for the future. 



Bercaw, George Henry B.A. (MA, Psychology, June, 1974) 

A MEANING SYSTEMS MODEL: 
MATERNAL, FAMILIAL, PEER, AND INTERNAL 

The author proposes four meaning systems: the maternal, familial, peer, 
and the internal, in an attempt to account for the research data and postulates 
arising from traditional psychodynamic psychology as being a flip-side of exis- 
tential concerns. He focuses upon meaningfulness as a viable construct in ef- 
fecting a personal life-style that lends itself to personal growth. 

The author suggests that psychology need not only address itself to develop- 
mental stages of personality, but that it can view the same under the aegis 
of a process psychology. The Meaning Systems Model addresses itself to process 
dynamics of personal growth — social, dyadic, and individual. 

It is postulated that the development of the internal meaning system may be 
the only viable construct for future society and, that societal institutions will 
reflect the base lines of new meanings as they are invented by a new conscious- 
ness that envisions life in terms of its alternatives. 

The author posits that new dimensions of intimacy will evolve and that a 
shared mutuality will be its central focus. Thus, he proffers that the heterosexual 
intimate dyad is the most powerful agent for change and growth as he examines 
societal competitors to intimacy. 

The thesis is both a theoretical and a personal statement of psychological 
insight and experiential meanings. 

28 



Coker, Joan G. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF SELECTED 

WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN SUBTESTS 

AS A METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING 

LEARNING DISABLED CHILDREN 



Three null hypotheses were stated: 

Children who have been diagnosed by a child psychiatrist as learning dis- 
abled will demonstrate no significant difference on the total Verbal Scale scores 
and the total Performance Scale scores of the WISC. 

Children who have been diagnosed by a child psychiatrist as learning dis- 
abled will demonstrate no significant difference on the combined Compre- 
hension and Similarities subtest scores than on the combined Information and 
Arithmetic subtest scores of the Verbal Scale of the WISC. 

Children who have been diagnosed by a child psychiatrist as learning 
disabled will demonstrate no significant difference on the combined Picture 
Completion and Picture Arrangement subtest scores than on the combined 
Block Design and Coding subtest scores of the Performance Scale of the WISC. 

The final results of the study indicated that there was no significant 
difference in total Verbal Scale scores and total Performance Scale scores on 
the WISC for the sample population. However, this sample population scored 
significantly higher (> .01) on the combined Comprehension and Similarities 
subtest scores than on the combined Information and Arithmetic subtest scores 
of the Verbal Scale of the WISC. In addition, the sample population scored 
significantly higher (> .05) on the combined Picture Completion and Picture 
Arrangement subtest scores than on the combined Block Design and Coding 
subtest scores of the Performance Scale of the WISC. 

The final results from the study indicated that teachers could refer to WISC 
subtest scores for quick diagnosis of possible learning disabled cases; however, 
it was emphasized that final evaluation and diagnosis should be made by quali- 
fied personnel in all suspected learning disabled cases. 



McChesney. Jr.. Samuel Jefferson (MS, March, 1975) 

THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES OF THE LITTLE 
TALLAPOOSA RIVER, CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA 



A survey was made of the distribution of fishes of the Little Tallapoosa 
River in Carroll County, Georgia. A total of 24 collections and one creel survey 
were made at 15 stations on the river. Thirty-one species from seven families 
were recorded and plotted on distribution maps. The families include Cyprini- 
dae, Catostomidae, Ictaluridae, Poecilidae, Centrarchidae, Percidae, and Cot- 
tidae. The survey revealed 3 species not previously reported from the Little 
Tallapoosa River in Carroll County. In addition, 4 species not earlier reported 
from the Little Tallapoosa River drainage, and one species not earlier reported 
from the entire Tallapoosa River drainage were captured. 

The effect of four channelized areas on the diversity and distribution of 
species is discussed. In addition, the effects of two waste water treatment facili- 

29 



ties and two oxidation ponds upon the fishes of the river is analyzed. The species 
diversity was found to be lower in areas of more recent channelization and in 
those locations nearer the outlet of waste water facilities. 



McCoUum. Jerrv Lawson, (MS, March, 1975) 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES IN 
THE DOG RIVER DRAINAGE 



A Field study was conducted in order to determine the fish species present 
and to determine their distribution within the Dog River drainage system. 
Twenty-seven species of fish were found to occur within the drainage. The 
distributions of these species were recorded and mapped. The distributions are 
based on personal collections made from March, 1974 to February, 1975 using 
various collection techniques. Six additional species are suspected to occur 
based on previous collection records. 

The distribution of several species was found to be quite erratic when 
judged strictly on basis of the number of specimens collected and the location 
of the collections. Several possible explanations for erratic distribution are 
discussed. Notropis zonistius and Percina nigrofasciata were found to be widely 
distributed. Factors contributing to the wide distribution of these two species 
are discussed. 

The bottom of the stream from site 1 upstream to the motorcross track 
finish line is apparently highly unstable. The possible effects on fishes are 
discussed. 

Sharpe. Jane E. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

AN ASSESSMENT TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE 

WISCONSIN DESIGN FOR READING SKILL DEVELOPMENT 

WORD ATTACK SKILLS ON THE READING OF THIRD 

GRADE STUDENTS AT ANNETTE WINN SCHOOL 



To determine the effectiveness of the Wisconsin Reading Design Program 
for Word Attack, initiated in the Annette Winn School in Lithia Springs, Geor- 
gia a descriptive study was begun in Douglas County in 1973. The investigator 
followed the progress of all third grade students participating in the Design 
for one year. Data were collected through testing instruments and parent and 
teacher questionnaires. This study involved seventy-four third grade students. 

All third grade students were tested in September, 1973 to determine the 
number of word attack skills mastered at that point. Children were then grouped 
into a skill area according to needs for twenty-five minutes a day for an eight 
day time period. The children were then tested at the end of the teaching period 
for an evaluation to see if the needed skill being taught was mastered. The Iowa 
Test of Basic Skills was administered at the beginning and end of the 1973-1974 
school year. Teacher and parent questionnaires were given at the end of the year. 

The final results from the study indicated that the subjects showed signifi- 
cant gains at the .05 level of confidence in vocabulary and total reading. There 
was no significant gain in word analysis between the Iowa Achievement pre 

30 



and post-test scores. The study indicated that a longitudinal study is needed to 
determine the value of the Wisconsin Reading Program for Word Attack. 



Sims. James Randall (MA, June. 1974) 

PERFORMANCE ON THE HARVARD GROUP SCALE OF 

HYPNOTIC SUGGESTIBILITY AS A FUNCTION 

OF HYPNOTIC AND HYPEREMPIRIC 

INDUCTION TECHNIQUES 

One hundred and three undergraduates from West Georgia College were 
administered Form A of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility 
after receiving either a traditional hypnotic induction or a hyperempiric induc- 
tion based on suggestions of mind expansion, enhanced awareness, and in- 
creased alertness and sensitivity. It was predicted that subjects who had received 
the hyperempiric induction would score higher on the Harvard Group Scale of 
Hypnotic Susceptibility than subjects who had received the hypnotic induction. 

Chi-square analyses of the percentage of subjects responding to each item 
on the scale were computed together with a chi-square analysis of the overall 
test scores. The hyperempiric subjects did not perform significantly better in 
terms of their overall scores; however, their performances were significantly 
better on two items: responding to a hallucinated fly (p= .01, one-tailed), 
and post-hypnotic suggestion (p= .05, one-tailed). The results support the 
conclusion that hyperempiria is a desirable alternative to hypnosis in therapeutic 
situations which utilize post-trance suggestion or fantasy techniques as a means 
of bringing about desired changes. 

Sparrow. Gregory Scott (MA, June, 1974) 

LUCID DREAMING AS AN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS 

This study represents a preliminary attempt to compare lucid dreaming, 
or dreams in which the dreamer is aware that he is dreaming, with the Jimgian 
theory of ego development. The dream state is compared with the primitive 
state of the ego, and the arousal of lucidity is likened to the first traces of self- 
reflection in the primitive psyche. An attempt is made to establish stages in lucid 
dreaming which have distinct parallels in ego formation, as described by Jung 
and Neumann. 

The phenomenon known as out-of-body experience is discussed as a corol- 
lary of lucid dreaming. Instead of regarding the out-of-body experience as neces- 
sarily a physical displacement of a finer physical body, this paper discusses it 
as a meaningful perception of the dreamer which arises from the need to insulate 
the growing sense of independence from the dream environment. 

An attempt is made to compare lucidity with the goals of Gestalt Therapy 
which emphasize the need for a development of greater awareness in areas of 
conflict. The lucid dream is regarded as a situation in which awareness rises 
to such a level as to allow the individual to confront a rejected aspect of him- 
self in an open and fearless manner. 

After an attempt is made in the Introduction to support the hypothesis that 

31 



lucid dreaming is an evolutionary process with stages comparable to stages of 
ego development, the author describes some techniques believed to stimulate 
lucidity in his own case. 

In the Results, examples of the culminative stages of lucid dreaming are 
presented which strongly support the evolutionary model as described in the 
Introduction. The type of experience available to the lucid dreamer appears to 
be identical to the mystical experiences as described by the great contempla- 
tives and mystics. 

In the Conclusion, the author concludes that the lucid dream may be one of 
the most effective confrontations an individual can have with an inner conflict, 
that there is a distinct parallel between lucid dreaming and ego development, 
and that lucid dreaming may offer keys to the further understanding of ego 
formation. It is further concluded that the experiences available to the lucid 
dreamer are likely to result in a revision of traditional dream theories and 
current models of the nature of man. 



Thurston, Mark Alan. (MA, Psychology, June, 1974) 

AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO MEDITATION 

There are many meditation techniques found in literature. Perhaps the most 
important is the focusing upon an affirmation or mantra. The meaning or con- 
sciousness of the mantra is then awakened within the mind of the meditator as 
he focuses upon it during the stillness of meditation. 

To test the effects of such an approach to meditation, 218 5s from the mem- 
bership of the Association for Research and Enlightenment were selected. All 
aspects of the experiment were carried out by the 5s in their own homes and 
various tests and reports were mailed to the E. 5s were randomly assigned to 
a control group and an experimental group of equal numbers. Based upon in- 
formation that had been obtained earlier, the two groups were assigned an equal 
number of 5s who had had previous meditation experience. All 5s completed a 
series of tests before the beginning of the experimental period: the I.P.A.T. 
Anxiety Scale Questionnaire, the Mooney Problem Check List and a telepathy 
test. 5s in the experimental group also received a workbook-manual giving de- 
tailed descriptions of the philosophy and practice of medita >n. They were 
instructed to follow the concepts in the manual and to medii,i<:e daily for at 
least 20 minutes during the 28 day experimental period. The control group was 
instructed to continue their current meditation schedule and not to increase the 
frequency of meditation (many were non-meditators and were not to start 
meditation in this 28 day period). At the end of the experimental period, each 
5 again completed the three tests. 

Results showed a significantly greater decrease in anxiety (p<! .00 ) and 
in problems (p<i .005) for the experimental group compared to the control 
group. No significant differences were obtained for the telepathy test. Within 
the experimental group, no significant changes were found for any measure 
when the data was divided into three groups according to previous meditation 
experience. For all 5s, those who had had no previous meditation experience 
scored significantly higher (/7<C .025) on the initial administration of the 
Mooney Problem Check List than did the other 5s. No difference was found in 
this regard for the I.P.A.T. Anxiety Scale Questionnaire or the telepathy test. 

32 



Wheeler, Alice Sherman (MA, June, 1974) 

COMMUNITY RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES FOR 
THE MENTALLY RETARDED 

This paper presents the group home precedent for children and aduh re- 
tardates functioning in the concept of small, dispersed residences, select guide- 
lines for group living and working in the community, and the rationale that group 
homes are a part of the continuum of services for the retarded. Factors leading 
to the unfolding of these local-based residences are also given. 

Pioneering, historic moves in the area of mental retardation* implemented 
a major step in service delivery to the retarded client. Whereby, the ultimate 
goal of bringing each person via a personalized program of quality has been 
toward a realization of an individual ceiling level of self-sufficiency and 
self-support. 

The community residential facility is the accomplishing means of this goal. 
It permits a near normal existence for the retarded allowing for a smaller, more 
individualized, home-like atmosphere. Appropriate models provide for emula- 
tion and peers furnish comfort. In addition, adequate patterns of living and 
association with the broader community are encouraged through both leisure 
and work activities. Here the retarded person can live with dignity in an atmos- 
phere designed to elicit and nurture his maximum potential abilities. 

The group home is not only a much more humane provision for living, but 
its implementation is more economically feasible than total institutionalization. 

Awareness by the general public to the plight of the mentally retarded will 
hasten this change— hopefully. 



Whitenton, Jr.. Joseph B. (MA, June, 1974) 

ANOMIA AND RURAL AFDC RECIPIENTS 



A sample of fifty-eight women receiving Aid to Families with Dependent 
Children (AFDC) were interviewed. Among the questions in the interview sche- 
dule were those considered as indicators of dependency as well as the Srole 
Anomia Scale. The indicators of dependency: relying solely on AFDC income, 
optimism (future planning), health, having been on welfare more than once, 
and feelings of having to follow the serviceworker's advice, were associated with 
anomia in order to establish a relationship between the two sociological states. 
Four of the five hypotheses relating anomia and the indicators of dependency 
were confirmed. Thus, it was concluded that a definite relationship exists be- 
tween the social psychological state of anomia and welfare dependency although 
causal order was not determined since longitudinal data was not obtained. 



33 



Abner. Agnes A. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF KINDERGARTEN 

EXPERIENCES ON READING READINESS AND READING 

ACHIEVEMENT FOR A FIRST GRADE POPULATION AT 

SAND HILL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

1973-1974 

This study was designed to determine whether or not kindergarten experi- 
ences resulted in significant differences in reading readiness and reading 
achievement in first grade between children who had had kindergarten experi- 
ences and children who had not had kindergarten experiences. 

Two groups of first grade children, seventeen who had had kindergarten 
training and twelve who had not had kindergarten training, were chosen as 
subjects for this study. These groups were found to be relatively equivalent in 
sex ratio, intelligence test information, and socio-economic status. Both groups 
of children were assigned to one self-contained classroom at the Sand Hill Ele- 
mentary School, Carrollton, Georgia. 

To evaluate the groups in reading readiness, the Metropolitan Readiness 
Test, Form A, was administered to both groups in September of 1973. 

Using the Metropolitan Readiness Test scores and teacher judgment as 
the main criteria for grouping, the teacher then placed the children in six basic 
reading groups for reading instruction for a period of eight months. These 
groups were flexible so that a child could move into or out of a group as he 
needed. Individual and additional small group instruction in reading were also 
provided for both the kindergarten and the non-kindergarten children. There 
were some children from both groups in each of the six basic reading groups. 

At the end of eight months of reading instruction, to evaluate reading 
achievement the Gates Primary Reading Tests of Word Recognition, Sentence 
Reading, and Paragraph Reading were administered to both groups. 

To determine significant differences a comparison of the means and the / 
test for the twelve independent means in reading readiness and reading achieve- 
ment were made. Eight of the independent means pertained to reading readiness 
and four of them pertained to reading achievement. 

Upon an examination of the means and the / values for the eight areas of 
reading readiness and the four areas of reading achievement, it was found that 
there were no significant differences at the .05 level of confidence. 

However, since the kindergarten group did considerably better in all the 
areas except one of reading readiness and one of reading achievement, it is 
recommended that further studies be made to determine exactly what, if any, 
the factors are in kindergarten experiences that result in improvement in reading 
readiness and reading achievement in first grade. 



Ambrose, Barbara Dickey (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING 
MATEHMATICS TO FIFTH GRADE STUDENTS 

A study of mathematical gains of two fifth grade classes was conducted in 
order to compare two methods of instruction used. Children, in the control 

34 



group (Group C), from a self-contained classroom were taught by the class- 
as-a-whole method. Children, in the experimental group (Group El, from an 
open classroom were free to make choices, served as peer helpers, and partici- 
pated in self-direction. Thirty students composed the study. 

Three null hypotheses were tested to determine if significant differences 
existed in mathematical achievement and self concept between the two groups. 
The t test was used to test the hypotheses. Findings indicated no significant 
difference could be found, except in one of thirteen diagnostic testing areas, 
to reject the hypotheses that neither method of instruction was significantly 
superior in producing mathematical gains. The rejected area concerned the 
understanding of number bases and measurement. 

A larger group study over a longer period of time possibly would have pro- 
duced different results. 

Recommendations for further study were included. 



Bailey, Marian J. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

CORRELATION OF THE GESELL INCOMPLETE 

MAN TEST AND FIRST GRADE 

READING ACHIEVEMENT 



The purpose of this paper was to determine the relationship between the 
developmental age as measured by the Gesell Incomplete Man Test and mental 
age as measured by the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test with reading achieve- 
ment measured by the Scott Foresman Reading Systems Test. Two groups of 
first grade children from a small town and rural area were used. Group A con- 
tained 23 children who completed Level Two of the Scott Foresman Reading 
Systems and Group B with 60 children who completed Level Four. Results 
indicated a significant relationship at the .05 level between mental age and read- 
ing achievement of the subjects in Group B. A stepwise regression program used 
with Group B indicated that mental age measured by the Peabody Picture 
Vocabulary Test and sex accounted for the statistically significant amount 
of variance. 



Bowen. Sarah Louise (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

CONSUMER BEHAVIOR OF TEENAGERS 

This study has considered whether or not teenagers manage their money 
and the money of their families wisely without consumer education. A survey 
was conducted of the seniors at Fayette County High School to ascertain what 
their sources of income were and for what they used their incomes chiefly. 
The results of the survey indicated that teenagers do not manage money wisely 
without consumer education. 



35 



Catlett. Louise C. (Specialist in Education, March, 1975) 

A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READING 

ACHIEVEMENT AND CHRONOLOGICAL AGE AT GRADES ONE, 
TWO, FOUR, AND SIX OF STUDENTS AT NORTON PARK SCHOOL 

This study was designed to compare the relationship between reading 
achievement and chronological age of students at Norton Park School. The 
age of entry to school, the sex, the reading achievement scores at grades one, 
two, four, and six were recorded from the permanent records of the students 
who entered and remained at this school for a period of five years. 

The Pearson Product — Moment Coefficient of Correlation was used to show 
the correlation of scores made by the total group between their reading achieve- 
ment and chronological age, the total boys between their reading achievement 
and chronological age, and the total girls between their reading achievement 
and chronological age at grades one, two, four, and six. No significant correla- 
tion for any group at any level was found except one. 

Cobb, William Edward (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE EMERGING MIDDLE SCHOOL 

For over a half century the American educational system has included in 
its organizational structure an intermediate school to cope with the educational 
needs of early adolescents. The question of what grades should be included in 
this school has never been completely settled. 

In the last fifteen years a movement to reorganize the educational ladder in 
order to introduce the middle school concept to replace the junior high school 
has gained momentum. Because of this trend toward the middle school, this 
study researched literature to determine the ramifications of the middle school 
program. Conclusions reached as a result of the study indicated that the needs 
of the "in between age" pupil are not being met by the existing 6-3-3 plan. It 
is recommended that the middle school include those pupils who are in grades 
six through eight and are between the ages of eleven to fourteen. 

The physiological, mental, emotional, and social make-up of children in 
these grades was considered more compatible than for any other grouping. 

There seems to be a definite lack of teacher training by colleges and uni- 
versities in preparing teachers to teach the middle school age child. College 
officials should be aware of this deficiency and exercise new approaches and 
programs to prepare teachers to teach in the middle school programs. 

The trend toward the middle school concept is rapidly gaining momentum 
and very well may replace the traditional junior high school that has existed 
in America for more than a half a century. 

Cordle, Gary S. (Specialist in Education, March, 1975) 

A COMPARISON OF THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF SECOND 

GRADE STUDENTS USING THE GINN READING 360 PROGRAM WITH 

THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF SECOND GRADE STUDENTS 

USING THE GINN READING 100 PROGRAM 

This project was undertaken in an effort to provide some unbiased research 

36 



on two different reading programs. The objective of this study is to determine 
if there is a significant difference, at the .05 level, in the reading achievement 
of second grade students taught with the Ginn Reading 360 and students taught 
with the Ginn Reading 100 program. 

There were 116 students in the Reading 360 group and 143 students in the 
Reading 100 group. From each of these groups 40 students were randomly se- 
lected to be statistically compared. Reading achievement was measured by a 
group administered Metropolitian Achievement Test, Primary Battery for grade 
2. The ^test for a difference between two independent means was used to see 
if there was a significant difference in the reading achievement of the two groups. 

There was no significant difference in the reading achievement of the two 
groups. Selection between reading programs where student achievement is 
nearly equal should be done on the basis of teacher and school familiarity. Cost 
of a program and student interest should also be considered when achievement 
is relatively equal. 

The study should be repeated annually for the next three or four years to 
see if the Reading 360 program does produce higher reading achievement when 
used for a longer period of time. The study should be expanded to evaluate 
students' interest in reading, also a method to measure increase in creativity 
should be included. 



Craig. Dorothy (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPOUTS AND THE 

COMPARISON OF SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 

DROPOUTS WITH THE STAYINS 

This study was an attempt to compare selected characteristics of dropouts 
with stayins of the 1973-1974 senior class of the Fairmount School. 

Data, from the school cumulative records, were compiled on coding sheets 
for testing the four hypotheses of this study. The BMDX70 program was used 
to test the significance of differences between the two groups in comparing the 
following: attendance in grade five, attendance in grade seven, reading achieve- 
ment in grade six, and the number of children in each family. 

Furthermore, data collected from the cumulative records were used to con- 
struct tables to answer three questions presented in this study. These tables 
were used to compare the number of male with female dropouts, the number 
of dropouts in grade nine to the number of dropouts in grade ten, and retentions 
of dropouts to retentions of stayins. 

There was no significant difference in the attendance of the dropout and 
the stayin in grade five. In grade seven, there was a significant difference in the 
means of the groups with an obtained i value of —3.65. Reading achievement 
in grade six showed a significant difference with a mean difference of approxi- 
mately two grade levels. The obtained i value was —4.07. The number of chil- 
dren in each family showed a difference only at the .05 level with an obtained 
/ value of 2.06. 

Data, in this study, revealed more male than female dropouts and grade nine 
as having more dropouts than any other grade. Also, a large percentage of the 
dropouts had been retained one or more grades. 

Included in this study were brief telephone interviews with a sampling of 
the dropouts. The major conclusions drawn from the interviews were that mar- 

37 



riage was a major reason for the female dropouts and the males had a general 
feeling of having lost interest in school. 



Craig, Gordon (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY MANUAL 
GORDON COUNTY SCHOOL SYSTEM 



This study was an effort to develop an administrative policy manual for the 
Gordon County School System. Pertinent literature on the subject was reviewed. 
System for classifying school board policies was purchased from the National 
School Boards Association. This system was used as a guide in coding board 
policies, administrative rules, and exhibits by letter and by color. Binders pur- 
chased from the National School Boards Association were used in dividing the 
manual into thirteen areas with each area including a code finder for that particu- 
lar section. A code finder for the entire manual is found near the end of 
the manual. 



Clark. William R. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY COMPARING TWO METHODS OF TEACHING 
COMPOSITION IN HIGH SCHOOL 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students write better 
compositions when writing is related to literature which has been studied and 
discussed in class rather than when writing is based on extemporaneous topics 
assigned by the teacher without previous study or discussion. 

The t test was used to determine the significance of differences between 
scores on literary compositions and on extemporaneous compositions. The 
dependent variables included organization, grammar, spelling, punctuation, and 
diction. A correlation technique was employed to determine the relationship 
between each of the dependent variables (organization, grammar, spelling, punc- 
tuation, and diction) and each of the independent variables (sex, high school 
average, English average, and IQ)- 

A composition class composed of sixteen college preparatory seniors at 
Douglas County High School served as the subjects for this study. The results 
of this study reveal that there are no statistically significant differences between 
the student scores on literary and extemporaneous compositions in respect to 
organization, grammar, punctuation, spelling, and diction. The study further 
points out a significant positive relationship between organization and 10, 
between the total scores and IQ, between grammar and high school average, 
between punctuation and high school average, between diction and high school 
average, between the total scores and high school average, between organiza- 
tion and English average, between punctuation and English average, and be- 
tween the total scores and English average. 



38 



Frew, Sam (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 

SELECTED VARIABLES AND INTEREST IN 

SOCIAL STUDIES AMONG HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 

This study was an effort to consider certain factors that might influence stu- 
dent choices of social studies courses. Students were selected from English 
classes at Cedartown Comprehensive High School during Fall Quarter of 1973. 
Three hundred students were given the test "A Scale to Measure Attitude 
Toward Any School Subject, Form A," by H.H. Remmers. 

From these three hundred students, thirty were selected who showed the 
highest interest in social studies, and thirty were selected who showed the low- 
est interest in social studies. These students were compared on the basis of the 
following variables: intelligence quotient, grade point average, reading scores, 
educational level of the mother, and educational level of the father. For the 
entire three hundred students, correlations were run between each of the in- 
dependent variables of sex, race, grade level, rating of news programs, avail- 
ability of newspapers, and the dependent variable of interest in social studies. 

The students with high interest in social studies appear to have slightly 
higher intelligence quotient scores, grade point averages, reading scores and 
higher educational level of parents, than do students with lower interest in 
social studies. However, only in the areas of educational level of the mother 
and reading ability scores were there significant differences at the .05 level. 



Hart. Jan Rowland (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT 

ON THE VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF A WITHDRAWN 

CHILD IN A COUNSELING SITUATION 

Two withdrawn children were identified in order to observe the effect of 
positive reinforcement on verbal behavior. One child served as the experimental 
subject and the other as the control subject. Observation of the children in their 
classroom for six sessions produced a baseline of their rates of verbal behavior 
in that setting. An ABAB research design was used for the twenty half-hour 
experimental sessions. Positive reinforcement in the form of the emission of 
statements of a positive nature, the establishment of eye contact, and the presen- 
tation of candy was administered on a CRF schedule for the emission of ver- 
balizations. After the experimental phases the two subjects were again observed 
in the classroom to compare their rates of verbalizations. The number of verba- 
lizations increased during the experimental sessions when positive reinforcement 
was administered, and the increase in verbal behavior generalized to the class- 
room setting for the experimental subject. The rate of verbal behavior for the 
control subject remained relatively unchanged. 



39 



Holton, Barbara Sanders (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE EFFECTS OF LISTENING EXERCISES ON THREE 
LEVELS OF SIXTH GRADE READING 

This study was made to determine whether listening exercises would im- 
prove listening and reading comprehension. Three exercises a week were given 
for ten weeks, using reading comprehension material. 

The sixty-five subjects were members of three achievement-grouped sixth 
grade clashes. 

Subjects in the group reading on an early eighth grade level at the end of 
the year made no significant gains in either listening or reading comprehension. 

Subjects in the group reading on an early sixth grade level at the end of the 
year made significant gains in both listening and reading comprehension. 

Subjects in the group reading on an early fourth grade level at the end of 
the year made significant gains in reading comprehension, but not in listening. 

A paired comparison method was used to test the differences between the 
pretests and posttests. 

An analysis of covariance showed no significant difference in gains among 
the groups. 



Hudson. Charles E. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE AVAILABILITY OF COMMUNITY RESOURCES IN 

ROME AND FLOYD COUNTY FOR USE IN CAREER EDUCATION 

AT WEST CENTRAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



To determine the availability of community resources for the students and 
teachers of West Central Elementary School, the writer surveyed and evaluated 
the educational resources in Rome and Floyd County. The objectives of the 
study were: (1) to evaluate and list the various types of resources available; 
(2) to collect and organize the information concerning the availability of com- 
munity resources; (3) to compile the results of the study to indicate the different 
ways that the community resources could be used. 

After the study of related literature, inquiries were sent to school systems 
throughout the United States for suggestions and materials that could be used 
in the study. In the early part of 1974, the writer sent questionnaires to indus- 
tries, agencies, and institutions for information as to the availability of their 
resources or resource persons and their willingness to cooperate with the 
schools. Provisions were made for the respondents to indicate the different 
pertinent information that was important for the study. The writer concluded 
the research study by providing collected data for each staff member of West 
Central Elementary School showing: (1) the availability of the different re- 
sources and the different ways they can be used; (2) procedures for teacher 
usage of community resources; (3) evaluation forms to determine educational 
value of field trips and resource persons. 

The results of the study were presented to the staff of West Central Elemen- 
tary School during May of the school year 1973-74. Although there were indica- 
tions that these results were going to increase the usage of community resources, 
the effectiveness of the study can only be determined after the school year 
1974-75. 

40 



Keller, B.J. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 



THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPEDIENT METHOD OF 
SCHEDULING FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 
OPERATING ON THE QUARTER SYSTEM 

A problem that is ever present with the secondary principal is the challenge 
of scheduling. This ever present problem was compounded even more with the 
evolution of the quarter system on the secondary level. A task that was com- 
pleted only once during the school year must now be completed three or four 
times under the quarter system. This increased scheduling dictated the need 
for a more expedient method of scheduling. The problem as identified by this 
study was to develop an expedient method of scheduling. 

The conclusion that emerged from this study is that most schools use a col- 
lege type of registration when scheduling on the quarter system. The college 
type of registration is the type of registration in which a student has preselected 
a list of courses. With this list the student goes to various departments to acquire 
a class card which will permit his enrollment in that class. In the college type 
registration class size is controlled by predetermined number of class cards. 
In this type of registration the student must make his own schedule, alternate 
schedule, and select his preferred classes and teachers. The expenses of using 
the computer type of scheduling precludes its use in most schools. There also 
is an inherent problem with computer scheduling, this being the difficulty of 
proper programming. The college type of scheduling was not only the most 
expedient but the least expensive. The individual method involves many more 
man hours than does the college type of scheduling. The cost of McBee-Key 
Sort cards or computer scheduling is greater than the college type since the 
only expense involved in the college type of scheduling is the reproduction of 
class cards. This reproduction can be accomplished with a mimeograph ma- 
chine. The flexibility of choice provided the students and the ease of registration 
make the college type of scheduling the most desirable. 



Kelley. Dana C. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 

SELECTED VARIABLES AND INTEREST IN 

SOCIAL STUDIES AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS 

The problem of this study was to determine if there is any relationship be- 
tween certain characteristics of students and the students' interest in social 
studies. The characteristics that were analyzed were the intellectual variables 
of grade level achievement, grade point average, reading ability and social 
studies competence and the non-intellectual variables of parents' educational 
level, family income, reading and media materials in the home, and the stu- 
dent's sex. 

The subjects used in the study were sixty seventh grade students. Thirty of 
these pupils were classified as those with high interest in social studies and 
thirty of these students were classified as those with low interest in social studies. 
Student's t-test, chi squares, and proportionates were run to determine if there 
was a significant difference between the two groups. The .05 level was used as 

41 



the significant level. 

The following conclusion was drawn: Only in the relationship of sex and 
interest in social studies was a significant statistical difference found. 

Kirk. Joan H. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE EFFECT ON ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE OF 

A SELF-SELECTION READING PROGRAM 

ON SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS 

This study was designed to provide experimental data on the effectiveness 
of the self-selection approach to reading. The research design was a non- 
randomized pretest posttest control group design (Van Dalen, 1973). The ex- 
perimental group was a class of sixth grade students reading approximately on 
grade level. This class was taught using a self-selection approach to reading. 

The control group was a class of sixth grade students reading approximately 
on grade level. This class was taught using the MacMillan Basal Reading Program. 

Alternate forms of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, reading battery, 
were given to measure gain in comprehension and vocabulary. Thomas H. 
Estes" A Scale to Measure Attitude in Reading was administered to measure 
any change in attitude. The / test was computed to determine any statistical 
difference between the mean gains of the two groups. 

The null hypothesis that there would be no gain in vocabulary between the 
two groups was not rejected. The null hypothesis that there would be no gain in 
Comprehension between the two groups was not rejected at the .05 confidence 
level but could have been rejected at the .01 confidence level. The null hypothe- 
sis that there would be no significant change in attitude between the two groups 
was rejected. The control group results showed a mean decrease in reading 
attitude of —0.90 while the experimental group showed a mean gain in reading 
attitude of 5.16. This proved to be a statistically significant difference at the 
.01 confidence level. 



Latson. Viri^inia Hine (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE RELATIONSHIP OF BAROMETRIC PRESSURE 

AND HUMIDITY TO THE LUNCHROOM NOISE 

LEVEL OF PRIMARY CHILDREN 

To determine any significant relationship of lunchroom noise level, as a 
criterion, to barometric pressure and humidity, as dependent variables, the 
primary lunchroom sound of Southeast Elementary School in Rome, Georgia 
was tape recorded via the intercom system for a thirty minute period over a 
nineteen school day span. Barometric pressure and humidity readings from a 
television weather channel were recorded at the time of each lunch period. 

At a later time the lunch sound tape was used in a recorder plugged into a 
Western Electric 3A Noise Level Meter, and readings were taken on a two 
minute interval schedule to arrive at an average sound level for each testing 
day. Barometric pressure was related with the average lunchroom sound level 
for the nineteen day period in the Pearson product moment formula and showed 
r^ .076 in the simple relationship. Humidity, as the dependent variable, was 

42 



similarly treated with noise level as the criterion, and the simple relationship 
was .045. Both relationships were not significant at the + 1 reading as perfect 
positive correlation. A multiple correlation of three variables with noise level. 
as the criterion, and barometric pressure and humidity, as dependent variables, 
to determine any joint significance in the relationship (read as high correlation 
at + 1.00) was R123 ^ -094. No statistically significant relationships were 
found. 



Lee. Wayne (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELECTED VARIABLES AND 

THEIR INFLUENCE ON STUDENT INTEREST IN SOCIAL STUDIES 

IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER ACADEMIC AREAS 

This study considered factors that influence student's interest in social 
studies courses in relationship with their interest in the academic areas of 
English, math, and science. Students were selected from tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth grade English classes at Cedartown Comprehensive High School during 
the fall quarter of 1973. Three hundred students were given H.H. Remmer's 
test "A Scale to Measure Attitude Toward Any School Subject", Form A. 

The following results were found to be statistically significant: 

1. The educational level of the mothers of students with high interest in 
social studies but low interest in math was higher than the educational 
level of the mothers of the students with low interest in social studies 
and a high interest in math. 

2. When choices were made in relationship to high interest in social studies 
and high interest in English, boys expressed an interest in social studies 
and girls expressed an interest in English. 

3. When choices were made between high interest in social studies and high 
interest in science, girls expressed interest in social studies and boys 
expressed interest in science. 



Lott. Mildred D. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER ATTITUDE UPON THIRD AND FOURTH 
GRADE SLOW LEARNERS USING PROGRAMMED READING 

This study was designed to compare the gain of slow learners using Program- 
med Reading taught by a teacher who was willing to work wirh such pupils to 
the gain of slow learners using Programmed Reading taught by a teacher who 
preferred to work with more capable pupils. Subjects were di 'ided into two 
groups; a third grade group who received instruction from the teacher with the 
negative attitude and a fourth grade group who received instruction from the 
teacher who volunteered to work with them. 

Subjects were given the California Short Form Test of Mental Maturity. 
The pretest for both groups was the Iowa Test of Basic Skills— Form 1, and the 
posttest for both groups was the Iowa Test of Basic Skills— Form 3. The testing 
was conducted by the researcher. The three areas tested were total reading, 
vocabulary, and comprehension. There were significant differences at the .01 

43 



level of confidence in gain between the two groups in all three areas, therefore, 
it is felt that only those teachers who are willing to work with slow learners 
can do so effectively. 



Marsh, Edwin Earl (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

PAINLESS POETRY FOR NINTH GRADE BOYS: 
A COURSE DESIGN 

This project is a design for a quarter course in poetry especially for ninth 
grade boys attending LaGrange Boys' Junior High School in LaGrange, Geor- 
gia. The course is based on the fact that most young people are very fond of 
modern music. This modern music, with much stress placed upon the lyrics, is 
used as an introduction to poetry in general. The assumption is that the students 
are able to see the similarity between the lyrics of songs and the words of poems. 

Included in the design for this course called "The Beatles, Before and After: 
Words and Music," are the rationale and purpose, behavioral objectives, a gen- 
eral outline for the course, detailed weekly lesson plans for the teacher (includ- 
ing materials, selections, activities, and evaluation procedures), and some 
conclusions concerning the effectiveness of the course which was actually taught 
the winter quarter of 1974. 



Martin, Gerald Curtis (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNITY EDUCATION 

AND ATTITUDES OF SELECTED CURRENT PARTICIPANTS 
TOWARD COMMUNITY EDUCATION IN COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA 

This study focused on answering the following problem: 
What were the developmental stages that community education passed 
through in Cobb County, Georgia, and what are the views and attitudes of cur- 
rent participants toward selected areas of the program? 

The following areas were explored by a review of the selected literature 
since 1955: 

1. The philosophical bases of community education on a national level. 

2. Strengths and weaknesses of community education. 

3. The importance of positive school-community relationships in regard to 
implementing community education. 

The following areas were explored by a review of Cobb County Board of 
Education Minutes (1966-1973), interviews with key individuals, and a study 
of Cobb County reports and studies: 

1. The conditions under which the first community education planning 
was completed in Cobb County, Georgia. 

2. The developmental stages that community education in Cobb County 
passed through from planning to systemwide implementation. 

A questionnaire was developed and administered to current participants 
at four community schools in Cobb County in order to attempt to identify their 
attitudes toward certain selected areas of the Cobb County Community School 
Program. The four schools chosen represented four geographical locations in 
the county. The total participant populations, as far as possible, in three schools 

44 



were surveyed, while the random selection process was used to select a sample 
of 100 participants from the large population of the other school. 

The data results from over 550 questionnaires were compared between the 
four participating schools on an item percentage basis. The data was further 
tabulated between each of the four schools for comparison purposes and to 
assist in testing the following hypothesis: 

1. There will be more females in the participating schools than males. 

2. There will be more participants in the age groups 13 to 30 years of age. 

3. Items one through five on the questionnaire, dealing with program struc- 
ture, will result in higher percentages of "Strongly Agree" and "Agree" 
responses per item than will any of the other questionnaire items per 
school. 

4. Items eleven and twelve on the questionnaire, dealing with program 
evaluation, will have a higher percentage of "Disagree" and "Strongly 
Disagree" responses than any other items on the questionnaire per school. 

5. The combined "Disagree" and "Strongly Disagree" responses for all 
fourteen items on the questionnaire will result in less than three per 
cent of the participants per school when averaged per school. 

6. Due to the fact there will be many first quarter participants and the 
questionnaire will be given the first week of classes, there will be at 
least 25 per cent "No Opinion" responses on some questionnaire items 
for each school. 

The data results showed very high positive responses on most questionnaire 
items. Those questionnaire items that did not show extremely high positive 
responses showed high "No Opinion" responses. The negative responses were 
under three per cent on all questionnaire items when the fourteen questionnaire 
items were averaged on a per item possible negative response basis. 



Moss, James P. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

AN ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDINAL CHANGES OF FIFTY SENIOR 

ENGLISH STUDENTS AFTER THE TEACHING OF SPECIFIC 

WORKS OF WILLIAM FAULKNER 

The purpose of this study was to determine, by means of scores made on a 
pretest and a posttest, the relationship between the teaching of specific works 
by William Faulkner and students" attitudes about nature, the family as an in- 
stitution, marriage and elders. A correlation technique, using the 0.05 level of 
confidence, was used to determine if there was a significant change in students' 
attitudes after being taught specific works by William Faulkner, if there was a 
significant difference in scores made by males and females, and if there was a 
significant relationship between I.Q- scores and posttest scores. 

A group of fifty students at Coosa High School in Floyd County, Georgia, 
was used as the population. The findings showed a positive change in students' 
attitudes, after they were taught specific works by William Faulkner, concern- 
ing nature, the family as an institution, marriage, and elders. There was not a 
significant difference between the scores made by males and females on the 
posttest. In addition, there was not a direct relationship between I.Q. scores 
and posttest scores. 

45 



Mustek, Peggy Entrekin (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY TO ESTABLISH A LEVELING PROCEDURE WHEREBY 

STUDENTS IN THE BOWDON ELEMENTARY SIXTH AND SEVENTH 

GRADES MAY BE PLACED ACCORDING TO THEIR MUSICAL 

ABILITY AS THEY ARE PLACED BY SIMILAR PROCEDURES IN 

THE READING PROGRAM OF BOWDON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



The purpose of this study was to run a correlation between the music 
achievement scores on the Selmer Music Guidance Survey and the reading 
achievement scores on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills to determine the feasi- 
bility of doing a reading test as a general music placement test at Bowdon 
Elementary School. 

Using the table of random numbers, ten students were chosen from each 
sixth and seventh grade reading group, giving a sample population of eighty. 
The Spearman r showed significant positive correlation in the high sixth grade 
reading group. In the other reading groups, the correlation was not significant. 



Poort, Hilda C. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF A SMALL GROUP TUTORING 

PROGRAM BY A READING SPECIALIST AND TEACHING AIDE ON 

SELECTED FOURTH GRADE PUPILS 

This study involves a research project in which a reading specialist and a 
teaching aide worked with pupils in small groups to help increase listening skills, 
vocabulary, word analysis, reading comprehension, self-concept and read- 
ing attitude. 

Ten children were chosen by teachers as being two or more years behind 
in reading skills. This group formed the experimental group. Ten children who 
were two or more years behind in reading were chosen as a control group. The 
experimental group worked thirty minutes a day each school day with a reading 
specialist and teaching aide. The control group received regular reading instruc- 
tion from their classroom teacher. The experimental group received classroom 
instruction in reading from their teachers and also received supplemental read- 
ing instruction from the reading specialist and teaching aide. 

As an evaluation. Level 8 Form 5 and Form 6 of the Iowa Tests of Basic 
Skills and the Self-Concept Scale were administered as pretests and posttests. 
To learn if there were any significant statistical differences between the mean 
changes of the groups in listening skills, vocabulary, word analysis, reading 
comprehension, and self-concept, t tests were computed. The results of the t 
tests indicated that there were no significant statistical differences between the 
groups on the five hypotheses mentioned above. The first five hypotheses were 
rejected. The .05 level of confidence was selected as the level at which results 
would show significant statistical difference. The attitude of the control group 
toward reading was more favorable than that of the experimental group toward 
reading. The results of the / test concerning attitude toward reading revealed 
no significant statistical difference between the experimental and control group. 

46 



Rogers. Jasper E. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY OF THE ATTENDANCE HABITS OF WHITFIELD COUNTY, 
GEORGIA STUDENTS IN GRADES SIX THROUGH TWELVE 



The purpose of ths study was to study the attendance habits of students, 
to determine differences in the attendance habits, if they existed and to make 
recommendations for possible improvement in student attendance in Whit- 
field County Schools. 

The subjects of the study were students selected at random from the two 
attendance areas of Whitfield County. The subjects represented 7.11 percent 
of the total school population enrolled in grades six through twelve in Whit- 
field County Schools. 

Descriptive research was used in the study. The data were collected by 
voluntary participation of the students in completion of a survey. The survey 
asked for student response on socio-economic conditions, attitude concerning 
school, reason for absence, school likes and dislikes, as they related to 
each participant. 



Selby. Barbara Bounds (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A COMPARISON OF FRESHMEN AND SENIOR RESPONSES 
TO THE GEORGIA GUIDANCE SERVICES INVENTORY 

This study compared the perceptions held of guidance services by high 
school freshmen and seniors. The Georgia Guidance Services Inventory was 
the instrument used. The populations responded to questions regarding what 
is occurring and what should be occurring. Mean factor scores were examined. 
Findings indicated a need for expanding guidance services by (1) making coun- 
selors and guidance services more accessible to students; (2) providing more 
adequate orientation to guidance services for freshmen; (3) identifying specific 
needs of girls; (4) broadening the scope of services for seniors. 



Shebiutt, Carolyn Carry (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A COMPARISON OF ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY SCIENCE 

STUDENTS IN PROCESS VERSUS 

TEXTBOOK CENTERED CLASSROOMS 



This research study was designed to report and compare findings of a re- 
search study which was to investigate scientifically the value of teaching science 
in a process oriented classroom compared to that of using a more traditional 
textbook method. 

Subjects used in the study were students of four third grade classes with an 
10 range of 70 to 136. Two of these four classes made up the experimental 
group. The other two classes composed the control group. Both groups con- 
tained fifty students. The subjects of the experimental group and the control 
group were similar in age, sex, and economic status. 

47 



A teacher-made test was used in the study. A total test score of forty was 
possible with each correct response receiving one point. The same test was 
administered as a pretest and posttest. 

The pretest was given to all students involved in this study on December 12, 
1973. A posttest was given to all the students on May 13, 1974 at the end of 
the sixteen week treatment period. 

The null hypothesis was tested by Analysis of Covariance (ANOCOVA). 

The null hypothesis was not rejected as the F ratio did not attain .05 level 
of confidence. 

The conclusion was that the textbook used increases process and concept 
development whether used by students in small groups or by teacher demon- 
stration with the control group. 

Further study is needed in order to detect significant difference in process 
development alone. 



Sirmali. Edna E. (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 



THE EFFECTS OF A SELF-CONCEPT ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM 
ON SELF-CONCEPT TEST RESULTS OF A THIRD-GRADE CLASS 



This study was designed to provide experimental data on the effectiveness 
of a classroom teacher to change pupil's self-concept through teaching self- 
rewarding behaviors. The change was judged by self-report self-concept tests. 

The research design of this study was the nonrandomized control-group 
pretest-posttest design in which two intact third grade classes were used. 

In the experimental class the teacher verbally modeled praise for self and 
others in a realistic setting. She directly taught pupils to evaluate, to set reason- 
able goals, and to praise self and others. The program was within the com- 
municative and computational skills class study plans although certain times 
were scheduled for self-concept growth activities. The control group maintained 
their normal schedule. 

The Piers-Harris Self-Concept Test and the Pictorial Self-Concept Test 
were used for comparison. Both scales used the categories by Jersild (1952) 
of self-concept. These two tests were given as pretests and posttests. The treat- 
ment period was six months. 

In general, results of analyses suggested that the self-concept enhancement 
program was responsible for moderate changes in test scores. The Pictorial 
Self-Concept Scale Tests" comparison was significant at the .05 level. The 
Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale Tests's comparison was not statistically sig- 
nigicant although there was some raw score gain. 



48 



Smith, Paul Hamilton (Specialist in Education, June, 1974) 

A STUDY TO DETERMINE IF THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT 

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE BASIC EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF 

THOSE STUDENTS WHO DROP-OUT OF THE BUSINESS EDUCATION 

PROGRAM AT THE CARROLL COUNTY AREA VOCATIONAL 
TECHNICAL SCHOOL AND THOSE WHO COMPLETE THE PROGRAM 

The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference existed 
between the basic educational levels of students who drop-out and those who 
complete the accounting, secretarial science, and clerk typist programs in the 
Business Education Department at the Carroll County Area Vocational School 
as measured by the Test of Adult Basic Education. A t test of independent mean 
was computed on reading, mathematics and language subtest scores. The / 
test revealed that a significant difference does not exist. 



Witherow. Jimmie W. (Specialist in Education, June. 1974) 
THE ROLE OF THE MIDDLE SCHOOL 

The development of the middle school was one of the most significant edu- 
cational events of the last decade. This study was conducted to define the role 
of the middle school in Whitfield County. It was the purpose of this study to 
define the role of the middle school in regard to (1) the purpose and develop- 
mental background, (2) the instructional program, and (3) the organization and 
administration. 

The developmental background of the junior high school and the emergence 
of the middle school is presented from a review of the literature. Consideration 
is given to the purposes, growth, and characteristics of the junior high school. 
The middle school emerged due to failures and criticisms of the junior high, 
changes in the nature of the learner, and innovations in the educational program. 

A reorganization of the grade pattern in a school system provides an oppor- 
tunity to re-evaluate the curriculum for the total program for grades K-12. Con- 
sideration is given to (1) some of the concerns expressed in the literature in 
regard to the objectives and purposes of the curriculum for the middle school; 
(2) the recommendations on instruction in the Comprehensive Study Report 
to the Whitfield County Board of Education; and (3) the reports from the study 
committees which were appointed by the Whitfield County Board of Education 
to define the educational program. 

The most typical middle school program is found in a 5-3-4 or 4-4-4 organiza- 
tional pattern. A study is presented on the grade organizations in the local 
school systems in Georgia. The information was obtained by a review of two 
educational directories which were prepared by the State Department of 
Education. 

A framework for the curriculum for the middle schools in Whitfield County 
is proposed. In conclusion some statements regarding the middle school are 
also presented. 

Whitfield County may be regarded as a system which capitalized on reor- 
ganization to provide adequate facilities and reevaluate the curriculum to pro- 
vide learning opportunities in the total instructional program for grades K-12. 

49 



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Bryon, Dora L. 

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deMayo. Benjamin 

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52 



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53 



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"Advantages of the Use of Visual Aids in General Chemistry." Bulletin of 
the Georgia Academy of Science. XXVII (1969), 114. (Abstract) 

"Student Reaction to the Use of Selected Visual Aids in Various Chemistry 
Courses." Paper read at the 158th National American Chemical Society 

55 



Meeting, New York, New York, Sep., 1969. 

"Student Attitudes Toward Chemistry." Paper read at the American Chemi- 
cal Society Southeastern Regional Meeting, Richmond, Virginia, Nov., 1969. 

"A Chemistry Course for Elementary School Teachers." Paper read at the 
American Chemical Society Southeast-Southwest Regional Meeting, New 
Orleans, Louisiana, Dec, 1970. 

"A Short Hand Scored Item Analysis for Objective Tests." Paper read at the 
American Chemical Society Southeastern Regional Meeting, Birmingham, 
Alabama, Nov., 1972. 

"Some Relevant Laboratory Exercises for Liberal Arts Chemistry Courses." 
Paper read at the 163rd National American Chemical Society Meeting, 
Dallas, Texas, Apr., 1973. 

Programmed Learning Guide for General Chemistry. Champaign, Illinois: 
Stipes Publishing Company, 1973. 

Laboratory Exercises for General Chemistry. Champaign, Illinois: Stipes 
Publishing Company, 1973. 

"A Quick Hand Scored Item Analysis for Objective Tests." Journal of Chemi- 
cal Education. L (1973), 354. 

"Practical 2X2 Slides." Journal of Chemical Education. L (1973). 798. 

"Group A-T Instruction in the General Chemistry Laboratory." Paper read 
at the American Chemical Society Southeastern Regional Meeting, Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, Nov., 1973. 

"Group A-T Instruction in the General Chemistry Laboratory," Journal of 
College Science Teaching. Ill, No. 5 (1974), 303. 

"An Introduction to Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy." Journal of College 
Science Teaching. IV, No. 2 (1974), 156. 

"Science Courses for Elementary School Teachers." Panelist at the Georgia 
Science Teachers Meeting, Macon, Georgia, Feb., 1974. 

Taylor. Howard E. 

Fundamental Mathematics. Fourth Edition. With T.L. Wade. New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1974. 

Tye. Duncan R. 

"The Role of Subjectivity in the Determination of the Value of Money in 
British Economic Thought Prior to the Marginal Revolution." Unpublished 
PhD dissertation (economics), Tulane University, 1974. 

Upchurch, John C. 

"Land Use in Georgia: An Application of Remote Sensing." With J.O'Malley. 
Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science. XXXII (1974), 13-14. 
(Abstract) 

"The Status of Geography in Georgia's Small Colleges." Paper read at the 
Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers, Biloxi, 
Mississippi. Nov., 1974. 

56 



General Editor, West Georgia College Studies in the Social Sciences. XII, 
1974. 

Weaver. David C. 

"Locational Considerations in New Town Development." Paper read at the 
Southeastern Division of the Association of American Geographers, Biloxi, 
Mississippi, Nov., 1974. 

"Factors in the Disjunction of the Southeastern Rail Network Before 1860." 
Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science. XXXII (1974), 13. (Abstract) 

Youngblood. Betty J. 

"The Role of the Computer in Secondary School Teaching of Today's Politi- 
cal Science." y4me/7ca/z Secondary Education. (Dec, 1974), 12-19. 



57 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



REVIEW 




Vol. IX 



May, 1977 



Published By 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



A Division of the University System ot Georgia 



C^ARROLLTON, GEORGIA 



'm^W^Mm^mt 



Published by 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 



Maurice K. Townsend, President 
I John M. Martin, Vice President and Dean of Faculties 



Learning Resources Committee 
Chairman, Roy B. Bogue 

Robin Avant 
Terrell G. Bailey 
Jeff Dean 
Joseph D. Doldan 
Cathy Dyer 
William R. Foley 
Robert B. Jobson 
Art Johnston 



W. Benjamin Kennedy 
Lucille H. Klee 
Hugh C. Maxwell 
Jerome L. Mock 
Robert R. Myers 
Carl J. Quertermus 
J. Phillip Scott 
T. D. Seiber 



William L. Lockhart, Editor 

Martha A. Saunders, Associate Editor 

Betty S. Jobson, Assistant Editor 



The purpose of this publication is to provide encouragement for 
faculty research and to make available results of such activity. The 
Review, published annually, accepts original scholarly work and crea- 
tive writing. West Georgia College assumes no responsibility for con- 
tributors' views. The style guide is Kate L. Turabian. A Manual for 
Writers. Although the Review is primarily a medium for the faculty 
of West Georgia College, other sources are invited. 

An annual bibliography includes doctoral dissertations, major 
recitals and major art exhibits. Theses and articles in progress or 
accepted are not listed. A faculty member's initial listing is compre- 
hensive and appears in the issue of the year of his employment. The 
abstracts of all master's theses and educational specialist's projects 
written at West Georgia College are included as they are awarded. 



The Review was not published in 1976. 



WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 

REVIEW 



Volume IX May, 1977 



TABLE 

OF 

CONTENTS 

The Effects of an Inservice Creativity Workshop 

On Teachers and Their Students Ellen Gruber 

and Jeffrey L. Lorentz 3 

Relativity and the Universe of Fiction Frank Sadler 8 

Are Some Bankers "Crying Wolf?" Carole E. Scott 34 

Abstracts of Master's Theses and Specialist in 

Education Projects 38 

Bibliography of West Georgia College Faculty 

1975 and 1976 131 



Copyright ® 1977, West Georgia College 

Printed in U.S.A. 

Darby Printing Company, Atlanta, Georgia 30310 



THE EFFECTS OF AN INSERVICE CREATIVITY 

WORKSHOP ON TEACHERS AND THEIR 

STUDENTS 

by ELLEN GRUBER* and JEFFREY L. LORENTZ** 

In recent years a number of educators have moved from an in- 
structional approach which considers only student cognition to an 
awareness of the need to attend to the affective domain. There is an 
increasing realization of the need to assist teachers in fostering an 
affective environment in their classrooms. One approach to this end 
is the inservice program. 

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of 
an Affective and Creative Education inservice program on teacher 
attitudes and subsequent changes in student attitudes and creativity. 
Specifically, the study was designed to consider whether a workshop 
in affect/creativity would result in changes in teacher openness, stu- 
dent creativity, and student self-concept. 

METHOD 

Subjects. The subjects of the present study were eighteen first 
grade teachers from Carrollton and Carroll County, Georgia, who 
volunteered to participate. Ninety students were obtained by ran- 
domly selecting 5 from each of the 18 classrooms. As a condition of 
participation, each teacher agreed to the administration of student 
measures both one week before the workshop began and four weeks 
after the workshop ended. The teachers also agreed to respond to 
several measures before and after the workshop. 

Instruments. I Feel — Me Feel (IFMF) (Yeatts and Bentley, 
1970) was given to the 90 students one week before and four weeks 
after the workshop. This 40-item Likert-type scale (using five faces 
which ranged from happy to sad rather than numbers) is a self- 
concept measure appropriate for use with children at this level. 

Scoring was based on locally-developed factor keys which were 
entitled: Academic, Self, Frustration, Femininity, Fun, and Inde- 
pendence. Coefficient Alpha reliabilities for these scales ranged from 
.56 to .92 for the pre-test sample. 

The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) (Torrance, 
1966) were administered along with the IFMF. TTCT is a measure 
of creativity, a test developed over a number of years. A number of 
studies report reliabilities ranging from .50 to .93, and Torrance 

* Assistant Professor of Education. 

** Assistant Professor of Education, West Georgia College. 

3 



(1972) reports nine studies in which TTCT scores were used to predict 
other student outcomes. 

The four subtest scores are fluency, flexibility, originality, and 
elaboration. Figural forms A and B were used. 

The Rokeach Dogmatism Scale (RDS) (Rokeach, 1960) was 
administered to each teacher before and after the workshop. Dogma- 
tism as defined by Rokeach is a closed way of thinking which can be 
associated with any ideology. This scale is designed to measure indi- 
vidual differences in openness or closedness of belief systems. The 
reliability coefficient (split-half, Spearman-Brown) for the Dogma- 
tism scale. Form E, is .81 based on a group of 80 English colleges. 
When intercorrelated with Form F among Dogmatism, Authoritar- 
ianism, and Ethnocentrism, the R = .62 based on 80 English colleges. 
Total score is obtained by summing the responses to the 40 items. 

A group of specially trained testers administered both the IFMF 
and TTCT away from the teachers' classrooms. 

Treatment. The eighteen first grade teachers participated in a 
two-day intensive training program designed to foster aflFective 
growth in themselves and subsequently in their students. The work- 
shop focused on the following areas: affective exercises in trust, 
awareness, and communication; transactional analysis; and creativ- 
ity exercises centered on flexibility. The aim of the workshop was to 
equip each teacher with skills and a variety of techniques to facilitate 
the development of an aff"ective curriculum for children. The teachers 
followed up the workshop via implementation of an aff"ective and 
creative curriculum for their students. 

During the four weeks before the end of the final testing, the 
teachers' classes were monitored for one hour once a week to check 
on the implementation of the techniques taught in the workshop. 
Trained observers marked a check list in order to obtain additional 
data on the implementation. 

Analysis. The RDS were hand scored and a total pre-test, total 
post-test and difference score recorded for each teacher. A correlated 
t-test was used to test the diff"erence between pre-RDS and post-RDS. 
Table 1 presents the results of this test, which show that the differ- 
ence between pre-test and post-test is not significant. 

Table 1 
RDS Means and Standard Deviations 

Standard 
Test Mean Deviation t 



0.06 



Pre-workshop 


135.39 


29.01 


Post-workshop 


135.05 

4 


35.80 



Student IFMF and TTCT subscales were reduced to gains by 
regressing pre-test on post-test and subtracting the obtained post-test 
score from the predicted ("expected") post-test score and further 
reducing these gains to classroom means. The 10 scores were then 
used as a measure of teacher influence on student self-concept and 
creativity. Teachers were subsequently contrasted on these scores 
through a series of discriminant analyses (Veldman, 1967). In the first 
of these, the eighteen teachers were ranked according to their initial 
(pre-test) RDS score and the nine high scoring teachers were con- 
trasted against the nine low scoring teachers. Likewise, the final 
(post-test) RDS and the difference between pre and post were used 
in the same manner. 

The results of these three analyses are shown in Tables 2 and 3. 

TABLE 2 

SUMMARY OF 3 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS 
CONTRASTING GROUPS OF IFMF & TTCT 



WILKS 
ANALYSIS LAMBDA F df X-' P 

1. High vs Low 0.292 1.700 10.7 — 0.2466 
Pre-RDS 

Root 1 (100% of variance) 10 14.787 0.1415 

2. High vs Low 0.345 1.317 10.7 — 0.3669 
Post RDS 

Root 1 ( lOOVc of variance) 10 12.698 0.2421 

3. High vs Low 0.295 1.674 10.7 — 0.2533 
Change in RDS 

Root 1 (100% of variance) 10 14.653 0.1467 



TABLE 3 

GROUP MEANS AND UNIVARIATE F-TESTS 
FOR 10 STUDENT VARIABLES 





High RDS 


Low RDS 






Group 


Group 


F — ratio 


Variable 


Mean 


Mean 


df = 1,16 


Analysis 1. Pretest RDS 








IFMF 








1. Fun 


48.3678 


52.5913 


5.1235 


2. Academic 


48.9251 


48.9595 


0.0005 


3. Frustration 


11.5837 


13.4830 


3.9879 


4. Femininity 


11.8674 


12.4605 


1.0411 


5. Self 


22.4306 


24.2419 


1.7424 


6. Independence 


10.7063 


11.0446 


0.2299 


TTCT 








7. Fluency 


21.8952 


24.1943 


0.9449 


8. Flexibility 


12.1718 


12.5993 


0.0870 


9. Originality 


8.7112 


9.1544 


0.0261 


10. Elaboration 


16.8456 


15.0086 


0.6984 


Analysis 2. Posttest RDS 








IFMF 








1. Fun 


49.9014 


51.0578 


0.2965 


2. Academic 


48.6697 


49.2150 


0.0586 


3. Frustration 


11.7583 


13.3084 


2.4520 


4. Femininity 


12.0920 


12.2359 


0.0578 


5. Self 


23.2718 


23.4006 


0.0083 


6. Independence 


10.6760 


11.0749 


0.3213 


TTCT 








7. Fluency 


23.7375 


22.3520 


0.3311 


8. Flexibility 


13.1045 


11.6667 


1.0424 


9. Originality 


10.8235 


7.0421 


2.1533 


10. Elaboration 


17.9931 


13.8612 


4.2937 


Analysis 3. Difference RDS 








IFMF 








1. Fun 


49.9444 


51.0148 


0.2538 


2. Academic 


48.9630 


48.9216 


0.0005 


3. Frustration 


12.2194 


12.8473 


0.3567 


4. Femininity 


12.1214 


12.2065 


0.0199 


5. Self 


23.6229 


23.0495 


0.1595 


6. Independence 


10.6471 


11.1038 


0.4242 


TTCT 








7. Fluency 


24.0271 


22.0624 


0.6793 


8. Flexibility 


12.4679 


12.3033 


0.0129 


9. Originality 


9.8231 


8.0425 


0.4322 


10. Elaboration 


17.3394 


14.5149 


1.7554 



These results indicate that the groups did not differ significantly 
on any of the measures. 

6 



CONCLUSION 

The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of an 
affective workshop on teacher openness and on student' creativity. 
The results indicate that there has been no significant impact of the 
workshop on either teachers or their students. 

The Affective Education workshop did not lead to significant 
differences between groups on teacher openness and subsequent crea- 
tivity measures in students. The workshop may well have been effec- 
tive in changing openness and creativity of teachers and students, but 
this study did not demonstrate that. 

The length of the affective workshop may be a critical factor. The 
length of time spent by teachers implementing the affective curricu- 
lum in their classroom may be a critical factor. Research should be 
undertaken in which such factors as size of the workshop, duration 
of the workshop, and specific activities are varied. 

It is possible that long term effects of the affective and creative 
education inservice program on teacher attitudes and subsequent 
changes in student attitudes and creativity will be evident over a 
longer time period. For this reason teachers should not expect in a 
short time too great a change in themselves or their students. Per- 
sonal growth is a slow process and individuals need time to experi- 
ment with and integrate new behavior and attitudes into their lives. 
Teachers should not become discouraged too quickly when their stu- 
dents do not respond with immediate or dramatic new behaviors and 
attitudes as a result of their focusing on the affective domain. For 
both teachers and students, it appears, change may occur but slowly. 
Patience seems to be a vital virtue in affective education. 



RELATIVITY AND THE UNIVERSE OF FICTION 

by FRANK SADLER* 

And when his friend Janos Plesh commented years later that there 
seemed to be some connection between mathematics and fiction, a 
field in which the writer made a world out of invented characters 
and situations and then compared it with the existing world Ein- 
stein replied: "There may be something in what you say. When I 
examine myself and my methods of thought I come to the conclusion 
that the gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for 
absorbing positive knowledge." 

RONALD W. CLARK 
Einstein: The Life and Times 

In this essay I will examine what seems to be a connection be- 
tween the invented worlds of mathematical physics and fiction in 
terms of Samuel R. Delany's The Einstein Intersection.^ It is my 
belief that there exists a relationship between these two worlds and 
that The Einstein Intersection is a literary expression of that relation- 
ship. If it seems that I am making some special claim for science 
fiction, I am not. I am only pointing out that science fiction is a type 
of literature and, as such, that it must be initially judged by the 
standards of that literature. It should be remembered, then, that 
there is nothing inherently difficult in understanding the the relation- 
ship that exists between mathematical physics and fiction as long as 
we recognize that The Einstein Intersection, like any literary work of 
art, "is governed by precisely the same literary and dramatic require- 
ments as any other form of literature."^ The problem, insofar as it 
may be a problem, resides in the form of a novel. Alain Robbe-Grillet 
points out that "A new form will always seem more or less an absence 
of any form at all, since it is unconsciously judged by reference to the 
consecrated forms. "^ Essentially, the problems of The Einstein 
Intersection are related to the problems of form. Since most of what 
will be discussed in this essay relates directly or indirectly to form, 
it would seem wise tentatively to define what is meant by that term. 
Yet definition itself seems somehow inadequate to deal with the prob- 
lems of form since, as Charles W. Misner points out in Gravitation, 

* Assistant Professor of English, Georgia Southwestern College. 
' Samuel R. Delany, The Einstein Intersection, New York: Ace Books, 1967. 
- Reginald Bretnor, "Science Fiction in the Age of Space" in Science Fiction, 
Today and Tomorrow, New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1974, p. 151. 
■' Alain Robbe-Grillet, For A New Novel, New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1965, 
p. 17. 

8 



... in science, as stressed not least by Henri Poincare, that view is 
out of date which used to say, "Define your terms before you pro- 
ceed." All the laws and theories of physics . . . have this deep and 
subtle character, that they both define the concepts they use . . . 
and make statements about these concepts. Contrariwise, the ab- 
sence of some body of theory, law, and principle deprives one of the 
means properly to define or even use concepts. Any forward step in 
human knowledge is truly creative in this sense: that theory, con- 
cept, law, and method of measurement — forever inseparable — are 
born into the world in union. ^ 

Misner's view of the problem of definition in science constitutes 
a functional or operational definition of terminology. What is true for 
science is, perhaps, even more appropriate for the study of literature. 
Our critical vocabulary is woefully inadequate and our definition of 
the rather limited critical terms we do have, such as those found in 
Wayne C. Booth's The Rhetoric of Fiction and other works concerned 
with the long narrative, are often wanting with respect to precision. 
Nevertheless, for the purpose of exigency, I shall use Charles Olson's 
definition of form, that is, "FORM IS NEVER MORE THAN AN 
EXTENSION OF CONTENT", as a starting point.^ What is being 
suggested is that the forms a novel may take grow out of the ideas 
and concepts, both implicit and explicit, which reside in it. Form and 
content are not antithetical concepts. Rather, form expresses an 
"extension" of certain ideas and concepts which, because of their 
particular expression, find themselves arranged in a particular pat- 
tern or relationship. This pattern or relationship we call a novel. 

In brief, Delany has invented quite freely a new form for the 
science-fiction novel. The traditional divisions of the novel into sepa- 
rate and clearly discernable chapters are gone and in their place the 
narration is briefly interrupted by quotations from the author's jour- 
nal, quotations from various literary, religious, philosophical, and 
scientific sources, and quotations from other fictional works of art. 
These quotations serve an important function in the structure of the 
novel since they provide a series of points that force the reader to 
relate the story to his own time. For instance, at the beginning of the 
second section of The Einstein Intersection, Delany provides us with 
a rather lengthy description of his impressions of a week's stay in 
Venice and relates this stay to his problems in "trying to assimilate 
. . . Lobey's adventure," though he admits that he doesn't "quite 
know how" these problems of assimilation will be worked out yet (pp. 



* Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John A. Wheeler, Gravitation, San 
Francisco: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1973, p. 71. 
■^ Charles Olson, "Projective Verse", in Human Universe and Other Essays, 
Donald Allen, editor, New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1967, p. 52. 

9 



ii; 



13-14). In other words, as Delany attempts to relate Lobey's story to 
his own time, we too, analogically, must relate Delany's experiences 
to our own. Delany in this particular section (and in others like it 
from his journal) attempts to establish a sense of aesthetic distance 
between the story the novel presents (it takes place in the distant 
future when man has left his planet and gone elsewhere in the uni- 
verse) and the historical present. This relationship between the story 
the novel presents and the historical present is paralleled within the 
novel by the presence of a series of allusions and images that establish 
a continuity in time between the distant historical past when man 
still inhabited the earth, the immediate historical past which pres- 
ents the narrator's own history and his knowledge of his race's his- 
tory, the present, and the future. There is, perhaps, another and more 
important function these quotations serve and this function is inti- 
mately related to the form of the novel; that is, the quotations allow 
us to observe, in a limited sense, the author's view of how he under- 
stands the creative process and its relation to Lobey's story and The 
Einstein Intersection. For example, in a quotation from the author's 
journal at the beginning of section twelve, Delany informs us that "In 
a week another birthday, and I can start the meticulous process of 
overlaying another filigree across the novel's palimpsest" (p. 137). 
What Delany has presented us with is a description of the way in 
which he understands the process of his creation of the novel to have 
taken place. Further, the relationship that exists in the novel between 
mathematical physics and fiction is relatively complex since it in- 
volves an understanding of certain key concepts in contemporary 
physics. These concepts are presented within the novel and an under- 
standing of their presence is crucial to any discussion of it. It would 
seem sensible, therefore, to examine what Martin Dyck in "Relativity 
in Physics and in Fiction" terms "some striking analogies" that exist 
"between physics and fiction," since I am dealing with the nature of 
fiction and, specifically, its relationship to physics and the world view 
implicit in The Einstein Intersection.^ For it is only through coming 
to terms with the form of The Einstein Intersection that we may come 
to understand the relationship between the invented worlds of mathe- 
matics and fiction in the novel. 

James B. Conant tells us that the mathematician or physicist 
"no longer pretends that he is dealing with reality, but accepts in- 
stead that he works with interlocking conceptual schemes — with 

" Martin Dyck, "Relativity in Physics and in Fiction", in Studies in German 
Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Siegfried Mews, edi- 
tor. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1970, p. 174. 



10 



models — that are productive for a time but are constantly modified."^ 
Further, it may be argued that "Few, if any writers would now insist 
that their fictional worlds reproduce reality. Instead the writer cre- 
ates a model, an imitation, a symbolic construct through which he 
tries to capture the quality of human experience."'* Since neither the 
physicist nor the writer pretends any longer that he is dealing with 
reality, the models he creates in his attempts to render the world 
intelligible may seem to be nothing more than a series of metaphors. 
These metaphors, however, are not taken from nature but have their 
source in the abstract principles of science. 

Martin Dyck in his essay suggests that "In a basic sense, both 
fiction and physics are physics" (p. 174). Dyck's formulation about 
the analogical similarities between physics and fiction strike to the 
center of a particular twentieth-century problem in epistemology and 
ontology. The problem is not simply a matter of defining what we 
mean by fiction and physics. It involves what Thomas S. Kuhn in 
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions terms "incommensurable 
ways of seeing the world and of practicing science in it."" Further, it 
might be added, it involves a switch or change in the way in which 
the artist sees his function or purpose in his art and, therefore, in his 
world. Kuhn points out that "What a man sees depends both upon 
what he looks at and also upon what his previous visual-conceptual 
experience has taught him to see. In the absence of such training 
there can only be, in William James' phrase, 'a bloomin' buzzin' 
confusion'" (p. 113). The question which Dyck raises is "In what 
sense is physics fiction?" and declares "Well, what else is it? Truth? 
A physicist would object to such classification. Reality? Past the mid- 
twentieth century we are no longer so naive as to assume that there 
is such a thing as a definable reality" (p. 11). The reasons for this are 
not simple and involve the theory of relativity. Lincoln Barnett 
argues that "the irony of man's quest for reality is that as nature is 
stripped of its disguises, as order emerges from chaos and unity from 
diversity, as concepts merge and fundamental laws assume increas- 
ingly simpler form, the evolving picture becomes ever more remote 
from experience — far stranger indeed and less recognizable than the 
bone structure behind a familiar face."'" Reality in modern physics 



" Thomas D. Clareson, "The Other Side of Realism", in SF: The Other Side 
of Realism, Thomas Clareson, editor. Bowling Green: Bowling Green Univer- 
sity Popular Press, 1971, p. 22. 
« Ibid. 

" Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago: Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, 1970, p. 4. 

'" Lincoln Barnett, The Universe and Dr. Einstein, New York: Bantam 
Books, Inc., 1973, p. 113. 

11 



ceases to be a meaningful concept. Barnett notes that 

In trying to distinguish appearance from reahty and lay bare the 
fundamental structure of the universe, science has had to transcend 
the "rabble of the senses." But its highest edifices, Einstein has 
pointed out, have been "purchased at the price of emptiness of 
content" A theoretical concept is emptied of content to the very 
degree that it is divorced from sensory experience. For the only world 
man can truly know is the world created for him by the senses, (pp. 
113-14) 

Barnett argues that "in the abstract lexicon of quantum physics 
there is no such word as 'really' " (p. 32). Further, he suggests that 
"The certainty that science can explain how things happen began to 
dim about twenty years ago. And right now it is a question whether 
scientific man is in touch with 'reality' at all — or can ever hope to be" 
(p. 16). According to Barnett, the theory of relativity does not 
"contradict classical physics. It simply regards the old concepts as 
limiting cases that apply solely to the familiar experiences of man" 
(p. 58). Consequently, as he suggests, "Einstein thus surmounts the 
barrier reared by man's impulse to define reality solely as he per- 
ceives it through the screen of his senses" (p. 58). He further com- 
ments that 

— the world of light and color, of blue skies and green leaves, of 
sighing wind . . . the world designed by the physiology of human 
sense organs — is the world in which finite man is incarcerated by his 
essential nature. And what the scientist and the philosopher call the 
world of reality — the colorless, soundless, impalpable cosmos which 
lies like an iceberg beneath the plane of man's perceptions — is a 
skeleton structure of symbols. 

And the symbols change, (p. 114) 

In The Einstein Intersection, for instance, Lobey's perception of 
his world is essentially stable and coherent. What he perceives is 
limited to the world presented by his senses. His familiar experiences 
may be unusual and odd for us, but in his world they are normal. In 
other words, Lobey is unaware of what the philosopher would call the 
world of reality. What he perceives as normal — he describes himself 
as "Ugly and grinning most of the time" and as having "a figure like 
a bowling pin, thighs, calves, and feet of a man (gorilla?) twice my 
size (which is about five-nine) and hips to match" — is clearly unusual 
for us (pp. 5-6). Though Lobey's perception of his world is 
"innocent," our perception of his universe differs markedly from his. 
By the end of the novel, however, everything has become different; 
that is, Lobey no longer perceives a fixed and stable universe. He has 
come to understand what Doric tells him early in section four that 
"this is the real world you're living in. It's come from something; it's 
going to something; it's changing" (p. 53). He understands not only 

12 



the nature of change but the role it plays in his world and in his 
perception of that world, so much so that the only thing that is 
predictable is change itself. The novel grows out of the narrator's way 
of seeing his world come into conflict with his actual experience of 
it. The central conflict or paradox thus created grows out of the fact 
that what a man may "truly know" is limited by his senses to his 
familiar experiences, while, at the same time, his science informs him 
that his senses are but imperfect instruments that lack the power and 
refinement to perceive the immeasurable small but significant events 
in the physical world that exist outside the range of his senses. While 
science, as Barnett points out, tells us "nothing of the true 'nature' 
of things, it nevertheless succeeds in defining their relationships and 
depicting the events in which they are involved. 'The event,' Alfred 
North Whitehead declared, 'is the unit of things real'" (p. 110). 
Science may tell us "nothing of the true 'nature' of things," but its 
"skeleton structure of symbols," does influence and produce a change 
in the way in which man sees the world. 

Kuhn notes in Chapter X ("Revolutions as Changes of World 
View") that "The assimilation of a previously anomalous visual field 
has reacted upon and changed the field itself" (p. 112). If we substi- 
tute the term "visual-conceptual" for the purely "visual" in Kuhn's 
sentence, then we come close to describing the relation that exists 
between mathematical physics and fiction in the novel and its rela- 
tionship to that of the narrator's way of seeing in his world. Because, 
in a sense, the literary significance of the theory of relativity is that 
it allows man, in the final analysis, to see himself, as Barnett states, 
"merely [as] an ephemeral conformation of the primordial space- 
time field. Man stands 'midway between macrocosm and micro- 
cosm' " and "finds barriers on every side and can perhaps but mar- 
vel, as St. Paul did nineteen hundred years ago, that 'the world was 
created by the word of God so that what is seen was made out of 
things which did not appear' " (p. 118). The theory of relativity points 
toward another significant development in modern physics. 

J. Bronowski in The Common Sense of Science points out that 
Werner Heisenberg's Gedankenexperiments (the term means literally 
"thought experiments") showed "that every description of nature 
contains some essential and irremovable uncertainty. For example, 
the more accurately we try to measure the position of a fundamental 
particle, of an electron say, the less certain will we be of its speed. 
The more accurately we try to estimate its speed, the more uncertain 
will we be of its precise position."" Further, as Barnett notes, "in the 



" J. Bronowski, The Common Sense of Science, New York: Random House, 
Inc., p. 69. 

13 



very act of observing its position [the electron's], its velocity is 
changed; and, conversely, the more accurately its velocity is deter- 
mined, the more indefinite its position becomes" (p. 34). The signifi- 
cance of Heisenberg's Principle of Uncertainty was not missed by 
philosophers or artists. Plato had argued that "The prison house is 
the world of sight," and, as Barnett and other have pointed out, 
"Every seeming avenue of escape from this prison house that science 
has surveyed leads only deeper into a misty realm of symbolism and 
abstraction" (p. 116). Barnett further argues that "It may be that the 
extreme and insurmountable limit of scientific knowledge will be 
reached in the attainment of perfect isomorphic representation — that 
is, in a final flawless concurrence of theory and natural process, so 
complete that every observed phenomena is accounted for and noth- 
ing is left out of the picture" (p. 116). The same speculation may be 
made for the limits of literary art and theory where the literary artist 
continually strives to create a perfect and final flawless account of 
human nature. This, of course, he must accomplish within the limita- 
tions imposed upon him by his senses while at the same time he takes 
into account new understandings of the universe revealed to him by 
his science. As Robbe-Grillet puts it, "Obviously I am concerned, in 
any case, only with the world as my point of view orients it; I shall 
never know any other. The relative sense of sight serves me precisely 
to define my situation in the world. I simply keep myself from helping 
to make this situation a servitude."'^ In a sense, this is exactly the 
narrator's position in The Einstein Intersection. The point to be made 
here is that reality conceived of as an "absolute" ceases to be a 
meaningful concept in modern science. Dyck declares 

More accurately; there is no one definable truth or reality. And since 
there is more than one conception of truth and reality, to any one 
observer all but his own conception of truth and reality must be 
fictitious. And since we cannot be so subjective as to accept the 
truth and reality of any one individual, or one group, or one society, 
or one branch of knowledge, or one age as truth and reality binding 
on all and always binding (though we do not deny any individual, 
or group, or age the bliss of pursuing his or its own fictions) we are 
forced to conclude that all concepts of truth and reality are ficti- 
tious, (p. 174) 

The conclusion Dyck reaches seems valid enough and, in a limited 
sense. The Einstein Intersection represents the attempt of one indi- 
vidual (Lo Lobey) to pursue his own fictions only to discover in the 
search (quest) that his concepts of truth and reality, of the nature of 
his world, are fictitious. Delany quotes Jean-Paul Sarte at the begin- 

'2 Robbe-Grillet, p. 74. 

14 



ning of the fifth section of the novel to the effect that "Experience 
reveals to him in every object, in every event, the presence of some- 
thing else" (p. 55). Earlier in the novel Doric, the "kage-keeper," tells 
Lobey "this is the real world you're living in. It's come from some- 
thing; it's going to something; it's changing. But it's got right and 
wrong, a way to behave and a way not to. You never wanted to accept 
that, even when you were a kid, but until you do, you won't be 
happy" (p. 53). Lobey's unwillingness to accept the nature of his 
world is in part a failure of his willingness to see his world. He stag- 
gers through this "abstracted novel," pursuing, like the author De- 
lany, his own fictions (p. 118). Delany tells us at the beginning of 
section two that "It turned windy as we floated beneath the black 
wood arch of the Ponti Academia; I was trying to assimilate the 
flowers, the vicious animals, with Lobey's adventure — each applies, 
but as yet I don't quite know how" (p. 13). The information Delany's 
journal supplies suggests that he wishes to make a close analogy 
between the writer's pursuit of his own fictions and those fictions 
pursued by his major character. 

Someone may object, however, to what has been suggested about 
the nature of physics and argue that "physics should be described as 
physical reality, or a set of theories of physical reality, or of the 
physical universe" and, therefore, should not be compared with liter- 
ary works of art (Dyck, p. 174). The apparent reason for this objection 
is that literary art is a product of the mind and is concerned with 
human experience whereas physics is concerned with the physical 
world only. The resulting argument holds that physics and literary 
art are incommensurate since they deal with radically divergent phe- 
nomena. Obviously nothing could be further from the truth, as I have 
already partly shown. As Dyck points out, if physics should be consid- 
ered in terms of one of these propositions, or all, then, each "of these 
propositions holds true. And each is circular. And each is incomplete" 
(p. 174). In what ways are these "propositions" circular and 
incomplete? What is missing? I have already suggested that contem- 
porary physics no longer deals with reality but with realities and that 
an event cannot be separated from a fact and an observation, that 
the two are mutually related and tied together in an observation and 
that the very act of observation itself produces or causes to bring 
about a change in the thing observed. Dyck suggests 

Each leaves out myriads of qualities and iridescences that impinge, 
physically, on the human senses and the imagination. If a physicist 
should object by saying that what his systems and theories leave out 
is due to his science not having caught up with all phenomena he 
would confirm hitherto established physics as fictitious because new 
insights will lead to modified fiction and a clearer realization of the 
fictitiousness of current physics. If he should object by surmising 

15 



that man will never entirely grasp nature's mysteries he would in so 
surmising proclaim that man's physics must always remain fiction. 
And his hunches about the unexplored might be classified as unpub- 
lished fiction — unless, of course, he is a cosmologist. But to be a 
cosmologist is to be a poet. Man cannot exist in the void. He needs 
a solid footing in the universe. And what could be more solid than 
fiction? (p. 174) 

If physics is a type of fiction and The Einstein Intersection is an 
imaginative invention, a fiction, then at what point or points do the 
fictions of mathematical physics and fiction intersect in the novel? 
In one sense this seems to be the central concern and question of 
Delany's novel; isn't it implicit in the title itself? After all The Ein- 
stein Intersection suggests that something intersects with something 
else and that the novel is a representation of that intersection. In 
other words, the title of the novel "names" or delineates something 
that takes place in the novel — an event, an occurrence — between the 
creative act and the imagination and the way in which the narrator 
perceives his world. For the world created in the novel, and presented 
by the novel, is going to rest in the final analysis on the particular 
understanding the narrator holds of the nature of his experience and 
the physical world. This in turn will be dependent upon how the 
narrator reveals his world, that is, the narrative strategy and tech- 
nique of the novel. The answer to the question, "At what point do the 
fictions of mathematical physics and fiction intersect?" resides in the 
form of the novel. For form in the sense I am using that term here, 
becomes a synonym for model. Yet a model is a system which not only 
defines itself but something else, and that something else is nothing 
less than the novel. 

So far I have discussed the relationship that exists between 
mathematical physics and fiction and suggested their similarities. 
However, it is clear that fiction, that is, the novel, may in its own 
right present a picture of its world and, therefore, present indirectly 
a physics. The concepts Lobey holds shape the way in which he sees 
his world while his experience of that world forces him to reshape his 
fundamental ideas about its nature. In other words, the novel consid- 
ered as a fictional system, or model, will force us to examine the 
narrator's own particular conceptions and realizations (creative or 
otherwise) of his world. Yet the way in which the narrator sees his 
world will take shape and form out of the intersection of physics with 
fiction in his own mind. This, after its own fashion, presents certain 
problems. Witold Gombrowicz suggests, "Man is made in such a way 
that he continually has to define himself and continually escape his 
own definitions. Reality is not about to let itself be completely en- 
closed in form. Form for its part does not agree with the essence of 
life. Yet all thought that tries to define the inadequacy of form be- 

16 



comes form in its own turn and thus only confirms our tendency 
towards form."'^ 

Delany tells us that "The central subject of the book is myth" 
(p. 78). But the novel is not concerned with specific myths per se, 
such as Orpheus, or as Stephen Scobie speculates, with Norse my- 
thology. Rather, the novel is concerned with "why we have them," 
as Delany informs us, that is, myths, and "what we use them for" (p. 
126). The Einstein Intersection is set in the distant future, long after 
the holocaust of nuclear war (post-deluge or after the flood is its 
archetypal counterpart) has destroyed most of the planet. Lobey, the 
narrator of the story, is in love with a girl named Friza. They are not 
human. They have inherited man's "bodies, their souls — both husks 
abandoned here for any wanderer's taking," as Spider informs us (p. 
129). Friza is killed by Kid Death (symbolized in the novel by Billy 
the Kid). Lobey (Orpheus?) must set out on a quest to find Friza and 
regain her. Early in the novel Lobey falls into the ruins of an aban- 
doned maze of underground shelters. He faces and kills a futuristic 
minotaur. He confronts a machine and as he tells us "It was a com- 
puter from the old time (when you owned this Earth, you wraiths and 
memories), a few of which chuckled and chattered throughout the 
source-cave. I'd had them described to me, but this was the first I'd 
seen" (p. 34). The computer's name is "PHAEDRA." In the conver- 
sation that takes place between Lobey and Phaedra we learn from 
Phaedra that she was placed in the underground complex "by people 
who never dreamed that you would come. Psychic Harmony Entan- 
glements and Deranged Response Association, that was my depart- 
ment. And you've come down here hunting through my memories for 
your lost girl" (p. 38). Lobey's quest for Friza, however, is difficult. 
He must somehow find his way out of the maze — the objective correl- 
ative to mankind's "million year old fantasies" (p. 39). Phaedra tells 
Lobey "You're basically not equipped for it. . .But I suppose you 
have to exhaust the old mazes before you can move into the new ones. 
It's hard" (p. 39). Lobey sometime later, after finding his way out of 
the maze, joins a dragon drive (cattle drive?) on its way to Branning- 
at-sea (Dodge City?). He meets Spider and Green-eye. They arrive 
at Branning-at-sea where, with Spider's help, Billy the Kid is killed. 
Green-eye (Christ?) is crucified and hung from a tree, and Lobey 
meets the Dove. Near the end of the novel Spider explains to Lobey 
"As we are able to retain more and more of our past, it takes us longer 
and longer to become old; Lobey, everything changes. The Labyrinth 



'^ Witold Gombrowicz, quoted in "Introduction", by Jacques Ehrmann, 
Structuralism, Jacques Ehrmann, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 
1970, p. vii. 

17 



today does not follow the same path it did at Knossos fifty thousand 
years ago. You may be Orpheus; you may be someone else, who dares 
death and succeeds. Green-eye may go to the tree this evening, hang 
there, rot, and never come down. The world is not the same. That's 
what I've been trying to tell you. It's different" (p. 131). Delany has 
informed us earlier in the novel that "Endings to be useful must be 
inconclusive" (p. 137). Lobey's search for Friza becomes a quest for 
his own identity. He must leave the earth and go, like man, to the 
stars. Lobey explains "In my village there was a man who grew dissat- 
isfied. So he left this world, worked for a while on the moon, on the 
outer planets, then on worlds that were stars away. I might go there" 
(p. 155). Spider, in reply to Lobey's statement, declares "I did that 
once. It was all waiting for me when I got back" (p. 155). Lobey, 
however, wishes to know "What's it going to be like?" and Spider 
suggests "It's not going to be what you expect" (p. 155). Lobey hesi- 
tantly questions "It's going to be . . . diflFerent?" (p. 155). And, of 
course, the answer to this question is the conclusion of the novel — and 
that conclusion in inconclusive. The novel ends with Lobey telling us 
"As morning branded the sea, darkness fell away at the far side of 
the beach. I turned to follow it" (p. 155). In a sense Lobey's journey 
has already been taken since he has told us his story, that is, concep- 
tually, the end of the novel is its beginning and vice versa. 

It was suggested earlier that something intersects with some- 
thing else in the novel and that this intersection becomes the novel, 
that is, The Einstein Intersection. The Einsteinian world of relativity 
intersects with the Goedelian to reveal, at that point of intersection, 
the limitations and possibilities of human activity. Intersection, as 
used here, is used in its mathematical sense — as a conjunction of two 
or more sets of objects whose elements are mutually shared by both 
in the same area. In the novel there exists a set of ideas which are 
given expression by Spider to Lobey about the nature of his world. 
These ideas are taken from mathmematical physics. In addition to 
these ideas there exists a set of ideas which are concerned with the 
nature of the creative act, the creative process, and the life of the 
imagination. These ideas, that is, the ideas concerned with the nature 
of creativity, are often expressed by Delany in quotations from his 
journal which are prefixed to the beginning of various sections of the 
novel. However, these ideas, like the ones from mathematical phys- 
ics,, are also expressed by various characters in the novel and are 
reflected in the form and structure of the novel. It is out of the in- 
tersection of these two sets of ideas that the form of the novel grows. 
Further, the intersection of these two basic sets of ideas defines the 
starting and stopping points of the novel. 

Few readers will be without some knowledge of Einstein and the 
theory of relativity, part of which I have already explored in terms of 

18 



physics, while other readers will know little about Kurt Goedel. How- 
ard DeLong in discussing the implications of Goedel's proof in 
"Unsolved Problems in Arithmetic" explains that 

The central change that the limitative theorems [of Goedel] re- 
quired of all previous theories of the nature of mathematics was the 
recognition that there are unanswerable questions in the subject. 
Earlier it had been thought that if a question could be made precise, 
that question had an answer. Now it was seen that perhaps some 
precise questions do not have precise answers. By way of analogy, 
think of an object, say a light bulb. If you then ask, "Is it made 
partly of cork?" the answer will probably be no. If, however, you ask, 
"Does it weigh exactly 3.1 ounces?" the question is probably unan- 
swerable. The reality toward which the question is directed is inde- 
terminate in some ways. Such indeterminateness is characteristic of 
products of the imagination, including artistic creations. ("How 
often did Juliet sneeze during the year before she met Romeo?") 
In these areas it is pointless to ask questions about things that are 
not determined by evidence. 

Compared with imaginative creations, physical reality is deter- 
minate, and yet, the results of quantum theory suggest that physical 
reality is also indeterminate in certain ways.'^ 

Here we have a type of indirect statement about the indeterminate 
nature of imaginative creations. What is clear, or should be clear, is 
that there are essentially a set of unanswerable questions about the 
subject of literary art. For instance, there exists a set of precise ques- 
tions I may ask about The Einstein Intersection which are unanswer- 
able. I might ask "How old is Lobey?" and there is nothing in the 
novel which will allow me to answer this question precisely. Lobey's 
age is not given. All I may answer is that Lobey seems, from the 
various descriptions he gives of himself, to be relatively young. What 
the limitation theorems "represent," then, "is the discovery of an 
abstract structure for which it is impossible for any human being to 
make systematically complete and correct assumptions about" (De- 
Long, p. 59). It may also be pointed out that "Our powers of concep- 
tual discrimination have limits just as our powers of perceptual dis- 
crimination do" (DeLong, p. 59). 

Goedel's incompleteness theorem "states (roughly) that for any 
known formal systems for arithmetic there are formal sentences anal- 
ogous to P, that is, either the system is incorrect (proves falsehoods) 
or it is incomplete (contains truths not provable in the system). 'P' 
stands for the sentence 'This sentence is not provable' " (DeLong, 
p. 56). As DeLong explains 



" Howard DeLong, "Unsolved Problems in Arithmetic", Scientific 
American. CCXXIV, (Mar., 1971), pp. 58-59. 



19 



The existence of P does not make the system inconsistent, but it 
does produce something disconcerting: P is true if and only if P is 
not provable. Hence we conclude that if we have P, then the cozy 
relation between truth and provability that one attempts to achieve 
in a formal system, namely that the set of sentences true under any 
intepretation that makes the axioms true be identical with the set 
of provable sentences, is destroyed. The liar has disappeared but his 
grin, like the Cheshire cat's, remains behind, (p. (p. 56) 

DeLong is referring to the "liar paradox" formulated by the an- 
cient Greeks which can be stated, as he suggests, as "the problem of 
deciding whether or not the following sentence is true: 'This sentence 
is not true'" (p. 56). For obvious reasons it is all but impossible to 
outline but briefly here the general idea of Goedel's proof, and, as 
DeLong points out, all we can hope to convey is the "spirit of the 
proof" (p. 56). Philosophically, what is significant for the student of 
literature is that Goedel's proof suggests that there may be (from a 
mathematician's point of view, indeed, are) limitations to man's abil- 
ities. This may be stated another way by suggesting that any critical 
reading of a literary work of art which presupposes to examine a 
novel, for instance, only in terms of what is contained in the novel, 
will fail. In other words, in theory the assumption that critical pre- 
suppositions about the nature of literary art may be proved by relying 
completely upon internal evidence is impossible without stepping 
outside that system (the literary work of art). Further, it may be 
argued that the novel must be open-ended and contain assertions, 
ideas and concepts which will not be provable by relying on that 
which is given in the novel itself. In summary, where Goedel's proof 
establishes, for the mathematician, the idea that there are limita- 
tions to man's abilities, so too, in the novel. Spider's explanation of 
the nature of the world to Lobey establishes the limitations of his 
world and his position in it. 

Delany begins section eleven of The Einstein Intersection with 
three quotations, one from The Revelation of John, an except from a 
letter from James Agee to Father Flye, and a short passage from 
Plotinus' Enneads. Each of these quotations, in its own way, points 
toward the significance of this section as the center of the 
novel — artistically, philosophically, and conceptually. 

But I have this against thee, that thou didst leave thy first love. 

The Revelation of John/Chapfer 2, verse 4 
My trouble is, such a subject cannot be seriously looked at without 
intensifying itself toward a center which is beyond what I, or anyone 
else, is capable of writing of. . .Trying to write it in terms of moral 
problems alone is more than I can possibly do. My main hope is to 
state the central subject and my ignorance from the start. 

James Agee/Letter to Father Flye 
Where is this country? How does one get there? If one is a born lover 

20 



with an innate philosophic bent, one will get there. 

Plotinus/r/ie Intelligence, the Idea and Being (p. 125) 

After wandering about Branning-at-sea for sometime Lobey 
finds himself at Spider's house. Ostensibly, Lobey has gone to Spi- 
der's home to collect his pay. Spider asks Lobey to sit down "I want 
to talk to you" (p. 125). Lobey answers "About what? I asked. Our 
voices echoed. The music was nearly silent. 'I have to be on my way 
to get Friza, to find Kid Death' " (p. 126). Spider tells Lobey "That's 
why I suggest you sit down . . . What do you know about mythology, 
Lobey?" (p. 126). Lobey recounts briefly his meager knowledge of 
mythology fo Spider and Spider once again questions "Again, what 
do you know about mythology? — I'm not asking you what myths we 
have, nor even where they come from, but why we have them, what 
we use them for" (p. 126). Lobey initially believes that the function 
of mythology is to guide him in his search for Friza. He tells us "I 
could offer nothing else" (p. 126). Spider then raises the central 
question which leads to the center of this section and the novel "Do 
you understand difference, Lobey" (p. 127). Lobey replies "I live in 
a different world, where many have it [diff'erence] and many do 
not. I just discovered it myself weeks ago. I know the world moves 
toward it with every pulse of the great rock and the great roll. But I 
don't understand it" (p. 127). We are briefly told that all we can ever 
hope to know of difference "is what it is not" (p. 127). Spider, in 
answer to Lobey's "What isn't it?" replies in a rather lengthy ex- 
planation that 

It isn't telepathy; it's not telekinesis — though both are 
chance phenomena that increase as difference increases. 
Lobey, Earth, the world, fifth planet from the sun — the 
species that stands on two legs and roams this thin wet 
crust: it's changing, Lobey. It's not the same. Some people 
walk under the sun and accept that change, others close 
their eyes, clap their hands to their ears and deny the world 
with their tongues. Most snicker, giggle, jeer and point 
when they think no one else is looking — that is how the 
humans acted throughout their history. We have taken over 
their abandoned world, and something new is happening to 
the fragments, something we can't define with mankind's 
leftover vocabulary. You must take its importance exactly 
as that: it is wonderful, fearful, deep, ineffable to your ex- 
planations, opaque to your efforts to see through it; yet it 
demands you take journeys, defines your stopping and 
starting points, can propel you with love and hate, even to 
seek death for Kid Death—" (p. 127) 

Lobey finishes Spider's explanation with "—or make me make 
music. . ." even though he is unaware of the significance of what he 
has just suggested by his own conclusion (p. 127). Clearly, Lobey has 
not yet fully understood Spider. He questions "What are you talking 
about Spider?" and Spider replies 

21 



If I could tell you, or you could understand from my inferences, 
Lobey, it would lose all value. Wars and chaoses and paradoxes ago, 
two mathematicians between them ended an age and began another 
for our hosts, our ghosts called Man. One was Einstein, who with 
his Theory of Relativity defined the limits of man's perception by 
expressing mathematically just how far the condition of the observer 
influences the thing he perceives, (p. 127-28) 

What Spider is trying to explain to Lobey is that man is a prisoner 
trapped by his senses in a world which he can only imperfectly under- 
stand. Yet the attempt must be made to come to an understanding 
of the essential nature of the world and man's position in it. As Spider 
has already explained, "it demands you take journeys," for it is only 
through defining "your stopping and starting points" that you may 
bectme aware of your own identity and your place in the world (p. 
127). Once the nature of the world is dis change. We have already 
discussed at some length the significance of relativity and the limita- 
tions it imposes on the observer and the influence the observer may 
have on the thing he perceives. What is more important, however, is 
that the explanation Spider gives Lobey forms the nexus or analogical 
center and counterpart conceptually to the novel itself. Another way 
of stating this is to suggest that the novel is a fictional system which 
contains within itself its own explanation, this explanation contain- 
ing, in a sense, the conceptual model of the novel. It clearly suggests 
what the function of the creative act is in Lobey's world. Spider 
points out that the other mathematician 

. . . was Goedel, a contemporary of Einstein, who was the first to 
bring back a mathematically precise statement about the vaster 
realm beyond the limits Einstein defined: In any closed mathe- 
matical system — you may read 'perceivable, measurable phenom- 
ena' — which though contained in the original system, can not be 
deduced from it — read 'proven with ordinary or extraordinary logic' 
Which is to say, there are more things in heaven and Earth than are 
dreamed of in your philosophy, Horatio. There are an infinite num- 
ber of true things in the world with no way of ascertaining their 
truth. Einstein defined the extent of the rational. Goedel stuck a pin 
into the irrational and fixed it to the wall of the universe so that it 
held still long enough for people to know it was there. And the world 
and humanity began to change. And from the other side of the 
universe, we were drawn slowly here. The visible eff"ects of Einstein's 
theory leaped up on a convex curve, its production huge in the first 
century after its discovery, then leveling oflf. The production of Goe- 
del's law crept up on a concave curve, microscopic at first, then 
leaping to equal the Einsteinian curve, cross it, outstrip it. At the 
point of intersection, humanity was able to reach the limits of the 
known universe. . . .(pp. 128-29) 

It should be clear that the title of the novel is taken from this 
explanation. Spider's comments about the meaning and significance 

22 



of Einstein and Goedel form the literary and philosophical center for 
what occurs in The Einstein Intersection. What we are to understand 
is that, as Spider tells Lobey, "There's just as much suspense today 
as there was when the first singer woke from his song to discover the 
worth of the concomitant sacrifice. You don't know Lobey. This all 
may be a false note, at best a passing dissonance in the harmonies of 
the great rock and the great roll" (p. 131). Spider is telling us, albeit 
indirectly, that the creative act today still has all the meaning and 
significance that it has always had. We are told that "Things passing 
in a world of difference have their surrealistic corollaries in the pres- 
ent. Green-eye creates, but what he creates is an oblique side eflfect 
of something else. You receive and conceive music; again only an 
oblique characteristic of who you are — " (p. 133). But though Lobey 
has understood much, he still fails to perceive the nature of his ident- 
ity. He is, of course, a musician. This is clear from the first paragraph 
of the novel. Yet Lobey himself is unaware of what being a musician 
entails, that is, that he must continually commit himself to the crea- 
tive act and all that that suggests. After all, Lobey has been told by 
Spider that "there are more things in heaven and Earth than are 
dreamed of in your philosophy, Horatio" (p. 128). It remains for 
Lobey to discover his nature and realize the full implications of what 
it means to be a creative artist. Once Lobey discovers himself he will 
become a writer since he is a narrator agent who produces a noticea- 
ble effect on what he elects to present as his story. 

The novel, then, grows out of two great systems of thought and 
justifies the idea that form is, after all, only an extension of content 
and nothing more. Yet it is equally clear that the theory Spider pres- 
ents creates an implicit world view or, as I have preferred to call it, a 
physics. It is a physics because it explains the phenomena of Lobey's 
world and the way in which those phenomena take their shape and 
find their significance in relation to the narrator's own perceptual 
awareness of his world — its limitations and possibilities. It is also 
equally clear that whatever occurs in the novel is meant to be under- 
stood by making a comparison between the intersection of Ein- 
steinian thought with that of Goedelian. Two great systems of 
thought intersect in the novel. The Goedelian triumphs since it rein- 
forces the novel's literary dimensions. It does so because it admits the 
limitations of science while at the same time it gives "absolute" 
justification to man's art, his creativity. The concepts of mathemat- 
ics and physics form the inner model to the novel as a fictional sys- 
tem. This system in turn forces us to realize that what a man can 
"truly know" is, in the final analysis, limited to the "prison house of 
his senses" to the familiar experiences of his world. Where physics 
and mathematics may suggest that there are limitations to man's 
abilities, they too, like fiction, release him into the far vaster realm 

23 



of the imagination whose boundaries are determined and limited only 
by the creative act, by the power of the imagination. As Wallace 
Stevens has said, "We live in the mind."'^ Yet if we live in the mind, 
the things of the mind present themselves to us through structured 
systems, in this case, language, and the various forms which language 
may take are, in their own turn, the result of the imagination insofar 
as the imagination presents the possibilities of things. 

What I want to suggest is that Delany's novel represents a shift 
in the art of the science-fiction novel and that this shift is under- 
standable only in terms of the various premises that give rise to it. 
This shift in the art of the science-fiction novel is, to borrow an 
analogy from Judith Merril, "as though a figurative planet composed 
of man's intellect, suddenly acquired so much additional mass, or 
velocity (or both?) that it flew out of orbit, breaking up and fragment- 
ing under the strain,""' In other words, this shift in the art of the 
science-fiction novel is a result of a different way of looking at man 
and the world. The various premises which constitute this new way 
of looking at man and the world are of such a different order that they 
may be compared to the breaking up of a figurative planet and its 
assumption of a new orbit about the sun. 

Ostensibly, the various themes of The Einstein Intersection are 
worked out in terms of myth, as I have already suggested. Delany 
informs us that "The central subject of the book is myth" (p. 78). 
Stephen Scobie in "Different Mazes: Mythology in Samuel R. De- 
lany's 'The Einstein Intersection' " suggests that " 'Myth,' however, 
is not a simple or a unified concept."'' Scobie identifies or discovers 
"(at least) three distinct levels of myth" in the novel (pp. 12-13). 
First, there is what he terms " 'fictional myth,' mainly Greek, the 
central references being to Orpheus, Theseus and the maze, and Pan. 
This is a mythology to which we do not give any literal belief, though 
we do admit that it carries a kind of 'truth,' in anthropological, social, 
or psychological terms" (p. 12). Second, Scobie notes that there is a 
" 'religious myth.' This is a mythology that is still alive as a religious 
faith: while few people today believe in Apollo, a great many do 
believe in Jesus Christ" (p. 12). And finally, there is "'historical 
myth,' the main references being Billy the Kid, Jean Harlow, and 

'■' Wallace Stevens, "Imagination as Value", in The Necessary Angel, New 

York: Vintage-Snopf, 1951, p. 140. 

'" Judith Merril, "What Do You Mean: Science? Fiction?", in SF: The Other 

Side of Realism, Thomas D. Clareson, editor. Bowling Green: Bowling Green 

University Popular Press, 1971, p. 56. 

'" Stephen Scobie, "Different Mazes: Mythology in Samuel R. Delany's "The 

Einstein Intersection", Riverside Quarterly, V, No. 1 (1973), p. 12. 

24 



Ringo Starr" (p. 13). Further, Scobie suggests that "Beyond these 
three levels of mythology, and such minor references to comic-book 
and movie serial mythology as Spiderman' and the 'cliffhanger' 
scene, there is one basic over-riding level. The characters of the book 
are not human; they are another race who have assumed the patterns 
of the human body and soul, and — as one of my [Scobie's] students 
most concisely put it — they have made myths out of us" (p. 13). 
Scobie is correct when he cites his student's remark that the charac- 
ters of the novel "have made myths out of us." All of the character's 
names in the novel are suggestive of various fictional, historical, and 
religioui figures. For instance, Lobey becomes Orpheus while at the 
same time his name suggests indirectly, perhaps, Lobo (wolf), though 
admittedly this connection is rather tenuous and is made only to 
suggest a certain character trait of Lobey's personality; that is, he is 
an individual alone in his world. Lobey's name, in the novel, is also 
linked to Ringo Starr and Billy the Kid. The Dove is, in the novel, 
linked to Helen of Troy and Jean Harlow. Green-eye becomes Christ 
or any great martyr and Spider "every traitor you've [Lobey] imag- 
ined" (Delany, p. 130). The purpose, of course, of using names as 
Delany has done in The Einstein Intersection is to deepen our sense 
of historical continuity in order to allow us to move into the future 
and see Lobey as a heroic figure. In a sense Lobey is a composite 
figure who exhibits the traits of great figures of the past while at the 
same time emerging as a unique figure. Although Scobie has under- 
stood much about The Einstein Intersection, in an important sense, 
however, he has missed the point of the novel, for he fails to perceive 
another and more significant level to myth in the novel. If The Ein- 
stein Intersection treats the interface between Lobey and his memo- 
ries (racial or whatever) and if it treats the interface between Lobey 
and his world, then it also treats the "human" problems which arise 
out of Lobey's relation to the phenomena and science of his world. 
What I am suggesting is that Scobie has overlooked two fundamental 
levels of myth in The Einstein Intersection. First, and most impor- 
tantly, science itself becomes a myth in the novel. After all, Lobey 
has inherited man's science, or at least it would seem a safe assump- 
tion that he has inherited his science, since he tells us about it in his 
story. The actual science available to Lobey, however, may be less 
than that which was known to man, though the novel in several 
places suggests that the products of man's science — his "ships and 
projection forces" — "are still available to anyone who wants to use 
them" (Delany, p. 129). The presence of science in Lobey's world is 
comparable to what Scobie suggests about the function of fictional 
myth, that is, Lobey does not give any literal belief to what Spider 
tells him of the theories of Einstein and Goedel. Spider himself sug- 
gests "I want a Goedelian, not an Einsteinian answer. I don't want 

25 



to know what's inside the myths, nor how they clang and set one 
another ringing, their gUttering focuses, their limits and genesis. I 
want their shape, their texture, how they feel when you brush by 
them on a dark road, when you see them receding into the fog, their 
weight as they leap your shoulder from behind; I want to know how 
you take to the idea of carrying three when you already bear two. Who 
are you, Lobey?" (Delany, p. 130). Spider's interest in science is not 
functional; that is, he is not interested in putting science to work for 
him to achieve some type of control over the physical world, but 
rather he is interested in the shape and texture of science as an 
explanation for the existence of certain phenomena. Further, Spider's 
explanation of the meaning of Einstein and Goedel, though accurate, 
gives only the shape and texture to Einstein and Goedel's theories. I 
might also point out that Lobey's science is inherited in the same way 
in which the Greek myths of Orpheus, Theseus, and Pan and the 
myths of Billy the Kid, Ringo Starr, and Jean Harlow have been 
inherited. However, there is one important difference between science 
as a myth and the myths of the Greek Orpheus and the twentieth- 
century Billy the Kid. That difference is simply that Lobey's race is 
on the verge of re-discovering the power of science. In other words, 
science may exist as a myth in Lobey's world, but at the same time 
it holds possibilities inherent in that future. Science, or rather the 
explanation of scientific thought which Spider presents to Lobey, 
forms the philosophical and conceptual center of the novel and sug- 
gests the possible solution to Lobey's understanding of the nature of 
the world and, since, as we have already seen. The Einstein 
Intersection is concerned with the subject of myth, then science itself 
becomes a myth and serves a mythic function in the novel. The 
Einstein Intersection reconciles art with science (mathematical phys- 
ics) and demonstrates that they are not incompatible interests or 
incommensurate ways of seeing the world. The reason for this recon- 
ciliation, once grasped, is quite simple. DeLong suggests "Just as 
indeterminateness, previously considered peculiar to imaginative cre- 
ations, was found in the physical world with the discovery of the 
quantum theory, so indeterminateness was also found in mathemat- 
ics with the discovery of the limitative theorems" (p. 59). The recon- 
ciliation between art and science which takes place in The Einstein 
Intersection is made possible by this understanding. This is clearly 
the case since the Einsteinian world of relativity places a premium 
on perceptual relativity while the world as Goedel conceived it em- 
phasizes the indeterminate and irrational — both points of view which 
would have been impossible in classical physics. In a sense man's 
science has caught up with man's art. Nevertheless, the fact remains 
that the concepts of mathematical physics which stand at the center 
of the novel explain the nature of Lobey's world of physical (genetic 

26 



and material) and psychic abnormality. The reconciliation which 
takes place in the novel between art and science and between classi- 
cal and contemporary physics, of course, occurs ultimately in the 
creative act, in the imagination, and it does so since Lobey's story is 
an imaginative presentation of the possibilities of things. In other 
words, Lobey selects and "edits" his presentation from that which is 
implicit in his act of telling his own story. Lobey's act of telling his 
own story is implicit in the structure of the novel and its narrative 
technique and is one of the philosophical and creative consequences 
of the fact that what has been presented only points to what is im- 
plicit in what was presented. 

The second level of myth in The Einstein Intersection which 
Scobie fails to identify is concerned with the nature of creation and 
the creative act. In The Einstein Intersection the creative act is given 
the status of a myth. Everything in the novel points toward this 
central fact — that the novel is a product of the imagination which 
presents, after its own fashion, a study of the creative process as it 
works itself out in Lobey's mind. The emphasis throughout the novel 
is on the act of doing or making something — music, and conse- 
quently, the novel. What Scobie fails to understand, then, are the 
implications of what is inherent in the conclusion he draws about the 
function of myth in The Einstein Intersection. 

The ending of The Einstein Intersection leaves everything still open 
to question. The individual response still has to be made: by Lobey, 
and by the reader. Mythology also is inconclusive: the pattern of the 
maze exists, but you must still create your own as you walk through 
it. Myths are not images, not answers, (p. 18) 

Myths may not be "images" or "answers" but they do, as Goeffrey 
Hartman points out, "allow man to keep on functioning."'* What 
Delany is saying, and has said several different times in The Einstein 
Intersection, is that the traditional myths (Greek or whatever) no 
longer serve the same function they once did. Myths live and die like 
fashions in the garment industry, though admittedly their life is 
longer. The creation of a personal mythology (Blake is a good exam- 
ple) is a response of the individual to the death of a more general 
pervasive mythology. This is why, in part. Spider wants "a Goe- 
delian" and "not an Einsteinian answer" to his questions about my- 
thology. This is why Lobey "may be Orpheus" or he "may be some- 
one else" (Delany, p. 131). The reason, as Spider informs us, is that 
"the world is not the same. That's what I've been trying to tell you 



"* Goeffrey Hartman, "Structuralism: The Anglo-American Adventure", in 
Structuralism, Jacques Ehrmann, editor. New York: Doubleday & Company, 
Inc.. 1970, p. 152. 



27 



[Lobey]. It's different" (Delany, p. 131). Myths are models.'" They 
establish a context which allows the individual a way of explaining 
the essentially mysterious and unfathomable nature of the world and 
life. They are pre-scientific explanations, if not pre-rational, and, as 
such, they "are productive of social cohesion."^" Delany's response to 
the problem of mythology is to attempt to create a new mythology, 
one which emphasizes the creative nature of man and life and is not 
backward looking. This is why he leads us in The Einstein 
Intersection through the traditional myths of western society, from 
the past to the present. Billy the Kid, Jean Harlow, and the Beatles 
become, in The Einstein Intersection, the mythology of the twentieth 
century upon which Lobey builds his own responses to the indetermi- 
nateness of his world. If Lobey and his race "have made myths out 
of us," then we must conclude that the traditional myths (Greek, 
etc.) are wanting in some vital way. What they lack is, of course, 
functionality. Delany tells us, in an excerpt from his journal at the 
beginning to section twelve, that "Lobey starts the last leg of his 
journey. I cannot follow him there" (p. 136). The reason why Delany 
cannot follow Lobey in his journey is clear — the traditional myths (of 
Orpheus, Theseus and Pan, Ringo and Billy the Kid) are outworn and 
no longer serve their purpose. They are the responses of a different 
world to its own problems. What Scobie fails to understand is that 
artistically it is necessary first to present the old backward looking 
myths in order to allow us to move through them and into a new 
response to the world. The creative act demands a new response, a 
new exploration. Delany may not be able to follow Lobey, since Lobey 
has fictional existence in his own right, but Delany, in his own way, 
does create his own response to the problem, and that response is The 
Einstein Intersection. Further, through the use of the quotations from 
the author's journal which are prefixed to the beginning of each sec- 
tion Delany allows us to trace his own journey, its starting and stop- 
ping points. 

The "historical" and "religious" myths of the novel, the ones 
Scobie identifies, are thematic and structural devices which are nec- 
essary in order to allow us to create a new and more powerful mythol- 
ogy, and that mythology is nothing less than science. Science, once 
seen and understood as this new mythology, is reflected in the very 
title of the novel. The intersection of the Einsteinian world of relativ- 
ity with the Goedelian world of indeterminateness emphasizes the 
irrational and leads us only deeper "into a misty realm of symbolism 
and abstraction." Science cannot take us further than Goedel. Yet in 



Ibid., p. 143. 
Ibid. 



28 



that distance lies a remarkable achievement. For it suggests that a 
radical shift in the art of the science-fiction novel has taken place. It 
does so since the concepts of mathematical physics which Spider 
presents are used to "support" and justify the nature of the creative 
act. In other words, the metaphors (models) which form the frame- 
work and structure of the novel are scientific principles and concepts 
"with their ideal aim of corresponding to structures that 'really' exist 
in the universe forever unverifiable."^' They are not drawn from na- 
ture but rather portray a relationship between various events and 
occurrences which take place in The Einstein Intersection. What I am 
suggesting is that our perception of a change in the art of the science- 
fiction novel and, specifically, in The Einstein Intersection, is depen- 
dent upon perceiving a shift in the way in which the narrator, in this 
case Lobey, sees his world. You cannot see or understand the novel 
through the lens of traditional criticism, for to do so is only to per- 
ceive, in the final analysis, the tradition. 

The narrative strategy of the novel is dependent, then, upon 
Lobey's recognition that a shift has occurred in his visual-conceptual 
field. Lobey may be a futuristic Orpheus but, more importantly, he 
is a fictive "I" or eye, a consciousness made aware of the meaning of 
"diff'erence" and its role in his world. Wayne C. Booth in The Rheto- 
ric of Fiction points out that "as soon as we encounter an 'I,' " in 
fiction "we are conscious of an experiencing mind whose views of the 
experience will come between us and the event."" Lobey is a 
narrator-agent since he produces "a measurable eff'ect on the direc- 
tion of the events he selects to present as his story. "^^ The fundamen- 
tal problem of the novel demands a clear understanding of what is 
implicit in this type of narrative technique. That understanding in- 
volves the strategy which the narrator uses to tell his story. Ob- 
viously, Lobey is a musician. The novel begins significantly enough 
with a description of Lobey's flute-machete: 

There is a hollow, holey cylinder running from hilt to point in my 
machete. When I blow across the mouth-piece in the handle, I make 
music with my blade. When all the holes are covered, the sound is 
sad, as rough as rough can be and be called smooth. When all the 
holes are open, the sound pipes about, bringing to the eye flakes of 
sun on water, crushed metal. There are twenty holes, (p. 5) 

2' Sallie Sears and Georgianna W. Lord, "Introduction", in The Discontin- 
uous Universe, Sallie Sears and Georgianna W. Lord, editors, New York: 
Basic Books, Inc., 1972, p. v. 

22 Wayne C. Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction, Chicago: The University of 
Chicago Press, 1967, pp. 151-152. 
'' Ibid., pp. 153-154. 

29 



Lobey's flute-machete has significance in several important ways. 
First, Lobey focuses our attention on his instrument as a physical 
device which serves a creative function — to make music. The empha- 
sis in the opening paragraph is on the creative act — to make some- 
thing happen, occur — and the possibilities inherent in that act. Yet 
Lobey, himself, is unaware at this point of the full meaning and 
significance of this act. The flute-machete may serve as a device for 
creativity, but it may also serve as a device for destruction — the 
musician's axe. Since our attention is initially focused on the object 
used in the creative act, it is clear that the user is an artist. What is 
more important, however, is our realization that this opening para- 
graph establishes the narrative point of view of the novel and informs 
us that Lobey will tell his own story. Though our attention may be 
initially focused on the story of Lobey who, like Orpheus, sets out on 
a journey (quest) to regain his lost love, the fact that the story has 
already taken place forces us to conclude that the author of his story, 
Lobey, has already discovered certain things about the nature of 
himself, his world, and his relation to that world. In other words, 
there exist at least two stories in The Einstein Intersection. The first 
story, as told by Lobey, concerns an earlier history of himself as the 
artist (musician) who sets out on a journey to accomplish a specific 
end. As in all traditional quests, the protagonist will face certain 
hardships and trials. It is out of these "encounters" with the phenom- 
ena of his world that his experience will come into conflict with his 
understanding of that world. Likewise, the fact that Lobey is the 
narrator of his own story suggests that he has made certain discover- 
ies about the nature of his world and his way of seeing in that world. 
These discoveries force Lobey to a new understanding of himself and 
his relation to his world. We never remember reality but only the 
memory of that reality, and our memory of that reality will, of necess- 
ity, be different from our actual experience of it. Lobey's problem, 
then, is an artistic one and demands that he make choices. 

At the beginning of the sixth section of The Einstein Intersection 
Delany quotes John Ciardi's "How Does a Poem Mean" to the effect 
that "A Poem is a machine for making choices" (p. 65). The analogy 
Delany wishes us to make is clear. We should consider the novel a 
machine for making choices and the choices we make will be deter- 
mined by our previous understanding of the creative process and its 
relation to the imagination. Though Delany's ploy is to call on au- 
thority, at this point in the development of the novel, to justify the 
idea of the possibilities inherent in the act of making a choice, it still 
remains for the novel to demonstrate Lobey engaged in the act of 
making choices. And, after all, the choices Lobey will make are condi- 
tioned on the supposition that he has a purpose — to find Friza. 
Though Lobey may choose one route over another, the choice he does 

30 



make will be directed toward what he understands as his goal. What 
he will discover, at some point in his journey, is that the basic nature 
of his goal has changed, and with his recognition of that change will 
come a different perception of himself and his world. 

However, what is even more important than the fact that Lobey 
is a musician is the fact that he is an author. There is, then, the inner 
story of Lobey the musician who sets forth on a journey of discovery 
in his attempt to find Friza. In this respect the novel is quite tradi- 
tional. Yet it is out of this quest that Lobey's confrontation with the 
phenomena of his world arises. The basic incongruities that arise out 
of this quest continually impinge upon his senses. Out of the familiar 
world the narrator has always known — the world of his senses — will 
grow the strange and unfamiliar, so that, in a sense, by the end of 
the novel, Lobey will have undergone a radical shift in his visual- 
conceptual field. He will see the world and himself with a difference. 
As Scobie notes, " 'Difference' and 'different' are the key words of 
the book; they recur on almost every page" (p. 14). Further Scobie 
correctly points out that not only is "the basic characteristic of their 
society [Lobey's]. . .change; its controlling myth is metamorphosis. 
Delany's major image for this is genetic mutation, but it is apparent 
also in the language and structure of the book" (p. 13). Consequently, 
the first paragraph of the novel serves several important functions. 
It establishes the narrative framework and point of view of the novel. 
Lobey is a reflective intellectual consciousness. It is interesting to 
note that the distance which separates Lobey as narrator from Lobey 
as musician is never great within the confines of the novel itself. He 
continually intrudes upon his story to remind us that he is telling it. 
The effect of this intrusion by Lobey into his narrative is to remind 
us that the story that is immediately in front of us is a device for 
taking us step by step to that point where we may realize that the 
real story is the one that emerges from Lobey's very act of telling his 
story. We may begin with relative stability in point of view, with 
relative harmony in Lobey's presentation of his world, but by the end 
of the novel this has all changed and we are allowed to see an entirely 
different world from that with which we began. 

Perhaps the most significant discovery Lobey makes is made in 
terms of his recognition that his world continually is engaged in 
change. Lobey informs us "the year I was born a rash of hermaphrod- 
ites" were born and "the doctors thought I might be one" (p. 6). 
Lobey's very birth suggests that it is indeterminate. Further, Lobey's 
quest for Friza becomes a journey towards discovery of self and the 
nature of identity. However, within the inner story of the novel 
Lobey, as musician, will never make this discovery. The discovery 
remains to be realized by the reader who comes to understand that 
Lobey, as author, is a narrator agent who has already arrived at the 

31 



conclusion that his purpose and function is inseparable from the 
nature of his art. His function as author is to tell his own story; this 
is implicit in the narrative strategy of the novel and involves that 
which has been already discussed. Once Lobey discovers his identity 
he does not talk about it but rather presents it — and that is The 
Einstein Intersection. 

In The World We Imagine, Mark Schorer suggests 

The virtue of the modern novelist — from James and Conrad 
down — is not only that he pays so much attention to his medium, 
but that, when he pays most, he discovers through it a new subject 
matter, and a greater one. Under the "immense artistic preoccupa- 
tions" of James and Conrad and Joyce, the form of the novel 
changed, and with the technical change, analogous changes took 
place in substance, in point of view, in the whole conception of 
fiction. And the final lesson of the modern novel is that technique 
is not the secondary machination, a mechanical affair, but a deep 
and primary operation; not only that technique contains intellectual 
and moral implications, but that it discovers them.^^ 

Under the artistic preoccupations of writers such as Samuel R. 
Delany, the narrative art of the science-fiction novel has changed. 
The final lesson of the novel may well be, as Schorer suggests, "that 
technique is not secondary. . .but a deep and primary operation." 
However, it has become increasingly clear that technique may not be 
separated from the subject matter it gives rise to and expresses in the 
novel. 

The form of The Einstein Intersection grows out of this deep and 
primary operation concerned with the nature of technique. It is a 
technique which manifests a world view whose ideas come from the 
implications of Einstein's theory of relativity and Goedel's limitative 
theorems and which leads us to suggest that a new form of organicism 
has arisen. The "new organicism," however, unlike that of the nine- 
teenth century, is not based on a set of metaphors which present us 
with a picture of nature. Rather, this "new organicism" finds its 
expression and justification in the abstract models science creates in 
its attempt to penetrate to the underlying structure of the universe. 
Further, these "scientific" models, rather than capturing the nature 
of reality only present and define an event, thereby producing the 
radical shift in the art of the science-fiction novel which has been 
discussed in this essay. Yet the very term "organic" itself seems 
limited in its ability to suggest what has taken place in the nature of 
the science-fiction novel since it seems to suggest that it is somehow 

'^* Mark Schorer, The World We Imagine, New York: Farrar, Straus and 
Giroux, 1968, p. 10. 

32 



in touch with nature. And, as I have shown, modern science (mathe- 
matical physics) never lays bare the underlying reality of the universe 
but only leads us forever deeper into the realm of abstraction and 
symbolism. But the symbols change. They may lead us deeper into 
abstraction, but the creative act remains the center to which all our 
efforts are ultimately directed. What we have seen in this paper, 
then, is that the creative act, like all products of the imagination, like 
science itself, is indeterminate. All we can possibly hope to accom- 
plish is to illuminate the paths which the imagination takes in the 
hope that somewhow knowledge will be the result, and that knowl- 
edge will be ephemeral and indeterminate. 



33 



ARE SOME BANKERS "CRYING WOLF?" 

by CAROLE E. SCOTT* 

Actions taken by banks in the go-go 60's to chase the earnings 
"carrot" have today placed some in the shadow of the Securities and 
Exchange Commission "stick". In the 60's many banks set up bank 
holding companies in order to enter lucrative, less regulated, non- 
banking markets, an action which put them under the scrutiny of 
outside auditors and the SEC. In the fall of 1975 the Financial Ac- 
counting Standards Board issued a foreign currency translation stan- 
dard which precludes banks from smoothing out fluctuations in cur- 
rency values by the use of balance sheet reserves, which had been 
their practice in the past. Bankers fear that the next step will be a 
current value approach to loans, and they are speaking out against 
such a standard. 

At the National Association of Accountants meeting in June, 
1976, Walter B. Wriston, chairman, Citicorp, painted a dire picture 
of future unemployment, bankruptcy, inefficient allocation of re- 
sources, and consumers unable to obtain either mortgages or insur- 
ance as the result of a requirement to use current value accounting. 
(Wriston is probably aware of the successful effort to stop Congres- 
sional action on restructuring financial institutions and of the role of 
construction unions which are afraid there will be a reduction in 
mortgage lending.) 

One could, of course, have expected a negative reaction by execu- 
tives of any firm which, as a result of changing accounting methods, 
would report a lower and/or more fluctuating level of earnings. Their 
fear, of course, is that this will reduce the price of their firm's securi- 
ties. Clearly such executives believe that security prices are corre- 
lated with reported rather than real income and/or the capitalization 
rate is not increased by uncertainty about the size of the possible 
divergence between reported and real income. 

Obviously, it is only by matching current revenues with current, 
rather than historical, costs that investors can be assured that profits 
are adequate for a company to remain in business. Presumably, Wris- 
ton doesn't believe most investors are aware of this, or he prefers to 
keep them ignorant of the true size of profits. 

If, due to using original cost rather than current value, investors 
coritinue to pour money into a firm not earning enough profit to 
remain in business, resources are being misallocated. Such an exist- 



Associate Professor of Economics, West Georgia College. 

34 



ing misallocation wasn't mentioned by Wriston. Current value ac- 
counting is, he says, simply "an attempt to foster intellectual concep- 
tual purity in accounting". 

"Constant dollars are an economic concept and not an account- 
ing one," he says. Why? Because, he says, people receiving pension 
checks and standing in grocery store lines are dealing with current 
dollars. Apparently Wriston hasn't noticed the widespread discontent 
of both these groups with the lesser purchasing power of these dollars. 
Perhaps Wriston thinks that labor unions which demand escalator 
clauses in their contracts geared to the price index are exceptionally 
sophisticated, but certainly he can't really believe such sophistica- 
tion is typical of complaining welfare recipients. 

Wriston says that the economic reality of a transaction will not 
be affected by switching to current values, only how it is reported. 
Revenues and expenses will simply be shifted. (Accrual accounting 
already allows for a lot of this.) The short-term effect will, however, 
be to "significantly influence whether or not a particular, and other- 
wise desirable, business transaction is to be undertaken." 

In effect, Wriston is saying that one sets his freezer at the same 
temperature regardless of whether the scale is Fahrenheit or Centi- 
grade. Certainly most executives are more intelligent than this! As 
long as original cost is used, uneconomic business transactions will 
be undertaken because price will not be set high enough to cover real 
costs; thus, the economic reality of a transaction will be changed by 
using current value accounting, and this change will be for the better. 

Wriston contends that current value accounting will make it 
increasingly difficult to obtain insurance, because insurance regula- 
tors use the so-called Kenny ratio to determine how much insurance 
may safely be written by a given company. This ratio gives the annu- 
alized premium as a multiple of an insurance company's net worth. 
This ratio would, says Wriston, gyrate wildly if statutory surplus was 
computed in accordance with current-value accounting. Are insur- 
ance regulators so incompetent that if the meaning of this ratio is 
changed they will not alter their interpretation of it? Certainly we can 
count on the insurance industry to bring this change to their atten- 
tion. Is this ratio being used because it doesn't represent reality? 
Wouldn't current-value accounting better portray reality? After all, 
the amount of insurance it is safe for an insurance company to write 
depends on the actual liquidation value of its assets, not what may 
appear on its books. That's why there's a law against what Mutual 
Equity Funding did: put phony assets on the books. Yet, by allowing 
original cost accounting, we permit companies to achieve the same 
result obtained by Mutual Equity: misstatement of assets' value i.e., 
not market, replacement, or earning power. 

It seems that Wriston doesn't read even the most popular busi- 

35 



ness publications. He claims that only a relatively small group of 
accounting theorists are demanding current-value accounting; yet, 
William Blackie, former chairman of the board of Caterpillar Tractor 
Company was quoted in Business Week in 1974 as saying that the 
SEC should push ahead without delay in requiring some form of 
price-change accounting, because, otherwise, we are basing policy on 
an illusion.' 

Bankers and other lenders, Wriston says, do not demand current- 
value accounting because one of their first rules is to study compara- 
ble data over time. What's comparable about accounting statements 
based on original cost? 

Over an inflationary period a firm now shows a rising book value 
of tangible assets, even though there has been no physical change in 
them, because replacements have cost ever more. The resulting book 
value doesn't represent either market, replacement, or earning power 
value, because of the different-valued dollars involved. 

Wriston says that accounting conventions should not drive busi- 
ness decisions, but should reflect them in a meaningful manner. 
What's meaningful about original cost? Do bankers ignore liquidation 
values of collateral or assume book-values are liquidation values? 

"If lenders are required to reprice their long-term financial assets 
to market value each month-end with the resultant offset against 
earnings," says Wriston, "they will obviously be strongly motivated 
to purchase only securities with very short maturities which are rela- 
tively unaffected by changes in interest rates." He ignores the offset- 
ting, greater variance in long-term return this would cause. Would 
only short maturities necessarily be bad? If bankers had followed this 
policy in the past they would have avoided the REIT disaster. 
(Maybe Hamilton National wouldn't have gone under.) 

States and municipalities will, he says, be forced to finance 
themselves on a short-term basis, as their long-term obligations will 
no longer be attractive. Many people holding New York City debts 
would be better oflF if this had been the case in the past. New York 
City would be better off too, as it wouldn't have been able to operate 
so long with expenses exceeding revenues. 

Wriston says that today many companies which could be are not 
being forced into bankruptcy by banks, and this saves thousands of 
jobs. With current value accounting, he says, banks will lack the 
incentive to work out problems with borrowers. Instead, they will 
throw them into bankruptcy. Did lending more to W.T. Grant's save 
any jobs? Didn't it cause more job loss by causing suppliers to extend 



' William Blackie, "The Need for Inflation Accounting," Business Week, 
March 30, 1974, p. 16. 



36 



more credit to Grant's, causing tiiem not to be able to survive Grant's 
failure? And what about the jobs that could have been created by 
anothr company if it had been lent this money instead of Grant's? 
Wriston conveniently ignores opportunity cost. 

Wriston is very concerned with bank holdings of foreign curren- 
cies whose value sometimes changes substantially and does so in a 
short period of time. He wants to ignore short-term changes. But 
shouldn't assets exposed to devaluation be considered a cost of busi- 
ness and be covered in price? If such devaluations are not considered, 
price will likely not cover this cost. Wouldn't Franklin National, 
heavily involved in currency speculation, have been less likely to go 
bankrupt if it had had to comply with the foreign currency transla- 
tion standand? The Franklin National failure serves as a partial re- 
buttal to Wriston's claim that meaningful data will not be generated 
by the foreign currency translation standard. As "proof of this claim 
that currency translation is a disaster, he points to Citicorp's swing 
from a $12 million foreign currency gain to an $8 million loss between 
July 1 and August 30, 1973, while, with a similar currency position, 
experiencing only a 2 percent impact on total earnings over two years 
ending in 1974. But Citicorp couldn't know in advance that there 
would be a 2 percent (of what?) change over two years. In the short- 
run one needs to know if very short-term upswings are offsetting 
downswings. 

Certainly fluctuations in income will be less the less frequently 
one computes income, but is Wriston going to suggest that financial 
statements cover five or ten year periods? This practice would smooth 
out income fluctuations and, thus, following Wriston's logic, result in 
higher security prices. 

The Citicorp Chairman argues that a price index fails to measure 
qualitative differences and increases in productivity. Yet, he is oppos- 
ing a new accounting standard for banks, and these problems are 
insignificant for providers of services like banks. Replacement cost for 
equal productive capacity can be used, and is being used, in lieu of a 
price index as a way of solving these problems. Wriston agrees that 
the use of replacement cost instead of historical cost "is simply an 
intelligent attempt to produce the cash flow necessary for increased 
capital investments." For monetary assets, adjustment on the basis 
of a price index is, in effect, replacement cost. 

Wriston ignores the more equitable taxation of earnings which 
will result from government acceptance of current value accounting. 
Wriston says that "we run a very real danger that the secondary 
consequences of rule changes will be devastating for our society." 
Perhaps our existing accounting standards have had devastating pri- 
mary and secondary consequences for our society which will continue 
as long as we continue using them. 

37 



ABSTRACTS 

OF 

MASTER'S THESES 

AND 

SPECIALIST IN EDUCATION PROJECTS 



Abbott, LaVerne M. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, August, 1975) 

CHANGES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND SELF-CONCEPT 
DURING A PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM 

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that prac- 
tice in calisthenics has on physical fitness. Change in self-concept 
during a program of physical fitness was also investigated. 

Fifty-two fifth grade students at Due West Elementary School 
in Cobb County, Georgia were randomly selected for the study. 
Twenty-six students were in the experimental group and twenty-six 
students were in the control group. Each group was given the AAH- 
PER Youth Fitness Test and the Piers-Harris Children's Self- 
Concept Scale as a pretest and as a posttest. 

The treatment consisted of calisthenics and a program of train- 
ing and practice on certain physical activities for the experimental 
group. This treatment was for thirty to forty minutes each morning 
during the regular physical education period for five weeks. The con- 
trol group had no calisthenics, but they participated in a regular 
physical education program of team games. Fifth grade classroom 
teachers were the instructors for the investigation. 

The Mann-Whitney U, a nonparametric devise using rank order, 
was used because the kinds of raw scores on the subtests differed. The 
.05 level of significance was chosen as the level at which the hy- 
potheses would be rejected. 

There was found to be no significant difference on pull-ups, 
flexed arm hang, shuttle run, girls standing broad jump, fifty yard 
dash, boy's sit-ups, softball throw for distance, 600 yard walk-run or 
self-concept. There was not a significant correlation between self- 
concept and physical fitness. 

There was found to be a significant difference at the .05 level of 
confidence for girls on sit-ups and for the control boys' group on 
standing broad jump. 

38 



The investigation seems to indicate that calisthenics done ten 
minutes per day for five weeks do not make a significant diff'erence 
in physical fitness. Further the data from this study indicates that 
there is no significant correlation between physical fitness and self- 
concept. 

Buice, Edwin C. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
August, 1975) 

EVALUATING STUDENTS SUCCESS IN REGULAR PRO- 
GRAMS AFTER PARTICIPATING IN THE WORK SAMPLE 
EVALUATION CENTER AT WALKER COUNTY VOCATIONAL- 
TECHNICAL SCHOOL 

A group of thirty students who had participated in the Work 
Sample Evaluation Center and then entered the regular program 
were compared with a random sample of thirty students from the 
regular program. Grades, absences, and dropouts were compiled on 
both groups for two quarters. The mean grade average of the Evalua- 
tion Center group was 2.96 while the Regular group's mean was 2.87. 
There was no significant diff'erence between the two groupson grades 
at any level. The mean absences for the Evaluation Center group was 
4.17 while the Regular group's mean was 6.47. The results for ab- 
sences were significant at the .10 level, but not at the .05 level in favor 
of the Evaluation Center group. The dropout rate for the Evaluation 
Center group was 13.3 percent while the Regular group's was 16.7 
percent. There was no significant difference between dropout rates on 
the two groups. It was concluded from the study that the Evaluation 
Center has done an adequate job in helping their students choose and 
enter a regular program. Furthermore, it was recommended that a 
study be conducted following Evaluation Center Students all the way 
through school and at least six months on the job. 

Bundy, Lynn Oliver (MA, Psychology, June, 1975) 

TIME STRUCTURING IN DREAMS; 
AN APPROACH THROUGH TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS 

Berne's Transactional Analysis model of time structure was used 
to descriptively analyze a sample of 165 dreams. The dreams were 
obtained from 13 volunteers who recorded them over a period of three 
weeks. Each dream was broken down into single, basic units of time 
structure and referred to as dream segments. The dream segments 
were then each classified according to Berne's model; 1) Withdrawal, 
2) Ritual, 3) Activity, 4) Pastime, 5) Game or 6) Intimacy. 

39 



Twenty-six percent of the dream segments were found to lack 
social context and were considered not applicable for classification. 
Of those segments classified, 48% were found to be Game oriented. 
The remaining 529o were scattered somewhat evenly between the 
other five methods of time structure. 

Callins, Mary A. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
August, 1975) 

ENGAGING HIGH SCHOOL SENIORS IN DECISION 

MAKING PROCESS LEADING TO THEIR MAKING 

CAREER CHOICES 

Every year the number of students undecided about career choices 
increases which emphasizes the fact that the career development 
needs of students are not being met. These students have difficulty 
making the important decisions that are required in the planning and 
realization of a career. The need for a planned systematic approach 
to help these individuals with decision making skills regarding career 
choices and life roles as a whole is evident in the majority of studies 
and articles cited. The investigator used an approach using pre-post 
test, slides, filmstrips, and career games with a group of six students 
undecided about a career. This method was used to help the students 
gain awareness of themselves in terms of abilities and interest, to gain 
skills in making decisions, to increase knowledge of occupations and 
training, and to examine choices through orientation and exploration. 
The subjects met two hours for eight sessions. There was some evi- 
dence of success with the approach used. The effectiveness of the 
research was weakened because the group was very small and there 
was no control group for comparison. A follow-up is desirable on each 
student to test the consistency of choices made. 

Chalfant, Donald W. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
June, 1975) 

HOW THE PRESSURE OF TIME IS RELATED TO THE 

WRITTEN RESPONSES HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 

MAKE TO SELECTED SHORT STORIES 

The written responses of 54 high school students to six short sto- 
ries under untimed and timed conditions were investigated in order 
to determine if there were differences in the scattering of responses 
attributable to the time variable. Approximately half of the students 
were given unlimited time for written responses to each story while 
the other half were given a time limit of four minutes. 

40 



The following null hypotheses were tested: 

1. There is no significant difference in the patterns of written 
responses high school students make from one short story to another. 

2. There is no significant difference in the patterns of written 
responses made by male and those by female high school students to 
the short stories selected. 

3. There is no significant difference in the patterns of written 
responses male high school students make to selected short stories 
under untimed versus timed testing conditions. 

4. There is no significant difference in the patterns of written 
responses female high school students make to selected short stories 
under untimed versuds timed testing conditions. 

A chi-square test with a seven contingency table was used to 
interpret the data. Both the short story variable and the variable of 
sex were found to be significant at the .01 level, and the variable of 
untimed versus timed conditions was found to be significant at the 
.05 level for both male responders and for female responders. 

Two implications were derived from the study: 

1. Time limitations on responses to literature limit students' 
full range of written expression. 

2. Sex differences and individual differences in response to lit- 
erature indicate the need to provide students with a number of liter- 
ary selections containing a large range of possibilities for adolescent 
identification and involvement. 

Crook, Morgan Ray, Jr. (MA, Psychology, June, 1975) 

INSTITUTIONS OF ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR 

IN THREE PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES: 

AN EVOLUTIONARY MODEL 

The concern of this thesis is the evolution of institutions of abnor- 
mal behavior viewed in cross cultural perspective. The cultural sys- 
tems of the Arunta, the Nuer and the Trobriand Islanders are utilized 
as examples of the three socio-cultural levels of integration within 
Primitive society. Abnormal behavior institutions are less productive 
than the productive norm of the cultural system and their existance 
is dependent upon economic support from the productive norm. 
Therefore as energy capture per capita increases, more institutions of 
abnormal behavior occur. The relationship between institutions of 
abnormal behavior and the energy capture of the cultural system is 
plotted statistically within the thesis. 



41 



Dodds, Robert J. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
August, 1975) 

THE EFFECT OF CAREER EDUCATION COURSES ON 

PERCEIVED POST-GRADUATION OCCUPATIONAL 

PLANS OF EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS 

Within the last few years there has been an enormous increase in 
the emphasis on Career Awareness in American Education. As a part 
of this emphasis a Career Education Program was introduced into the 
curriculum of LaGrange Boys' Junior High School. This study is a 
follow-up of three years of this program. It is not the intent of this 
research to evaluate the entire program. It is the author's purpose to 
study only one aspect of the program, namely, to determine if those 
students who participated in this particular program make a higher 
percentage of appropriate selections on a Post-Graduation Occupa- 
tional Plans Questionaire than do those who do not participate in the 
program. 

The subjects of the study included the entire eighth grade class 
of 206 boys. The students were then divided into two groups accord- 
ing to whether or not they took Career Education courses. Their 
reponses on the Post-Graduation Occupational Plans Questionaire 
were then compared with their records and classified as appropriate 
or inappropriate selections. 

Results of the study seem indicative that participation in the 
Career Education Program had no measurable effect upon the selec- 
tion of appropriate occupational goals. There is some indication from 
the control group figures that a longitudinal study with pre-post eval- 
uation might show positive results from this program. 

Farrior, David Truitt (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, June, 1975) 

DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING AN AUDIO-VISUAL 

ORIENTATION PROGRAM AT WALKER COUNTY 

TECHNICAL SCHOOL 

An audio-visual orientation program was developed for use at 
Walker County Technical School. In order to evaluate the program, 
it was compared with the traditional orientation program. Forty-six 
entering students participated in the study. Twenty-three individu- 
als were randomly assigned to the experimental group in which orien- 
tation information was presented to the group by using audio-visual 
equipment. The other twenty-three students participated in the tra- 
ditional, lecture-type orientation program. An information test was 

42 



administered to both groups before and after the orientation pro- 
grams. On the twenty-item test, the mean gain for the experimental 
group was 4.57 and 3.96 for the control group. The post-test results 
were significant at the .10 level but not at the .05 level in favor of the 
experimental group. It was concluded from the study that the audio- 
visual program was as effective as the traditional program in present- 
ing orientation information to entering students. Furthermore, it was 
recommended that the audio-visual orientation program be perma- 
nently implemented at the school. 

Fulks, William N. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, August, 1975) 

A PILOT PEER COUNSELING PROJECT AT LAFAYETTE 

HIGH SCHOOL 

An experimental study was conducted using peer counselors with 
ninth grade students at LaFayette High School in LaFayette, Geor- 
gia. The purpose of the study was to expand the guidance services, 
to evaluate the effects of peer counseling, to determine the feasibility 
of such a program being adopted, and to determine the extent to 
which the program would be accepted by the staff and students. 

The basic problem of the investigation was to determine if peer 
counselors would be effective by evaluating certain criteria. Evalua- 
tion was made on counselee response on pre- and post-test of the 
Tennessee Self Concept Scale (TSCS); evaluation of grade point av- 
erage was made on pre- and post-measurements; and subjective eval- 
uation of personal growth of peer counselors. 

A review of the literature was conducted in the area of peer 
counseling. On the basis of this review, the use of peer counselors in 
helping relationships was supported. The literature revealed that in- 
dividuals and institutions are increasingly using peers as helpers in 
a number of educational settings. 

A tutorial program served as an adjunct to the peer counseling 
program. The sample for the investigation consisted of six senior peer 
counselors who tutored twelve ninth grade low-achieving students. 
The training program for the peer counselors consisted of ten sessions 
which ran concurrent with the tutorial program. 

An analysis of a t-test of significance%idicated that there was no 
significant difference between grade point average means at the .05 
level for the counselees' pre- and post-measurement, although there 
was significance at the .10 level. All subscale means of the Tennessee 
Self Concept Scale (TSCS) improved except one (moral self). How- 
ever, the change was not significant at the .05 level. Subjective obser- 
vations, consultations, and feedback indicated greater personal 

43 



growth of the peer counselors as a result of actively participating in 
the peer counseling program. 

Garrett, Jane B. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
August, 1975) 

IMPLEMENTATION OF AN OBJECTIVE-BASED GUIDANCE 

PLAN 

In an effort to clarify the role of the counselor and to verify the 
effectiveness of guidance services, an objective-based program was 
developed in calendar form and the program was implemented 
throughout the year. 

Students' perceptions of guidance services were relatively un- 
changed through implementation of an objective-based program, 
however student performance changed through implementation of 
individualprocess objectives. Teachers exhibited a more positive 
opinion of guidance service after the program was implemented. 

The counselor in the objective-based program provided services 
for more students and the services were more directed toward student 
needs than a control group in traditional programs. 

Hickson, Margaret E. (Specialist in Education, Early Childhood 
Education, June, 1975) 

A STUDY OF THE TRADITIONAL APPROACH VERSUS AN 

INCIDENTAL APPROACH IN TEACHING SPELLING AT THE 

SECOND GRADE LEVEL IN THE MAPLE STREET SCHOOL 

CARROLLTON, GEORGIA 

Spelling is a basic element of communication and learning, the 
importance of which should not be over-looked. The purpose of this 
study was to determine if an incidental approach to teaching spelling 
had an equally positive effect on spelling achievement as did the 
traditional approach to teaching spelling. 

The subjects for this study were two second-grade classes at 
Maple Street School in Carrollton, Georgia. The subjects were placed 
in each classroom without regard to mental ability, academic 
achievement, or socio-economic back-ground. 

The control group, a class of twenty-four students, was taught 
spelling using the traditional approach. The experimental group, a 
class of twenty-five students, was taught spelling using an incidental 
approach. The study lasted twelve weeks at the end of which time a 
posttest was given over the words, randomly selected, that had been 

44 



studied only by the control group, a delayed posttest was given after 
the eighteenth week of the study over the words, randomly selected, 
that had been studied only by the control group. 

The results of the posttest and the results of the delayed posttest 
showed that the control group and the experimental group were equal 
in achievement. The statistical test for this study was the Mann 
Whitney U Test converted to a z formula with a correction for tied 
scores. 

The conclusion was that the results were of such a nature that 
the difference could be attributed to chance. 

It is recommended that similar studies be conducted to assess 
the effect of the incidental method when subjects and teachers are 
selected from different schools and different areas. 

Highley, Jackson Herschel (MA, Psychology, June, 1975) 

THE DEATH OF SUICIDE: THE HUMOR OF MORBIDITY 

The purpose of this study is to explore the interrelationships be- 
tween the topics of laughter and death. Suicide is not a funny act. 
Yet it is sometimes parodied in the Black Humor literature. Is laugh- 
ing at the morbid a repression mechanism, or, is it a psychological 
device that helps affirm the realities of death and of life? Through a 
literature review, the experimenter found the human tendency to 
laugh at grim realities, especially of suicide. 

Humor appears in unusual circumstances. And so does suicide. 
One might laugh to avoid committing suicide. Or, one might commit 
suicide to avoid the laughing. 

Alternative approaches to suicide research openly discuss sui- 
cide, place few or no moral judgments on suicides or suicide- 
attempts, rely on individual experience rather than statistics, and 
promote individual liberty in a theme of high regard for human life. 
All of these approaches are in the humanistic tradition that one 
should be able to choose his experiential world. 

Dichotomizing is a narrow form of perception concurrent with 
the view of taking oneself and the world seriously. Surrendering is 
creative and imaginative reconstructions of the situation. 

In laughter is the determination to continue the struggle to live. 
Perhaps in enjoying the humor of morbidity there is a "death of 
suicide", as the serious urge to terminate no longer seems so impor- 
tant. Hence, the investigation into the "topic of suicide" gives way 
to a rebirth of exploring other alternatives to live. 

For the comic perspective plays a significant role in individual 
and group expression. By not taking ourselves so seriously, man be- 
gins to understand himself and his brother. The comic perspective 

45 



defies putting existence under the aegis of rational law, moral con- 
ventions, social structures, or considerations of worth or utility. In- 
verting a system of categories, humor continually thwarts arbitrari- 
ness. In our attempts to control, we lose touch with the reality around 
us. Furthermore, in holding our convictions with some lightness, we 
add grace to our life. Expressing a state of inner harmony, the realm 
of play is an experience of fullness. 

Holcombe, Richard B. (MA, Psychology, August, 1975) 

DYING, DEATH, AND SUICIDE: 
A PSYCHOLOGICAL, POETIC, AND PERSONAL INQUIRY 

In this paper, the human awareness of death and dying is explored 
in the following ways: the role of the will of the individual in his own 
death, several general propositions about the individual's concept of 
death, and the author's recollection of a friend's experience of death, 
and its impact on both of us. The author relates a series of mystical 
and psychic experiences that culminated in the friend's experience of 
dying. That series of events had a profound effect upon both the 
author and his friend. 

The poetic consideration of death is explored in the works of Ezra 
Pound and T.S. Eliot. The author notes the impact of both poets 
upon literature and their generation, comparing the wholeness or 
completed gestalt in Eliot's work to a lack of such in Pound's work. 
The "Savage God" presented by A. Alvarez appears under a similar 
guise in the poetry of T.S. Eliot. In his later work T.S. Eliot spoke 
increasingly of an ordered, meaningful aspect of life and experience. 
Death and its acceptance in the works of Leo Tolstoy, Elisabeth 
Kubler-Ross, and John Gunther are presented. The reasons for mod- 
ern man's search for a soul are explored. The death of Ivan Ilych is 
seen as an ideal. 

A focus for considering suicide is found in the life and work of 
Sylvia Plath, American author and poetess who took her own life. Her 
beautiful and morbid poetry illustrates a particularly complex and 
poignant comtemplation of a self-inflicted death and is analyzed with 
a view to understanding the suicide's inner vision. The issue of under- 
standing suicide and the suicidal person is examined in the writings 
of Shneidman, Farberow, Szasz, and Karl Menninger. 



46 



Kerr, Julia A. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, Au- 
gust, 1975) 

A SYSTEMATIC SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 

CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP 

BETWEEN SELECTED AUTHORITIES IN THE 

FIELD OF AMERICAN EDUCATION AND 

SELECTED PROPONENTS OF HUMANISTIC EDUCATION 

Long, Mary F. (Specialist in Education, Early Childhood Education, 
August, 1975) 

THE HISTORY OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE NEWMAN 
AREA WITH EMPHASIS ON SELECTED HOMES BUILT BE- 
TWEEN 1830-1900 

This historical research was designed in two parts. One part was 
an in-depth research paper on the location and settlement of the 
Newnan area, with emphasis on the early Indian inhabitants of the 
region. The other part being a slide presentation of nineteen out- 
standing homes built in this area between 1830 and 1900 and for 
which this area is famous. The research was accomplished so that 
elementary school children could be provided with a segment of local 
history in celebration of the Bicentennial of the United States. The 
completion of the research also coincided with the Sesquicentennial 
year for the city of Newnan. The written part included extensive 
research into local and state histories. The slide presentation in- 
volved visiting each home, interviewing the present occupants, and 
securing permission to use the residences in this work. After the writ- 
ten work was finished, final approval was secured from the owners. 

The researching of the settlement of the Newnan area from the 
Atlantic Ocean to the present location was designed so that students 
would see the place of Coweta County in the total settlement of 
Georgia. This area, famous for antebellum homes, featured homes 
chosen from several locations in the county so that school children in 
the outlying areas, as well as those in the city of Newnan, would be 
able to see at least one of the homes studied. 

This project placed in one central location the history of this area 
so that teachers could have access to the material and this removed 
one major obstacle encountered in the teaching of local history. 



47 



Matthews, Eluera D. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 

August, 1975) 

EFFECTS OF CHOICE OF COUNSELOR ON SELF- 
DISCLOSURE OF JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS 

Choice of counselor and whether this choice significantly affects 
self-disclosure among junior high students was examined in this re- 
search. Two full time counselors, one male and one female, at Jones- 
boro Junior High School, Jonesboro, Georgia, interviewed sixty-four, 
eighth grade subjects who were randomly selected to participate. 
These subjects comprised four groups of sixteen subjects each (eight 
males and eight females). Each of the two counselors had a no-choice 
and choice group. The instrument that was used was a set of seventy- 
one pictures which were presented to each subject, and their respon- 
ses were recorded on a data sheet. Data were analyzed by a standard 
statistical procedure using the t-test. The computed t-value at the .05 
level of confidence was L87. These results deomonstrate no signifi- 
cant diff"erences between self-disclosure in choice-of-counselor groups 
and no-choice of counselor groups. Further analysis of the data shows 
that the computed t-value of data concerning the effects of sex of 
counselor on subjects' self-disclosure was 3.26 at the .05 level of con- 
fidence. This indicates that the sex of counselor significantly affects 
the self-disclosure of subjects. 

Moore, Elizabeth D. (Specialist in Education, Business Education, 
August, 1975) 

A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE MOST EFFECTIVE WAY TO 

TEACH PROOFREADING TO BEGINNING TYPEWRITING 

STUDENTS AT THE SECONDARY-SCHOOL LEVEL 

Problem 

The problem was to determine the most effective way to teach 
proofreading to beginning typewriting students at the secondary- 
school level. 

Subproblems 

The first subproblem was to determine whether teaching proof- 
reading using a positive approach was effective in teaching high 
school students to proofread in beginning typewriting classes. 

The second subproblem was to determine whether teaching 
proofreading using a negative approach was effective in teaching high 

48 



school students to proofread in beginning typewriting classes. 

The third subproblem was to determine whether students 
learned to proofread effectively without being taught specific proof- 
reading methods and techniques. 

F^rocedure 

Six beginning typewriting classes at Cherokee High School partic- 
ipated in this study to determine the most effective approach to use 
when teaching proofreading. These classes were assigned to either a 
control group, a positive experimental group, or a negative experi- 
mental group. 

The control group received no proofreading instruction and was 
treated with a neutral approach. Both experimental groups received 
proofreading instruction, but one was treated with a positive ap- 
proach while the other was treated with a negative approach. 

All three groups spent ten days on each of three units: business 
letters, tabulation problems, and manuscripts. The experimental 
groups were taught proofreading methods and techniques in addition 
to the normal class schedule followed by all the groups. 

The grading plan for production typewriting used in all three 
groups did not change from the normal grading plan followed by the 
teachers. However, after the grade had been figured on the assign- 
ment, the positive group had bonus points added for accurate proof- 
reading and the negative group had points deducted for a lack of 
proofreading. Proofreading drills in the positive group were graded by 
adding points for each error found; whereas, the drills in the negative 
group were graded by subtracting points for errors left undetected. 

All three groups were given proofreading and typewriting pre- 
tests, achievement tests on each unit, and proofreading and typewrit- 
ing posttests. 

Natour, Fahmi (MA, Psychology, August, 1975) 

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF ANXIETY AND 
ITS RELATIONSHIPS TO LEARNING PERFORMANCE AND 

PERSONALITY 

In addition to many basic diflferences among different schools of 
psychology, undergraduate and graduate psychology are divided into 
somewhat arbitrarily defined course areas. This means that many 
interesting problems of psychology lie in the cross-relationships of 
these arbitrary divisions and subdivisions. 

The objective of this thesis is to deal with the issue of anxiety 
from the perspective of two different yet related course areas: Learn- 

49 



ing and motivation and theories of personality. 

I shall discuss, compare and contrast the types of methodologies 
used and the major theoretical approaches of these two areas. 

The underlying premise of this thesis is to demonstrate the im- 
portance of cross-relationships among different areas and finally to 
draw special attention to the yet unanswered questions about anxi- 
ety. 

Chapter one considers the area of learning and motivation and 
how the issue of anxiety is handled in this area. The discussion will 
center around the Hullian Drive Reduction Theory as a representa- 
tive of this area. The learning theory approach is compared and con- 
trasted with the ethological approach. 

Chapter two considers the application of the Drive Reduction 
Theory to the area of personality and the role of anxiety in personal- 
ity. The learning theory approach is compared and contrasted with 
the personality approach. 

Chapter three consists mainly of my own suggestions and what I 
see as the important questions that remained unanswered. These are 
basically my own speculations that grew out of my frustration with 
the published literature I have reviewed for this study. The conclu- 
sion is reached that anxiety should be defined as the uncertainty 
about something important and considered as an all-or-none fashion 
phenomenon. Finally, anxiety should be considered to have no enh- 
ancing effects and to be disruptive. 

Ruskell, Virginia Ann (MA, English, August, 1975) 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE YOGA PHILOSOPHY IN THE BHA- 
GAVAD GITA ON HENRY DAVID THOREAU'S WALDEN 

The Bhagavad Gita is a Sanskrit classic which contains three 
different yoga philosophies: karma, jnana, and bhakti. Karma or 
action yoga is the pathway to union through desireless action. Jnana 
or knowledge yoga is concerned with gaining wisdom and perceiving 
reality. Bhakti yoga is the yoga of love and devotion and results in 
dedicating one's life to God. These three philosophies are examined 
in the Gita which is a philosophical discourse between Krishna, the 
teacher, and Arjuna, the pupil. 

. Henry David Thoreau read the Bhagavad Gita while he was at 
Walden pond. That it had a profound effect on him is shown in his 
inclusion of the book and its philosophy in Walden. This book is the 
story of his stay at the pond, but it also is an account of Thoreau's 
struggles with yoga and how he became a liberated man. 



50 



Shahan, Kay Salmon (Specialist in Education, Business Education, 
August, 1975) 

AN EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS 

OF THE INDIVIDUAL PROGRESS METHOD AND 

THE TRADITIONAL METHOD 

IN TEACHING SHORTHAND 

The problem of this study was to compare the achievement of high 
school students who were taught shorthand by the Individual Prog- 
ress Method with students who were taught shorthand by the Tradi- 
tional Method. 

Four teachers were involved in the study. Two taught their 
classes by the Individual Progress Method (experimental group) and 
two taught their classes by the Traditional Method (control group). 

The experimental group learned shorthand through the use of 
cassette tapes, programmed for each lesson. Students in this group 
were allowed to progress at his own rate with no restrictions on the 
time taken to complete each lesson. The control group learned short- 
hand through teacher-directed activities, according to the sugges- 
tions in the handbook accompanying the traditional shorthand text- 
book. Students in this group progressed in unison, covering one lesson 
a day. 

Data were collected from theory tests, shorthand reading tests, 
transcription tests, and dictation tests. These tests were analyzed 
through the use of the t test to determine significance. 

Based upon the findings of the study, the following conclusions 
were reached: 

L There is no significant diff"erence in achievement on theory 
tests between the experimental group and the control group which 
can be attributed to the two methods of teaching shorthand. Two of 
these tests were significant. One was favorable to the experimental 
group, and the other was favorable to the control group. Therefore, 
the general conclusion is still substantiated. 

2. There is a significant difference in achievement on reading 
tests between the experimental group and the control group which 
can be attributed to the Traditional Method of teaching shorthand. 

3. There is no significant difference in the achievement on tran- 
scription tests between the experimental group and the control group 
which can be attributed to the two methods of teaching shorthand. 
Two of these tests were significant. One was favorable to the experi- 
mental group, and the other was favorable to the control group. 
Therefore, the general conclusion is still substantiated. 

4. There is no significant difference is the achievement on dic- 
tation tests between the experimental group and the control group 

51 



which can be attributed to the two methods of teaching shorthand. 

5. The Individual Progress Method is more effective in learning 
shorthand theory and developing dictation skills than it is in develop- 
ing reading ability. 

6. The individual Progress Method has no adverse effect on 
achievement of the students taught by this method. 

Smith, David A. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Su- 
pervision, August, 1975) 

AN ANALYSIS OF ATTITUDES HELD BY FORMER STU- 
DENTS TOWARD WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE'S GRADUATE 
PROGRAM IN ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION 

This study represented an effort to obtain opinions of former grad- 
uate students concerning West Georgia College's Administra- 
tion/Supervision program. Its general purpose was three-fold. First, 
to learn the perceptions of former students toward their adequacies 
in their administrative or supervisory role. Second, the student's per- 
ceptions of the adequacies of the preparation program; and finally, 
suggestions for improvement of the Administration/Supervision pro- 
gram. 

The data were collected by means of a questionnaire mailed 
directly to all persons who have completed the Master of Education 
Degree or Specialist in Education Degree programs in Administra- 
tion/Supervision at West Georgia College. The questionnaire was 
divided into sections dealing with personal information, perception 
of their administrative or supervisory role adequacy, preparation 
given by the program, suggested improvement for the program, and 
possible differences between on-campus and off-campus courses. 

The data collected and developed revealed a majority of the 
former students perceived their adequacy in their administrative or 
supervisory role as above average or excellent. Ninety-six per cent of 
the respondents stated that they would recommend West Georgia 
College's Administration/Supervision program to a fellow teacher. 

Spiuey, Cathryn C. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
August, 1975) 

A STUDY TO COMPARE VIEWS 

OF STUDENTS, PARENTS, AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

WITH RESPECT TO THE GOALS OF SECONDARY SOCIAL 

STUDIES 

The purpose of this study was to compare views of students, par- 

52 



ents, teachers, and school administrators of Cobb County concerning 
the objectives of the secondary social studies program. Students for 
this study were randomly selected at Robert L. Osborne Senior High 
School. The parents for the study were also randomly selected from 
the Osborne Senior High School District. All social studies teachers 
and all administrators in the nine senior high schools of Cobb County 
were asked to participate in the survey. The four groups ranked 
twelve objectives of the secondary social studies program which had 
been extracted from the writings of leading social studies educators 
and from the Cobb County Public Schools Course Guide. An analysis 
of variance was computed to determine whether or not actual differ- 
ences existed in the rankings of the four groups. The results revealed 
that differences existed in the ranking of ten of the objectives to the 
degree that further study was warranted. Another analysis of vari- 
ance was computed for differences in the means for students-parents, 
students-teachers, students-administrators, parents-teachers, 
parents-administrators, and teachers-administrators. It was con- 
cluded that significant differences do exist among the four groups 
compared concerning the objectives of secondary social studies pro- 
grams. The comparisons found the teachers to be the group most 
cognitive oriented while students were oriented more toward affective 
objectives. 

Steele, James L., Sr. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, June, 1975) 

THE EFFECT OF THE FUNCTIONAL USE OF 
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SKILLS ON SPECIALIZED 
VOCABULARY IN SIXTH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES 

A study was conducted to compare the achievement of two groups 
in specialized social studies vocabulary. Group A was taught social 
studies vocabulary by a systematic method emphasizing structural 
analysis and dictionary study skills in a functional, content-centered 
approach. Group B was taught by the teachers' usual methods. 

The classes in Group A and B were heterogeneously grouped. 
They were considered equivalent because assignment to classes was 
a random process. Eight teachers were involved in this study. The 
researcher was not one of the teachers involved. 

A posttest equivalent group design was used in the study. The 
data were analyzed by a t-test of the significance of the difference 
between the means. The results of the comparison reveal that follow- 
ing a systematic method for teaching specialized social studies vocab- 
ulary was not more effective than having teachers follow their usual 
methods for teaching. 

53 



Tyson, George R., Jr. (MA, Psychology, August, 1975) 

AN INTEGRATED COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE APPROACH 
TO EARLY CHILDHOOD AND ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 

This thesis is an experiential and theoretical investigation into 
early childhood and elementary education. The author's aim is to 
stress the importance of a well-integrated cognitive and affective ap- 
proach to education. 

Chapter I is an experiential account of the author's personal 
feelings and concerns regarding his child's growth and development. 

Chapter II is a report of some interesting developments in infant 
and preschool education. 

Chapter III is an integrated (cognitive and affective) approach 
to an elementary education for the whole child. 

Chapter IV reports some of the costs and benefits such education 
may offer our society. 

Vaughn, Eldridge V. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, August, 1975) 

THE ROLE OF THE COUNSELOR: WHAT IT IS AND WHAT IT 

SHOULD BE AS PERCEIVED BY STUDENTS, TEACHERS, 

COUNSELORS AND ADMINISTRATORS OF COLLINS HIGH 

SCHOOL, COLLEGE PARK, GEORGIA 

This descriptive study sought to appraise the merits and/or defi- 
ciencies of the guidance program at M. D. Collins High School, Col- 
lege Park, Georgia as they are viewed by the students, teachers, coun- 
selors, and administrators and to define the role of the counselor in 
this program. Opinions were sought concerning what is now occurring 
in the program and what should be occurring as perceived by the four 
groups. These opinions were considered indications of what the 
groups perceive to be the role of the counselor as practiced and what 
they perceive to be the ideal role. 

The Georgia Guidance Services Inventory was administered to 
all students, teachers, counselors, and administrators at the school. 
This instrument uses a survey technique to obtain ratings by each of 
the groups on five factors or areas of the guidance program. Mean 
factor scores were computed on each of the factors for each of the 
populations studied. 



54 



Wade, Priscilla M. (Specialist in Education, Early Childhood Educa- 
tion, August, 1975) 

THE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD 

METHODS AND LANGUAGE ARTS PROGRAMMING ON 

BLOCK STUDENTS AT WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE 

AFTER ENTERING THE TEACHING PROFESSION 

The purpose of this study was to determine the results of an atti- 
tude questionaire concerning the effects of early childhood methods 
and language arts programming on the block students at West Geor- 
gia College after they have entered the teaching profession. 

Fifty-two questionaire results were tabulated. The results 
showed that the students felt favorable about the early childhood 
methods and language arts block programming at West Georgia Col- 
lege. 

Young, Elizabeth D. (Specialist in Education, Early Childhood Edu- 
cation, August, 1975) 

A MEASURE OF THE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY 

OF A VERBOTONALLY TRAINED 

DEAF CHILD 

This study was designed to evaluate the speech of a four year old 
deaf child who had been trained for a period of two years by the 
Verbotonal Method of Instruction for the Deaf. Ann was one chosen 
from seven four and five year old nursery pupils who had been 
grouped according to ability and who were tutored individually for 
approximately ten minutes daily. She was chosen as one who was 
profoundly deaf, without other complications and who had exhibited 
a readiness to learn. For twenty days Ann's tutoring involved five 
expressions that were taught in sequence, using a situational story 
involving a man and boy crossing the street. 

Eighteen pairs of judges were chosen with the qualifying factors 
of whether they were familiar or unfamiliar with the voice and speech 
of the deaf. Each judge was given a test sheet to mark in the order 
he heard the five recorded expressions that Ann had been taught. The 
Pearson Product-Moment formula, using a raw score method, was 
appropriate for computing the coefficient of correlation of the judges. 

The analysis showed a high relationship between the scores of the 
two groups of judges, indicating the acceptance of the hypothesis that 
the Verbotonal method is effective in speech training for a deaf child 
and that the speech was equally intelligible to those familiar and 
those unfamiliar with the speech of the deaf. 

55 



Young, Frances T. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 

August, 1975) 

STUDENT GROWTH IN INTERPRETATION 
OF LITERARY MATERIALS: SELF-DIRECTION VS. TEACHER 

DIRECTION 

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of teacher- 
directed activities as opposed to a student-directed approach on de- 
veloping eleventh grade students' skills in interpreting literature. The 
reading section of the Iowa Test of Academic Progress was used as a 
pretest and posttest to determine student progress. IQ scores from the 
Otis Quick-Scoring Test of Mental Ability were used to match stu- 
dents as pairs in the control and experimental groups. A t-test was 
used at the end of the study to determine whether students had made 
significant progress at the .05 level. 

Two classes of eleventh grade students assigned to American 
literature classes at Pebblebrook High School, Mableton, Georgia, 
were used to select control and experimental groups during winter 
and spring quarters of 1974-1975. The findings showed no significant 
diff"erence between the progress of students who were allowed to de- 
termine their own activities in the interpretation of literature and in 
the progress of those who were taught by a teacher-directed approach. 

Beasley, William M. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
August, 1976) 

A STUDY OF THE ATTITUDES 

OF THE JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS 

OF CERTAIN SOCIAL STUDIES CONCEPTS 

The purpose of this study was to identify differences in the likes 
and dislikes of junior high school students and senior high school 
students in regard to several teaching methods and certain social 
studies concepts. 

The subjects for this study were students from the seventh and 
eighth grades at Woodstock Elementary School and students from 
the ninth, tenth and eleventh grades at Cherokee High School in 
Cherokee County, Georgia. These students were randomly selected 
from social studies classes at these two schools. 

The survey to which these students responded consisted of eight- 
een statements dealing with teaching methods and curriculum con- 
tent in the social studies. This survey was constructed from an open 
line questionnaire that asked junior high school students and senior 

56 



high school students what they hked and disHked about their social 
studies courses. 

This study found that junior high school students tended to have 
a more positive attitude toward school than did senior high school 
students. Boys generally preferred the study of military and political 
history while girls generally preferred the study of cultural history. 
Girls tended to favor the study of cultural geography, sociology and 
government more than did boys. 

Blake, Joy T. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1976) 

A STUDY OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF SELECTED 

STATE ADOPTED UNITED STATES HISTORY 

TEXTBOOKS IN USE IN THE NORTHWEST 

GEORGIA CESA AREA 

Two instruments for measuring readability were applied to four- 
teen selected state-adopted United States history texts frequently 
used at the secondary level. According to results produced by the Fry 
Readability Graph, only two of the books were found to be above 
designated grade level. The SMOG Grading Formula, however, 
placed eleven of the fourteen texts above grade level. Readability 
levels profuced by application of the two formulas were then com- 
pared to tested reading achievement levels of students in an area 
school system in order to provide a further basis for consideration of 
results of the formulas. 

Blake, Martha (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, June, 
1976) 

RESEARCH IN MORAL DEVELOPMENT: 
A SYNTHESIS FOR CLASSROOM USE IN SOCIAL STUDIES 

This paper reviews recent research and theory in the field of moral 
development. Its purpose is to synthesize those results and data 
which influence moral growth into a planned and purposeful program 
of moral development for secondary public schools. 

It is developed primarily from Kohlberg's research in moral de- 
velopment. It integrates other research and data which appear to 
supplement or reinforce Kohlberg's conclusions. 

As such, it presents a program of education which offers maxi- 
mum opportunity for the moral development of the student as to his 
potential both in moral judgment and in moral action, while avoiding 

57 



(by its very nature) the two extremes of aimlessness and of indoctri- 
nation. Both the cognitive and affective domain are recognized as 
important to this process. 

Recent trends and innovations in the new social studies are inte- 
grated into this program which may be utilized by a system, a school, 
or an individual classroom teacher. 

Brannon, Sharon A. (MA, English, August, 1976) 

SUT LOVINGOOD: RENAISSANCE FOOL IN EAST TENNES- 
SEE 

George Washington Harris created Sut Lovingood as a "nat'ral 
born durn'd fool." To what extent Sut is a "fool" in the traditional 
sense of the word is examined in this paper. 

The first chapter deals with the proper definition of a "nat'ral 
fool" and its uses from its first application in Greece and Rome to the 
Renaissance. The Renaissance fool is especially examined and the 
distinction between a natural fool and an artificial fool discussed. 
The characteristics of the artificial fool examined are: his grotesque- 
ness, his alienation from his surroundings, his freedom of expression 
and action, and especially his wisdom and his uncanny knack for 
exposing the truth. These are the basic characteristics of the artificial 
fool and can be seen in varying degrees in the Shakespearean fools 
who are examined: Launcelot Gobbo, Touchstone, Feste, FalstafF, 
and Lear's Fool. 

The second section compares the buffoon, Till Eulenspiegel, Er- 
asmus' Folly, and the Shakespearean fools cited in the first chapter 
with Sut Lovingood. It shows the similarities between these Renais- 
sance fools and the Tennessee fool: he escapes from unpleasant situa- 
tions by relying on his legs like Eulenspiegel and Gobbo; he is a wise 
fool much like Folly and Touchstone; he is grotesque in appearance 
like Falstaff"; he often exposes Puritans like Feste and like Feste and 
Falstaff relishes the here and now; he has a sense of humanity and 
respects the sincere, downtrodden man as does Lear's Fool. 

The final chapter deals exclusively with Sut and his characteris- 
tics as fool. Through an examination of his traits as well as numerous 
examples we see that Sut Lovingood is indeed a "wise fool" of the 
Renaissance, grotesque in appearance and candid and honest in his 
remarks, exposing the affectations of hypocrites while uplifting the 
common man. 



58 



Carroll, Valeria S. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1976) 

A COMPARISON OF ACHIEVEMENT IN FRACTIONS 

BETWEEN INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION AND 

LARGE GROUP INSTRUCTION 

This study was designed to compare results of two methods of 
instruction, individualized and large group, in arithmetic in the area 
of fractions. 

Subjects used in this study were students of two sixth grade 
classes with a wide range of abilities. One of these classes composed 
the experimental group, the other the control group. There were fifty- 
six students in both groups at the beginning of the study but only 
forty-nine completed the experiment. The subjects of both groups 
were similar in age, sex, and economic status. 

A teacher-made diagnostic test was used in the study as both 
pretest and posttest. The pretest was given to both groups on April 
3, 1975, and the posttest on May 1, 1975, at the end of the four-week 
treatment period. Weekly tests were administered during the period 
to check the progress of material covered. 

The t test was used to analyze the data and the null hypotheses 
were not rejected at the .05 level of significance with the exception 
of hypothesis 1 which was rejected. 

Conclusions were that, although the change from the pretest to 
the posttest was not significant for either group, the difference be- 
tween the mean changes was significant in favor of the experimental 
group. The control group means for the weekly tests were slightly 
higher than the experimental group means on the four basic opera- 
tions of fractions through this was not significant. It was recom- 
mended that a validity and reliability pilot study be made on testing. 

Chambers, Margie F. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, August, 1976) 

AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF KINDERGARTEN 

EXPERIENCE, SEX, AND CHRONOLOGICAL 

AGE ON READING READINESS IN 

PAULDING COUNTY, GEORGIA 

This study was to determine whether kindergarten experience, 
sex, or chronological age affected reading readiness of first graders. 
A data collection form was distributed to all first grade teachers in 
the Paulding County School System. The form obtained the following 
information for each student: sex, birth date, date of the readiness 

59 



testing, raw score on the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A, kin- 
dergarten experience, the length of the kindergarten experience, and 
whether the kindergarten was public or private. 

After the data were collected, the subjects were divided into two 
groups designated kindergarten and non-kindergarten groups. The 
criteria for inclusion were one year of kindergarten experience or no 
kindergarten experience. All repeaters were disregarded for the study. 
The kindergarten group was comprised of 138 children, 67 boys and 
71 girls. The non-kindergarten group was comprised of 158 children, 
77 boys and 81 girls. 

Three null hypotheses were tested: 

1. There is no significant difference between the performance 
of kindergarteners and non-kindergarteners on the Metropolitan 
Readiness Test, Form A. 

2. There is no significant difference between the performance 
of males and females on the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A. 

3. There is no significant correlation between the age in months 
and the readiness score on the Metropolitan Readiness Test, Form A. 

Analyses of variance were used to test hypotheses one and two. 
A correlation coefficient was computed to test hypothesis three. The 
.05 level of significance was used as the level at which the hypotheses 
would be rejected. 

The results indicated that kindergarten experience significantly 
affected reading readiness scores. It especially benefitted the girls. 
However, sex did not appear to be a determining factor for readiness, 
since when the female non-kindergarteners were compared to the 
male non-kindergarteners, they were almost exactly equal in reading 
readiness. 

The correlation coefficient found that age and readiness were 
significantly related for both boys and girls at the .05 level of signifi- 
cance. But the coefficient was relatively small and could not be safely 
used as the sole determining factor for the placement of students. 

When all results were analyzed, the first and third hypotheses 
were rejected. The second hypothesis was supported by the fact that 
the two non-kindergarten group means on readiness were almost ex- 
actly equal. 

The study concluded that kindergarten experience especially was 
a determining factor in reading readiness. A significant correlation 
was found between the age and performance on the Metropolitan 
Readiness Test. However, the coefficient was low and therefore, age 
alone should not be the only factor used in placement of students. 
Also concluded from the study was the fact that the variable sex did 
not affect reading readiness. The findings suggested that girls adapt 
more readily to school experience, but that the sex of a child did not 

60 



have any bearing. This suggestion certainly merits further investiga- 
tion. 



Collins, Susanne S. (SpeciaHst in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, August, 1976) 

PEER COUNSELING WITH POTENTIAL 
HIGH SCHOOL DROP-OUTS 

This study was designed to determine if peer counseling with 
freshmen potential drop-outs in high school would have a significant 
effect on grade point average, study habits and attitudes. 

A total of eighty-seven ninth grade students were administered 
the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Forty-two students were 
below the 50th percentile in almost all areas on the survey. Of these 
forty-two students, twenty-four students met the criteria set up to 
identify potential drop-outs. These twenty-four students were div- 
ided equally into two groups. The experimental group received peer 
counseling for twelve weeks and the control group received no coun- 
seling. 

At the end of a twelve week period, the t test was used to find 
the significant difference in the means of Winter quarter grade point 
averages of both groups. There was no significant difference. 

The experimental group was administered the Survey of Study 
Habits and Attitudes a second time. The t test was applied to find 
the significant difference in the means of the study orientation scores 
of both groups. It was found that there was a significant difference 
in study orientation of the experimental group. 

It is concluded that peer counseling has little effect on grade 
point averages in a short period of time. However, peer counseling 
does improve study habits and attitudes. 

Cook, Charles A. (MA, History, August, 1976) 

THE OCONEE FRONTIER 
THE ADVANCE OF GEORGIA TO THE OCONEE RIVER 

The purpose of this thesis is to trace the advance of Georgia from 
the Ogeechee to the Oconee River. A major concern is the process by 
which the Creek Indians were forced to give up their territory to land 
hungry settlers advancing against Indians who were determined to 
hold onto their land. The end result was frontier warfare which re- 
sulted in deaths and a deep and abiding hatred on each side. Ulti- 
mately the settlers, due to their greater numbers and more advanced 

61 



technology, gained control of the land they coveted. 

Beyond the struggle for the land itself along an advancing fron- 
tier, there was an international situation born of the American Revo- 
lution and not fully resolved until the United States asserted itself 
as a self-reliant nation. It is the object of this thesis to fully explain 
and expound upon internationall events which played a vital role in 
Georgia's acquisition of the Creek Oconee Territory. At the close of 
the American Revolution, the Creeks stood a semi-independent peo- 
ple. Although deserted by their former British allies, Britain, Spain, 
and the United States served as potential allies to be used by the 
Creeks. Alexander McGillivray rose to power as the most influential 
Creek Chief. It was his skill at international diplomacy which main- 
tained a balance between the United States and Spain, thus allowing 
the Creeks to remain independent. Only after the death of McGilli- 
vray was the issue of Georgia's control of the Oconee Territory settled 
and the Creeks reduced to the status of wards of the United States. 

The thesis further deals with the struggle between Georgia and 
the national government for control of Indian affairs. Georgia under 
the Articles of Confederation asserted her right to sole control of the 
Indians within her territory. The end result was the making of three 
treaties with the Creeks for the Oconee Territory, none of which was 
recognized by a majority of the Creeks. After the Constitution was 
adopted, the United States took over Indian relations. The first at- 
tempt of the national government to resolve the issue by drafting a 
treaty for the granting of the Oconee Territory to Georgia also failed. 
It was only after the death of McGillivray that a final compromise 
treaty was drafted. Under the Treaty of Coleraine of 1796, not only 
did the Oconee Territory finally become a permanent part of Georgia, 
but the Creeks became wards of the United States. This was not the 
end the struggle of the Creeks to hold on to their territory and auton- 
omy as a people, but it was the beginning of the end. 

Cuff, Jelene B. (MA, English, August, 1976) 

LILITH AND EVE IN NINETEENTH CENTURY AMERICAN 
FICTION: MELVILLE AND HAWTHORNE 

This thesis is an examination of the ancient ideas and experiences 
that were the basis of the archetypal dual personifications of woman 
as Good and woman as Evil in religious and literary myth, folklore, 
poetry, and prose. The earliest recorded personifications of these ex- 
tremes, Lilith and Eve, are traced from their conception through 
western literature. Particular attention is given to the predominance 
of these figures in the romance genre. The figure of man as Adam is 
also discussed in its symbolic relationship to these two female figures. 

62 



The nature of American literature is then discussed, with special 
emphasis on the wide use of these three archetypal figures and the 
Garden of Eden story in our native literature. The focus of the study 
then narrows to particular American authors and their uses of this 
device. Finally, two romance-novels, Pierre or the Ambiguities by 
Herman Melville and The Marble Faun by Nathaniel Hawthorne are 
discussed in greater detail, noting specifically the similarities be- 
tween the two works in their use of these dual archetypal female 
figures, their symbolic characterizations of Adam, Lilith, and Eve, 
their comparative themes, and their kindred plots. 

Culp, Juanita H. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1976) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY: TWO METHODS OF TEACHING 
READING— PROGRAMMED READING AND READING 

SYSTEMS 

The study was conducted to determine whether statistically there 
would be a significant difference in the mean reading achievement if 
third-grade remedial reading pupils studied in Sullivan Programmed 
BRL linguistic reading materials or if they studied in Scott Foresman 
Systems congnitive-linguistic reading materials. 

An intact group of twenty-six third-grade pupils who were expe- 
riencing reading difficulties were ordered into matched pairs accord- 
ing to similar pretest scores on the California Upper Primary Reading 
Test, Pretest Form W. One member from each pair was assigned to 
each of the two experimental groups. Upon termination of the experi- 
ment, the posttest of the aforementioned test was administered to the 
twenty-two pupils remaining in the experiment. 

A pretest-posttest randomized blocks research design with the t 
test was used to test the hypotheses. The eight criterion variables for 
the hypotheses were the scores from each subtest and total test of the 
California Reading Test. The experiment was conducted during 
eighty consecutive school days. 

The t test was applied to analyze the difference between the 
means on each criterion. At the .05 significance level none of the null 
hypotheses were rejected. 



63 



Curry, James Linton, Jr. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Edu 
cation, August, 1976) 

THE EFFECTS OF TEACHER ENCOURAGEMENT AND 

EXPECTATIONS ON THE SPELLING TEST SCORES OF 

SIXTH GRADE STUDENTS 

In order to determine the effects of teacher encouragement and 
expectations on the spelling test scores of sixth grade students, the 
following study was conducted. The 27 students involved were in the 
sixth grade at Garden Lakes School in Rome, Georgia. In order to 
assure statistical soundness, randomization procedures were em- 
ployed. Fourteen students composed the experimental group. Thir- 
teen students composed the control group. 

At the onset of the study, a sixty spelling word pretest was ad- 
ministered. The first twenty words of the pretest were then used as 
the instructional material for the first week of the study; the second 
twenty were used the second week; the third twenty were used the 
third week. The same sixty words were also used as the posttest. 
Students were not told that they were taking part in a research study. 

Weekly "pep talks" served as encouragement to the experimen- 
tal group. All other conditions were the same for both groups. 

Statistical findings indicated that a significant difference oc- 
cured only when comparing the first week's mean quiz score of the 
experimental group with the first week's mean quiz score of the con- 
trol group. Statistical significance was not realized when comparing 
the second week's mean quiz score and the third week's mean quiz 
score of the experimental group with the corresponding mean quiz 
scores of the control group. Likewise, no significant difference was 
realized when comparing the mean of the gain scores of the pre and 
posttests for the experimental group with the mean of the gain scores 
of the pre and posttests for the control group. 

It was concluded that the results of this study indicate that 
teacher encouragement and expectations may sometimes signifi- 
cantly affect the performance of students and at other times may not. 



64 



Davenport, Sibyl S. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1976) 

HETEROGENEOUS GROUPING VERSUS HOMOGENEOUS 

GROUPING BY CLASSROOMS IN THE SECOND GRADE AT 

BUCHANAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AND THE EFFECTS OF 

EACH ON ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTITUDE 

This study was designed to compare results of grouping heteroge- 
neously and homogeneously. 

Subjects used in this study were all the second grade pupils in 
Buchanan Elementary School. One third of the pupils were selected 
with a wide range of abilities (Group 1). The rest were divided into a 
high group (Group 2) and a low group (Group 3) with less range in 
abilities. There were eighty-five involved in the study but only 
seventy-five completed the study. The study lasted approximately 
seven months. 

The Metropolitan Achievement Tests and Animal Crackers atti- 
tude tests were used as pre and posttests. The Otis Lennon Mental 
Ability Test was administered to measure IQ. 

The gain score between pre and posttests were used as a measure 
of the dependent variables: self concept, word knowledge, word anal- 
ysis, reading, total reading, spelling, mathematics computation, 
mathematics concepts, mathematics problem solving, total mathe- 
matics. Analysis of covariance with IQ as the covariate was used and 
six of the hypotheses were rejected at the .05 level of significance. 

Results of the analysis indicated significant differences on six of 
the dependent variables with Group 2 scoring significantly higher 
than Group 1 and Group 3 on word knowledge, mathematics compu- 
tation, mathematics problem solving, and total mathematics. How- 
ever, Group 3 scored significantly higher than Groups 1 and 2 on 
reading. On total reading Group 2 was significantly higher than 
Group 1 and Group 3 was significantly higher than Group 1. 

Davis, Cynthia L. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, March, 1976) 

PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF JUNIOR COLLEGE 
SPECIAL STUDIES STUDENTS 

An investigation of the personality characteristics of students en- 
rolled in a junior college Special Studies program was conducted. 
Special Studies males and females under 21 years of age were com- 
pared to control groups of regularly admitted freshmen using the 
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire. Within the Special Stud- 

65 



ies subject group, male and female students under 21 were also com- 
pared with students 21 and over. 

It was found that young Special Studies males are more outgo- 
ing, warmhearted, and participating than regularly admitted fresh- 
men. They tend to be calmer and less easily upset as well as more 
venturesome, socially bold and uninhibited than other freshmen. 

Young Special Studies females are less intelligent and more con- 
crete in their thinking than regularly admitted females. They also 
appear to be more dependent, over-protected, and sensitive. 

Older Special Studies students of both sexes are more trusting, 
adaptable, and easy to get on with than younger students. It seems 
that young Special Studies students have a tendency to be more 
mistrusting and suspicious. 

Older males in Special Studies were found to be more humble 
and conforming than younger males who have a tendency to be asser- 
tive, aggressive, and independent. These older men are also not as 
quick to grasp new ideas and are more literal in their thinking than 
the younger males. 

Older females in Special Studies appear to be more emotionally 
stable and realistic about life than younger females who tend to be 
easily upset and affected by feelings. 

Garrett, Donald (MA, Psychology, June, 1976) 

SELF ACTUALIZATION AND RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE 

121 volunteers from the Miracle Deliverance, the Triumphing 
Church of the Apostolic Faith were administered the Personal Orien- 
tation Inventory. From interviewing, it was found that 20 of those 
surveyed had been "saved" from one day to one year six months and 
101 had been saved more than one year six months. Self-actualization 
was associated with the salvation experience itself. It was also con- 
cluded that the fellowship of the church meetings on the second and 
fourth weekends only enhanced the self-image, that the salvation 
experience had already delivered. 

Golden, Meluin L. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, June, 1976) 

TEACHER SELECTION CRITERIA FOR CARROLL COUNTY 

GEORGIA 

This study was done as an applied research project to develop a 
teacher selection process for Carroll County Georgia. With a suffi- 

66 



cient supply of teachers available and the complications in the dis- 
missal of teachers caused by the Fair Dismissal Law passed by the 
1973 Georgia Legislature, the need for a selection process that will 
help assure more effective teachers being employed is great. 

In developing the process a review of selected literature on 
teacher selection waas conducted. The questionnaire used by May 
and Doerge in Louisiana (1972) was adapted for use in this study. 
That instrument contained most of the items mentioned in other 
studies and has been validated. The questionnaire was administered 
to all professional personnel in the Carroll County School System. 
The professional personnel were divided into four groups; principals 
and central office personnel, high school teachers, elementary teach- 
ers and primary teachers. The mean for each of the 55 items on the 
questionnaire was calculated and the means were ranked from high- 
est to lowest in each group. The items ranked by the principal and 
central office group as very important to essential were used as the 
basis for comparison. The null hypothesis — that there was no signifi- 
cant correlation between the rankings of these items by the principals 
and central office personnel group and each of the other teacher 
groups was made. The null hypothesis was rejected in each case. The 
23 items ranked as very important to essential by the principals and 
central office group were used to develop the selection process. 

The process of teacher selection recommended as a result of this 
study has the following steps. An updated application form should be 
completed and a copy of the applicant's college transcript should be 
sent to the system office. The superintendent or his designee would 
review the application and check the list of vacancies given him by 
the principals. The list of vacancies should include a complete job 
description. The superintendent or his designee would then conduct 
the first interview and contact the former associates of the applicant 
either personally or by telephone. All the information gained by these 
steps should be recorded on check lists and passed on to the principal. 
He would review the information and conduct the second interview. 
The teachers with whom the applicant would be working would con- 
duct the third interview and give the principal a composite rating on 
the same items that were sought in the other interviews. The princi- 
pal should then make the recommendation for employment based on 
all the information gathered. The board of education could then ei- 
ther employ or reject the applicant. 



67 



Greear, Mildred (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
August, 1976) 

A HISTORY OF THE SCIENCE FAIR MOVEMENT IN GEOGIA 

WITH A SURVEY OF ATTITUDES HELD TOWARD 

SCIENCE FAIRS BY SELECTED 

FLOYD COUNTY STUDENTS 

The first Georgia State Science Fair was held in Atlanta in 1949, 
with students chiefly from the Atlanta area showing 313 entries. En- 
tries represented the work of students from kindergarten through 
grade twelve. 

The fair has now grown to an organization that attracts 500 
entries yearly from students who have won first or second place in 
certified pre-selection fairs. 

Among the agencies assisting the fair to its present status are the 
Georgia Academy of Science, the Georgia Junior Academy of Science, 
and the University of Georgia. A number of Georgia industries and 
businesses have sponsored the fair financially. 

Now officially the Georgia Science and Engineering Fair, it has 
affiliation with the Westinghouse National Science Talent Search 
and the International Science and Engineering Fair. 

Since 1957, the fair has been held at the University of Georgia. 

The attitudinal survey accompanying the history polled 270 sci- 
ence fair participants in Cave Spring and Model High Schools in 
Floyd County, Georgia. Respondents were from the freshman, sopho- 
more and junior classes. The descriptive statistical treatment de- 
tailed responses for the sub-groups school, grade, sex, and winning 
status. 

Winners and non-winners gave first goal priority to investigating 
a problem that had meaning for them, but differed in other priority 
rankings for goals and for sources of information for science fair pro- 
jects. 

An encouraging finding was that 58 percent of the students 
agreed that they and their teachers have clearly understood objec- 
tives when they enter a science fair. 

More than half of the respondents took the strongly agree posi- 
tion that participation in science fairs should be voluntary. 

Two items provided for open ended responses and those were 
appended with other survey data. Also appended were copies of the 
catalog for the first Georgia State Science Fair and for the first At- 
lanta Science Congress. 



68 



Harman, William S., Jr. (Specialist in Education, Administration 
and Supervision, June, 1976) 

A COMPARISON OF THE LEARNING CLIMATE 

BETWEEN OPEN AND TRADITIONAL 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN CARROLL COUNTY, GEORGIA 

This study was conducted to investigate the following questions: 
Is there a positive relationship between the design of a building and 
the attitude of teachers in seven primary schools in Carroll County, 
Georgia? What effect do the following factors have on teachers' atti- 
tudes: Leadership, Freedom, Evaluation, Compliance, and Coopera- 
tion. The instrument used in conductting this study was the Learning 
Climate Inventory developed by John R. Hoyle. The data for this 
investigation was collected by administering the above mentioned 
instrument to all of the faculty members of seven primary schools, 
grades 1-3,. The total population was 80. The findings resulted in no 
significant difference in a positive relationship between the design of 
the building and the attitude of teachers. Also, there was no signifi- 
cant difference in the climate factors on teacher attitudes. 

Harrell, Ronald L. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 

August, 1976) 

AN EVALUATION OF UNITED STATES HIGH SCHOOL 

HISTORY TEXTBOOKS IN REFERENCE TO CONFLICTING 

INTERPRETATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES ENTRY INTO 

WORLD WAR I, WORLD WAR H, AND THE COLD WAR 

The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, it was an exami- 
naion of high school United States history textbooks to determine 
what historical interpretation was given and if alternative interpreta- 
tions of history were presented to the student with reference to the 
United States' entry into World War I, the United States' entry into 
World War II, and the United States' entry into the Cold War. 

The second purpose of this study was to determine if there was 
any correlation between the date a textbook was published, and 
whether or not the textbook offered the student alternative interpre- 
tations of history. 

After the study was completed, the following conclusions were 
reached: 

1. In the period between 1962-1972, it was found that high 
school United States history textbooks have changed very little in the 
approaches to the material presented. 

69 



2. Traditional interpretations are given in reference to the 
United States' entry into World War I, World War II, and the Cold 
War. 

3. The textbooks do not give the student information on alter- 
native historical interpretations in existence. 

4. Textbook authors seem to be hampered by feelings of nation- 
alism and emotionalism in their writings. The result is that the stu- 
dent gets only one view of historical events. 

5. Textbooks are written as if history were an objective subject. 
But the failure to make the student aware that conflicting interpreta- 
tions do exist makes the textbook essentially biased. 

Hatfield, Archie E., Jr. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and 
Counseling, March, 1976) 

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION OF CLIENTS AND THE 
AUDIBLE COUNSELING SETTING 

The counselor in his office has the freedom to modify his environ- 
ment as he deems necessary. As could be expected, the counselor 
usually tries to create a favorable psychological atmosphere for the 
client. The researcher, by observation of client behaviors and direct 
questions, discovered that clients were less responsive and more anx- 
ious in direct conjunction with the volume and frequency of external 
sound. Having recognized the problem, attempts were made within 
the local school system to soundproof, baffle or otherwise restrict 
noises in the counseling area. The use of radio programs was at- 
tempted but abandoned when moods and changes in client disposi- 
tion were noted to often correspond with music, news, or commercial 
messages. 

The necessary medium was one of a neutral nature, pleasant but 
not subject to overtones of a psychological nature. An inexpensive 
"White Sound" generator was purchased and operated during coun- 
selor client sessions. The eff'ected sound approached realistically the 
steady roll of waves, of moderate size, upon a sandy beach. The 
resulting effect on clients previously scheduled were immediate and 
promising. 

The population for this study was the entire tenth grade class of 
Hardaway High School with the exception of forty three students, 
this created a derived N of 384. A control experimental group was 
created by split half method. Both groups approached the overall 
mean in racial make up, sex, age, IQ and achievement. 

The clients nonverbal behavior, those utilized in the study 
deemed to be most objectively observable, were recorded by the re- 
searcher in each case. Only the first occurence was measured in order 

70 



to allow for individual differences and self reinforcing behaviors. A 
simplified modification of Kinesic shorthand was utilized and clients 
seemed unaware of the notation. All other conditions, as could be 
controlled through time, were normal and contamination minimal. 
The season of the year was spring and air conditioning was func- 
tional. The office in question has no windows and only one door which 
was closed during the experimental time period. 

The resulting information supported the hypothesis that the di- 
rect variable, the presence of white sound, caruse an approximate 
209c) difference in the frequency of certain nonverbal behaviors. Most 
significant was the distance chosen by clients to sit in relation to the 
sound and the counselor. Thye hypothesis that there is a specific 
relationship between the presence of a specific white sound and cer- 
tain selected nonverbal behaviors of the population in question seems 
to be indicated. 

Other areas of investigation which may prove fruitful and might 
be implied from this study were: eye contact and racially mixed 
counseling sessions, the relative importance of seating within the 
counseling office, the nonverbal behavior of juveniles in secondary 
schools before and after lunch, reduction of anxiety through use of 
nonverbal behavior in sound controlled environments, or what are the 
implications of the nonverbal behavior observed with regard to the 
counseling process. This latter promises to be a highly complex but 
most likely the most beneficial avenue of research. 

Hochman, Neil (MA, Psychology, March, 1976) 

EMG FEEDBACK AND RELAXATION TRAINING 
AS AN ANCILLARY TREATMENT FOR 
ELEVATED INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE 

The self-regulation of intraocular pressure (lOP) through EMG 
feedback training was explored. Eight subjects were obtained: Two 
were diagnosed as open angle glaucoma and the remaining six as 
ocular hypertensives. Both glaucoma patients and three of the ocular 
hypertensives were receiving ophthalmic medication. In addition, 
nine control subjects that matched the experimental subjects in 
terms of lOP, clinical diagnosis, and approximate age were selected. 
The experimental subjects reported to an ophthalmoligist's office 
where the biofeedback sessions were conducted twice a week for eight 
weeks. A program of taped relaxation instruction (a series of three 
audio cassettes) was utilized. The control group received no treat- 
ment. Ocular pressures were measured on a pre- and post- basis using 
a Goldman applanation tonometer. 

71 



An analysis of covariance indicated that there were no significant 
differences between the two groups. Although this is a sensitive test 
of differences between treatments, its power is profoundly limited by 
sample size. 

At the last training session, the experimental subjects were also 
measured on a pre- and post- basis during the session. A repeated 
measures analysis of variance showed a significant reduction of lOP 
for both the right eyes (p037) and left eyes (ppOOl). Considering these 
results, and the fact that the pressure decreases in the experimental 
group (after eight weeks) were of such magnitude as to be clinically 
important, it would be premature to reject this technique without 
replication using a larger sample. 

The significance of this work lies in the possible use of this ap- 
proach as a treatment ancillary to those already used for ocular hy- 
pertension or open angle glaucoma. 

Holland, David A. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, March, 1976) 

THE ROLE OF THE SECONDARY SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 
HEAD IN GEORGIA 

Supervision of curriculum and instruction has, for many years, 
been considered one of the chief responsibilities of the secondary 
school principal. The task of supervising curriculm and instruction 
is too great for the principal to perform alone. It is; therefore, appro- 
priate for someone to be selected to help him perform these important 
tasks. Many principals have selected a person in each of their subject 
matter areas to help them and called them department heads. 

Five aspects of the department headship were researched in both 
the literature and in the state of Georgia, as perceived by secondary 
school principals. These five aspects were: (1) selecting the depart- 
ment head; (2) training the department head; (3) duties and respon- 
sibilities; (4) monetary reward for the department head; and (5) re- 
leased time for the department head. The literature was almost com- 
pletely void of information concerning department heads in small 
and Georgia schools. A survey instrument was mailed to all secondary 
school principals whose names appeared in the 1975 edition of the 
Georgia School Directory. Over 58 per cent of the principals re- 
sponded without a follow-up reminder. 

Over 83 per cent of respondents' schools were organized by de- 
partments and 97 per cent indicated that, if they were organizing a 
new school, they would use departmental organization. Most Georgia 
department heads are not supported in the five aspects mentioned 

72 



sufficiently for them to perform effectively and; therefore, remove the 
responsibility for supervising curriculum and instruction from the 
principal. 

Accrediting agencies have required that the principal spend 50 
per cent of his time supervising curriculum and instruction. Because 
this is an almost impossible task it is recommended that accrediting 
agencies develop criteria that require department heads to be respon- 
sible for curriculum and instruction supervision. It is further recom- 
mended that the department head be selected by the principal after 
he recieves input from department members; that he be given respon- 
sibility for curriculum and instruction supervision and the authority 
to make him effective; that he be released for 1 period, in addition 
to planning time allowed other teachers, for the first 3 to 5 depart- 
ment members and a second period for 6 or more department mem- 
bers; that the State Department of Education and colleges of educa- 
tion consider training programs for department heads; and that the 
department head be compensated a yearly salary that is indicated, 
at the local school level, by economic conditions. 

The Georgia department headship is dominated by the white 
female. Black males are almost completely absent from the depart- 
ment headship with black females occupying the headship only 
slightly more often than the black male. 

Houston, Louise B. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, March, 1976) 

SELF-CONCEPT VS. ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN THE 

INTERMEDIATE GRADES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

CHILDREN 

The purpose of this study was two fold: one, to compare the aca- 
demic achievement of the child with low self-concept with the aca- 
demic achievement of the child with high self-concept; and two, to 
compare the aggressive behavior as observed by the teacher of the 
child with low self-concept and the child with high self-concept. 

The subjects of this study were selected children from the fourth, 
fifth, and sixth grades of North Jonesboro Elementary School, Clay- 
ton County, Georgia. These children ranked above or below one stan- 
dard deviation of the mean on the Piers- Harris Children's Self- 

Concept Scale. 

Standardized achievement tests and itelligence tests were ad- 
ministered to all the children of the two groups. Teachers made obser- 
vations on an informal survey at the end of the first two weeks of the 
academic school year of aggressive behaviors of the students. 

73 



A comparison of the academic achievement of the students who 
rated themselves with high and low self-concept as measured by the 
Piers-Harris Scale was made by applying the Mann-Whitney U Test. 
The results of the study indicated that the composite scores in the 
areas of spelling, reading, and arithmetic showed no significant dif- 
ference at the .05 level (z = + -1.96). 

Aggressive behaviors as observed by the teachers were not signifi- 
cantly different in children with high or low self-concept. 

Hudgins, Oliver G. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, March, 1976) 

THE STATUS OF COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN 
SCHOOL BOARDS AND THEIR EMPLOYEES 

The concept of collective negotiations between district school 
boards and their professional employees has become a serious concern 
of many board members and school administrators throughout the 
nation. The purpose of this study was threefold. First was a determi- 
nation of the status of state and federal legislation relating to collec- 
tice negotiation between professional educational personnel and their 
employers. Secondly, was an investigation of the status of negotia- 
tions between school boards and the certificated school personnel in 
Georgia. And thirdly, was the identification of some guidelines which 
school boards might consider when preparing for collective bargain- 
ing. 

The information and data necessary to the development of this 
study was obtained through the synthesis of the literature on this 
topic. An analysis of existing state statutes and pending federal legis- 
lation was critical to the development of this research project. The 
information obtained from various court decisons and attorney gen- 
eral's opinions was important in determining the status of collective 
negotiations for public employees in Georgia. 

This study has shown that two distinct situations relating to 
collective bargaining for public employees exist within the United 
States. About seventy-five per cent of the states have legal precedent 
either mandating or permitting school boards to negotiate with their 
employees. Thirty-one states have authorized negotiations by the 
enactment of collective bargaining legislation. The school boards in 
twenty-five per cent of the states have no statutory obligation to 
negotiate with their employees. Even so, negotiations have occurred 
in some of these states and written contracts executed. 

This study has shown that the statutory laws of Georgia are 
silent on the subject of negotiations between public employers and 

74 



their employees. However, it was concluded that school boards, if 
they so desired, could meet their employees and negotiate concerning 
the terms and conditions of employment. School boards cannot be 
forced into negotiations, nor can they enter into a binding contract 
with a third party in the absence of legislation. 

Before entering negotiations, school boards must address them- 
selves to two critical problem areas. The selection of a chief negotia- 
tor is crucial to successful bargaining. It was concluded that some in- 
house administrator should be selected to serve as chief negotiator. 
This person would already have an intimate knowledge of the school 
system he is representing. The second problem area is the prepara- 
tions of the management team for actual bargaining. The board 
should insist that the negotiating team be supplied with all the essen- 
tial data and information required for successful negotiations. 

Ison, Tommy J. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Super- 
vision, August, 1976) 

ATTITUDES OF ELEMENTARY PERSONNEL IN THE 

GRIFFIN -SPALDING SCHOOL SYSTEM TOWARD 

USING STATEWIDE ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS AS A MEANS 

OF DETERMINING EDUCATIONAL ACCOUNTABILITY 

This study was undertaken to present the attitudes of elementary 
classroom personnel in the Griffin-Spalding School System toward 
their professional commitment to the educational system and to de- 
termine their attitudes about using statewide evaluation programs as 
a means of determining educational accountability. An educational 
opinionnaire was designed and pilot tested on a group of graduate 
students attending off campus classes offered by the Department of 
Education at West Georgia College. The opinionnaire instrument 
yielded a coefficient alpha reliability of .70. Following the pilot test- 
ing, the opinionnaire instrument was distributed to 293 elementary 
school personnel in the Griffin-Spalding School System and 61% of 
the total opinionnaires distributed were returned. From the tabula- 
tion and analytical treatment of the data it was concluded that ele- 
mentary personnel in this particular school system displayed strong 
negative attitudes about using statewide test results to determine 
educational accountability. It was also concluded that the elemen- 
tary school personnel generally held positive attitudes about their 
overall commitment to the educational system, and that they dis- 
played positive attitudes about the educational system in Griffin- 
Spalding with two notable exceptions. These exceptions were teacher 



75 



attitudes about the adequacy of present school faciHties and teachei 
attitudes about the operational procedures of the local board of edu 
cation. 

Jackson, John Calvin (Specialist in Education, Secondary Educa- 
tion, August, 1976) 

A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF TEAM TEACHING 
UPON ACHIEVEMENT IN AND ATTITUDE TOWARD UNITED 
STATES HISTORY AMONG STUDENTS AT CHEROKEE HIGH 

SCHOOL 

This study attempted to determine if the use of an interdisci- 
plinary team teaching approach would result in a significant gain in 
achievement or in attitude when compared to a traditional one- 
teacher approach. The experimental group consisted of two intact 
classes which were taught by a team of two teachers and were also 
part of a larger English-United States history class taught by four 
teachers. The control group consisted of two intact classes taught by 
one teacher in a traditional classroom. Null hypothesis were used. 

Both groups were given form A of the Cooperative Social Studies 
Tests: American History as an achievement pretest and form A of 
Remmers Any School Subject Survey as an attitude pretest. Form 
Am of the Otis Quick-Scoring Mental Ability Gamma Test was given 
to determine if the two groups were of equal mental ability. The t- 
tests for the difference between means were computed and no signifi- 
cant differences were found in either mental ability or achievement. 
However, the control group was significantly higher at the .05 level 
on the attitude survey. 

The experimental period lasted for seven school months. At the 
end of the treatment form B of the Cooperative Social Studies Tests: 
American History and form B of the Remmers Any School Subject 
Survey were given as posttests. Mean gains in achievement and atti- 
tude, as demonstrated by scores on the pretests and the posttests, 
were calculated. The t-test for independent samples found no signifi- 
cant difference in achievement gains at the .05 level. Hypothesis one 
was accepted. A significant difference in the attitude gains, at the .01 
level, was found to favor the experimental group. It was concluded, 
therefore, that the team teaching approach may produce a more fa- 
vorable attitude toward subject matter than the traditional ap- 
proach. Hypothesis two was rejected. 



76 



Jenkins, James T. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Su- 
pervison, August, 1976) 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A TEACHER EVALUATION 

INSTRUMENT BY THE DISCRIMINANT PERCEPTION 

REPERTORY TEST METHOD 

The purpose of this project was to develop a teacher evaluation 
instrument designed to help school administrators and teachers in 
the improvement of instruction. The construction of the instrument 
involved a cooperative effort between teachers and those designed as 
evaluators. The input of the teachers as to the areas of evaluation was 
considered to be important in the construction of the instrument. 

The project effort involved receiving input from 38 classroom 
teachers, relative to the areas they felt strongest about on teacher 
performance. The teachers listed factors which they felt made a 
teacher either an effective teacher, or characteristics which contrib- 
uted to being ineffective. Alan F. Brown's Discriminant Perception 
Repertory Test was the method used to gather the information for the 
construction of the instrument. 

The project was effective in producing significant areas that 
teachers felt were important to effectiveness in the classroom. 
Teacher involvement in the construction of the instrument helped to 
break down several of the previous communications barriers con- 
nected with evaluation. 

Jones, Betty J. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
June, 1976) 

MODIFYING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF ELEMENTARY 
STUDENTS BY THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL SELF CONTROL 

TECHNIQUES 

This research examined the effectiveness of a behavioral self con- 
trol program on the reduction of aggressive primary grade children. 
One experimenter, the Counselor at Mountain View Elementary 
School, Mountain View, Ga. established a base rate for three specific 
aggressive behaviors during a two week period prior to beginning the 
training program. The conditioning phase, during which the program 
was administered, lasted for five weeks. After that time, the program 
was discontinued. Approximately three weeks later, the experimenter 
again observed in the classroom to determine if the behavior rates 
had increased or decreased after the treatment had been terminated. 
The data was analyzed by use of Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Signed 

77 



Ranks Test. Analyzed difference between pretraining period an 
training periods represented by the first week, second week, thir 
week, fourth week, and fifth week produced significant results at oi 
beyond the .05 level. 



Long, Deborah H. (MA, English, March, 1976) 

THREE RECURRING THEMES IN THE WORKS OF JAMES 

DICKEY 

The poetry and prose of James Dickey covers a wide range of 
subject matter, but the largest part of this writing deals with a few 
prominent themes: death and rebirth, initiation, and man's moral 
dilemma. This thesis attempts such a thematic analysis of Dickey's 
poetry and his one novel. Deliverance. 

The theme of death and rebirth transcends historical boundaries, 
and Dickey, always aware of the problems the individual faces in a 
modern society, relates this theme to the needs of the individual in a 
contemporary world. Spiritual regeneration in Dickey's poems relies 
on the power of the imagination to transcend the rational world. 
Consequently, renewal may occur in almost any experience, the poet 
implies, but the natural world off'ers the most promise for such an 
experience. Dickey's persona most often witnesses the recurring cycle 
of life, death, and resurrection in nature. 

In the theme of initiation, too, Dickey is able to stress the trans- 
forming capacity the imagination holds for the sensitive man. The 
rite de passage in Dickey's works almost always involves some trau- 
matic and terrifying experience in which the initiate is forced to 
exceed his own limitations. In the course of the adventure the initiate 
gains an unusual view of man in general and himself in particular; 
he usually discovers within himself the primitive and savage nature 
that lies hidden within all men. Ritualistic elements found in the 
poems and in Deliuerence serve to point out the importance of the 
experience to primitive and modern man alike. 

The poet also explores such traditional subjects as war, family, 
love, and many forms of human relationships and finds the human 
condition wrought with serious and complex predicaments. The 
theme of man's moral dilemma is considered in poems which depict 
the complex human emotion of guilt, futility, and fear. These emo- 
tions are often irrational and consequently cannot always be alle- 
viated by imaginative visions, such as those found in poems dealing 
with death and rebirth and initiation. Nevertheless, the imagination 
is always at work in whatever Dickey writes and lends a type of 
consistency to his works. 

78 



Lovuorn, Demmervel S. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and 
Counseling, June, 1976) 

INTERPERSONAL ADJUSTMENT AND CAREER 

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH 

GROUP COUNSELING 

This study sought to determine the short-term effect of group and 
individual guidance and counseling in career development using four 
groups of students. The Piers-Harris Self Concept Scale was used as 
a pre-test and post-test to determine, with t test, the difference be- 
tween the means of the treatment groups at the critical value of .05. 
Significant differences were found between the treatment groups. 
Positive results were found for those treated experimentally with 
guidance activities. Students had more information about opportuni- 
ties in different vocations, attitudes and behavior improved, personal 
satisfaction in school activities increased, and the guidance program 
services were expanded through the career development group coun- 
seling activity. 

Lumsden, Carolyn F. (MA, English, August, 1976) 

THE FUNCTION OF REGIONAL FOLKLORE AND TRADITON 
IN THREE OF THOMAS HARDY'S WESSEX NOVELS 

In the Wessex novels of Thomas Hardy, the incorporation of folk- 
lore and tradition from his native county of Dorset is a substantial 
contribution. The purpose of this study was to examine Hardy's use 
of the folktales and traditions and to determine their function in three 
of those novels. The endeavor to fully appreciate the contribution 
included a study of the origins of the folkways and stories, an investi- 
gation into Hardy's own assimilation of the traditions, an exploration 
of the use of the material in each novel, and a thoughtful attempt to 
explain how the folklore and traditions distinguish Hardy's works. 

In order to establish the origins of the Dorset County legends and 
folkways which are the bases of their Wessex counterparts, a study 
was done of the myths and customs of that region in England. Out 
of the many excellent British studies of folklore and tradition were 
chosen the ones whose descriptions of the folkways most accurately 
corresponded with the ones in Hardy's works in detail and geographi- 
cal origin. A thorough study of biographies, letters, and notebooks of 
Hardy's revealed the gradual assimilation of the folk material he 
used. More importantly, it revealed the importance that Hardy at- 
tached to his folk hertiage. The novels considered in this study were 

79 



The Return of the Native, The Mayor of Casterbridge, and Tess of 
the D'Urberuilles, and they provided the most vital material. The 
many uses of tradition and folklore were examined in the context of 
the novels. Hardy's own descriptions of the traditions and folklore 
provided the best source of information about the Dorset County 
culture which he emulated. 

The research revealed that there were three major contributions 
made to the Wessex novels through Hardy's use of folklore and tradi- 
tion. The most apparent one was the use Hardy made of unusual 
stories or customs to create a tone of mystery or foreboding. Secondly, 
Hardy used traditions and folklore to foreshadow more important 
events in the novels which contribute to the pathos. The least obvious 
use was Hardy's integration of the folk material into characterizatons 
in order to dramatize unusual attributes. The conclusion of this study 
was that the contributions made by the folk material in achieving a 
mysterious tone, in foreshadowing major events, and in characteriza- 
tion distinguish the novels as great works and contribute to their 
univerality. 

Mayben, James H. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, August, 1976). 

A STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS WITH 

BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS WITH THE 

PURPOSE OF ESTABLISHING COUNTY-WIDE POLICIES 

WITH AIM OF REDUCING DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS 

The study was conducted to determine whether students with 
discipline problems could be identified and if so what characteristics 
they exhibited. This study surveyed teachers in grades four, and eight 
in Polk School District, Cedertown, Georgia. Students were separated 
into two different categories. One category was for students who were 
considered to be discipline problems, while the other category was for 
students who were termed good students. 

The teachers identified one hundred discipline problem students 
and one hundred eighty-seven good students. After the lists had been 
compiled, the students were administered (1) Feelings About School 
instrument and (2) Index of Adjustment and Values instrument. 

These two instruments and the students' permanent record cards 
were used to help determine what characteristics students with be- 
havior problems exhibited. 

The instrument on Adjustment and Values did not appear to 
provide the type data needed to discriminate between good students 
and those students with discipline problems. The instrument on Feel- 

80 



ings About School appears to provide the type data needed to dis- 
criminate between good students and those students with discipline 
problems. 

McClure, Charles D. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, March, 1976) 

THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED MANIPULATIVE MATERIALS 

ON THE LEVEL OF MOTIVATION TO ACHIEVE OF 

FIRST GRADE CHILDREN 

The study was undertaken to determine the potential of selected 
manipulative materials for changing the level of motivation to 
achieve of first grade students. All students involved in the study 
were from two diflferent urban schools within Fulton County, Georgia. 
Students from one school became the experimental group and were 
exposed to the selected manipulative materials. Students from the 
other school had no such exposure. 

The pretest and posttest for both groups was Animal Crackers: 
A Test of Motivation to Achieve. A statistical comparison of the mean 
gain scores of the experimental and control groups in each of the six 
areas of Animal Crackers was made. No significant gain favoring 
either group was found for school enjoyment, self-confidence, purpo- 
siveness, instrumental activity, or self-evaluation; however, the gain 
for the experimental oroup in total motivation to achieve was signifi- 
cant at the .05 level. Findings indicate that the total impact of the 
inclusion of selected manipulative materials can be beneficial in the 
first grade as a means of increasing achievement motivation. 

McCrory, Bobbie D.F. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, August, 1976) 

A CASE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF A MATRIARCHAL 

FAMILY UPON THE EMOTIONAL LIVES OF FOUR 

GENERATIONS 

The objective of this research paper is to deal with the issue of the 
emotional effects of a matriarchal family upon four generations and 
the perspective of dealing with the problems so all members can live 
successful and contributing lives for themselves and society. 

I shall present, compare, and contrast the types of family pat- 
terns that exist and the characteristics of each including problems 
which they present. Also a historical background will be given to show 
how the family structure and problems evolved. 

81 



The underlying premise of this paper is to demonstrate the im- 
portance of dealing with the matriarchal family and its affects upon 
human beings, presenting a case study that contains the matriarchal 
family and its problems, and the data secured from working with the 
family. 

Chapter one deals with general information. 

Chapter two deals with related literature. 

Chapter three deals with the case study. 

Chapter four deals with the findings and interpretations of data. 

Chapter five deals with the summary, conclusions, and recom- 
mendations. 

McMillian, John W. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, August, 1976) 

DEVELOPMENT OF A DECISION-MAKING MODEL 

APPROPRIATE FOR USE BY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS IN 

MAKING NONPROGRAMED DECISIONS 

Although much attention has been given to decision-making tech- 
niques in the business world, little effort has been made in providing 
decision-making models appropriate to the use of the school adminis- 
trator. The central problem of this study, therefore, was the develop- 
ment of a decision-making model for educational administrators that 
could be applied to current nonprogrammed decision areas within 
public education. 

The model developed in this study consisted of four major 
phases. These phases were combined in an order which was logical 
when extracted from the work of the authors researched for this 
paper. The model was developed specifically by combining the four 
basic phases of decision-making recommended by Stufflebeam, et. al. 
(1971), with those decision-making principles attributed to March 
and Simon (1958), and Simon (1965). These decision-making princi- 
ples were further combined with those planning principles recom- 
mended by Hellreigel and Slocum (1974). 

The developed model was applied to the solution of two problem 
areas at Central High School, Newnan, Georgia. These problems con- 
cerned developing school identity and spirit, and solving curriculum 
articulation problems in the area of business education and home 
economics. 

The basic value derived from the model developed in this study 
was that it provided a systematic approach to nonprogrammed 
decision-making situations. By guiding the administrator into the 
identification, evaluation, and selection of alternatives the model 

82 



served as a rational vehicle to overcome the tendency to make impor- 
tant educational decisions based only on an administrator's intuition 
or experiences, unstructured guesses, or other arbitrary choices of any 
type. 

Miller, Burt R., Ill (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, August, 1976) 

A COMPARISON OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES ABOUT GRADE 
REPORTING PROCEDURES IN TWO COWETA COUNTY ELE- 
MENTARY SCHOOLS 

This study was designed to compare the attitudes of two elemen- 
tary school parent populations concerning the grade reporting proce- 
dures employed by the respective schools. The Atkinson School (235 
family units) used the traditional report card with evaluative terms 
A, B, C, D and F; while the Elm Street School (345 family units) used 
a skill oriented progress report with evaluative terms "S" (Satisfac- 
tory) and "N" (Needs Improvement). Parents were asked to respond 
to fifteen survey statements which covered four basic grade reporting 
areas: Reporting format, evaluative terms, student classwork for- 
warded home, and parent-teacher conferences. Elm Street School 
received a 71 percent return from parents, while Atkinson School 
received a 51 percent return. Generalizations about the total parent 
population of Atkinson School were not possible due to the low survey 
return from the Atkinson parents. Analysis of the survey data re- 
sulted in an F ratio of 1.697 indicating that there was no significant 
difference in parent attitudes about grade reporting between the two 
schools on the total survey. 

Morgan, Frank (MA, Psychology, June, 1976) 

PARANORMAL HEALING 

BEGINNING A THEORETICAL BRIDGE 

FROM PHENOMENA TO STRUCTURED UNDERSTANDING 

The focus of interest in this study was the phenomena of paranor- 
mal healing, both through the laying on of hands and absent healing. 
The experimental results of various researches in paranormal healing, 
and parapsychology generally, were examined. A comparative analy- 
sis of another leading theory of paranormal healing, that of Lawrence 
Le Shan was made in light of the full range of data. The facts were 



83 



considered in an effort to move toward a cogent theory of paranormal 
healing. 

Morgan, Harriet M. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, June, 1976) 

THE DOUGLAS COUNTY POLICY REFERENCE MANUAL 

In order for boards of education to provide for efficient and effec- 
tive management and operation of schools, they must have a struc- 
tural base upon which to make decisions. The Douglas County Board 
of Education through a project director, assessed its structural base 
by updating, codifying, editing and rewriting policies where needed. 
All policies were based upon current constitutional, statutory and 
State Board of Education regulations. 

The procedures used in this study were: (1) review of 1972-1976 
Board documents; (2) identification of policy areas where conflicts 
existed and areas where no policies existed; and (3) editing, writing 
and codifying Board documents according to the codification system 
of the Georgia School Boards Association; and (4) final approval by 
the Board resulted in an updated Douglas County Policy Reference 
Manual. Recommendations for continued revision of the Manual 
were also included in this study. 



Mueller, Manfred (MA, Psychology, August, 1976) 

IN SEARCH OF THE LOST CHORD: A STUDY OF 
GEMEINSCHAFTSGEFUHL IN HUMANISTIC PSYCHOLOGY 

This paper makes a plea for the oneness of all beings and the 
existence of a common meaning which ties individsals together. Man 
is condemned to belong. The feeling of belonging as a basic life energy 
is viewed as a fundamental aspect of all experience. The situation of 
an individual as a growing human being is conceptualized as the 
continuing change in how one's belonging is perceived. An investiga- 
tion of the influences of Alfred Adler, one of the first psychologists to 
emphasize the social embeddedness of man. His concept of 
Gemeinschaftsgefuhl may indeed be the foundation of Third Force 
psychology. The thesis concludes with a portrait of the communion 
of man as the responsible subject of his existence. 



84 



Nettles, Henry S., Jr. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, June, 1976) 

A COMPARISON OF THE LEARNING 

CLIMATE OF TRADITIONAL AND OPEN 

SPACE MIDDLE SCHOOLS WITHIN 

COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA 

The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning climates 
of three traditional middle schools and three open-space middle 
schools within the Cobb County School System. Also, an attempt was 
made to determine the factors that caused a more positive learning 
climate. Field data were gathered from 248 teachers using the Learn- 
ing Climate Inventory and three items of personal information. There 
were 125 responses from traditional middle school teachers and 123 
responses from open-space middle school teachers. The responses 
were analyzed by a one-way analysis of variance. 

There were three major findings with this study. There was a 
significent difference found between the learning climates of the 
open-space middle schools and the traditional middle schools. There 
was a significant difference found in regard to the leadership behav- 
iors of the administration, the freedom the teachers feel to experi- 
ment with their instructional activities, and in regard to the extent 
the teachers and students are involved in teacher and administration 
evaluations. There was not a significant difference found in regard to 
the extent teachers are supported in their efforts to team teach and 
use resources people. 

The nature and environment of the open-space middle schools 
tend to lend themselves to a more open learning climate. The teach- 
ers are in a situation whereby they must team teach, therefore, re- 
quiring more direct supervision from the administrators. This ap- 
pears to cause a more open climate for freedom and evaluation for the 
teachers and administrators. 

The teachers in the traditional middle school appear to have 
more support from the administration. This may be due to the ne- 
cessity of encouragement by the administration for team teaching to 
be implemented in the traditional middle schools. 

There appears to be a factor of the certificate level of a faculty 
contributing to the more positive learning climate, whereas, the age 
of the faculty and the teaching experience do not appear to contribute 
to a positive learning climate. 

The major recommendations to be made are for more assistance 
at the system level with the staff development programs to help de- 
velop the faculties of the traditional schools with the middle school 
programs. There should not be any future conversions of traditional 

85 



junior high schools to middle schools without attention being given 
to developing the teacher for the transition. 

Neville, Mary A. T. (MA, Biology, March, 1976) 

AN ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE MOSSES OF 
KENNESAW MOUNTAIN NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD PARK 

This study lists 78 species of mosses representing 28 families 
found in Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park. The moss 
flora is described in relation to habitat, frequently of occurrence and 
fruiting season. 

Potter, John R. (MA, Psychology, March, 1976) 

AN ADVENTURE IN CONSCIOUSNESS: 
THE GROWTH OF EXPERIENCING 

The purpose of this study was to explore the ontology, epistemol- 
ogy, and structural dimesions of conscious experiencing. Ontological 
consciousness and objective consciousness were juxtaposed and the 
consequences of each was demonstrated. Objective consciousness was 
found to be descriptive of a plit condition that denies the wholeness 
of being disclosed by ontological consciousness. The growth of experi- 
encing is a move toward wholeness; it is a move away from fixed 
constructs to perception founded on phenomenological fluidity. The 
consequent epistemology of self/other from onotological an objective 
perspectives is discussed. Objective knowing is seen to act upon the 
environment and aflfect the reality oserved. Hence, an undisturbed 
percentage of reality is unavailable from this perspective. An 
experiential-phenomenological knowing that grows out of an ontolog- 
ical grounding is considered to be a process of undoing the fixation 
of distinctions that create boundaries, realities and letting experience 
in. Inside/outside, self/other are found to be the same in some way 
and it is by looking inward to the depths of being (feeling, intuitive, 
and sensual modes) that a perception of wholeness is possible. A 
perception of what is flows in when ego constructions are emptied. 
The growth of experiencing is found to be a move toward wholeness 
of being and the movement from alienated to wwole knowing. The 
structural dimensions of consciousness are one's embeddedness in 
time, space, body, and the psyche in which one's quest for the latter- 
day Grail, growth, is situated. The movement from objective con- 
sciousness to experiential-phenomenological consciousness is found 
to be a disjunctive jump upon which other crossings, linear or dis- 
junctive, may be made. 

86 



Puckett, Christine D. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, August, 1976) 

AN ASSESSMENT TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF 

PROJECT SUCCESS ON CLASSROOM BEHAVIOR IN THE 

RURAL SETTING OF A FLOYD COUNTY SCHOOL 

This study was designed to provide experimental data on the 
effectiveness of Project Success in lowering the number of discipline 
cases handled through the school office, thereby showing an overall 
decrease in negative type discipline handled throughout the school. 
Records were kept for two years of discipline cases handled in the 
principal's office, and then the chi square statistical test was incorpo- 
rated to test for significance in the drop of discipline cases handled 
for the second year. The .05 significance level was chosen for the 
comparison. The records were compared in total and in the six disci- 
pline areas of (1) student conferences and warnings (2) parent confer- 
ences (3) paddlings (4) written assignments (5) suspensions, and (6) 
other. A significant diff"erence was determined in every area except 
parent conferences which also showed a drop for the second year, 
although not a significant one. 

Puckett, Robert J. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, June, 1976) 

IDENTIFYING CRITICAL NEEDS OF FLOYD COUNTY 

SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE 

NEEDS ASSESSMENT 

This project was undertaken in an eflFort to provide a basis to 
make decisions concerning the educational programs of the Floyd 
County School System. The objective of this project was to enable 
Floyd County personnel to acquire the understandings, skills, and 
attitudes needed to implement selected educational improvement 
activities and practices directed at priority student needs. The prob- 
lem was to rank identified student needs and develop strategies to 
meet these needs. 

A needs assessment survey was conducted under the auspices of 
the Staff Development Planning Committee. The organization of the 
survey originated through the Curriculum Coordination Council. The 
individual schools in the county set up a local Needs Assessment 
Committee within their schools and community to coordinate the 
survey. This committee consisted of teachers, administrators, par- 
ents, lay persons, and students. A sample of the school population 

87 



was selected and the survey instruments were distributed to parents, 
teachers, and students and returned through the mail. At the comple- 
tion of the survey, the Staff Developing Planning Committee met to 
re-evaluate the needs and goals and presented them to the Floyd 
County Board of Education. 

There were 1,000 survey instruments administered with a return 
of 641 instruments. The results indicated a need for an in-service staff 
development program for teachers to strengthen the areas of basic 
mathematics skills and language arts skills in grades K-12. This was 
the second ranked goal in the Floyd County School System. 

The study might be repeated at least every two years for the next 
four to six years to provide longitudinal data relative to student 
needs. The program might be expanded to analyze needs by the sub- 
population in order to determine which needs are most critical to 
each subgroup tested. Also, the in-service staff development program 
could be continued in order to meet these identified needs. 

Pulliam, Timothy N. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, August, 1976) 

THE SELECTION OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS (1-6) IN THE 

HENRY COUNTY, GEORGIA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM AS 

DETERMINED BY PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS 

The problem for this research project was to develop an elemen- 
tary teacher selection procedure for Henry County based on the per- 
sonality data obtained for the elementary teachers who were tested 
and based on the theoretical information obtained from the review of 
the literature. An additional aspect of the problem involved the de- 
velopment of an interview guide for elementary principals to use in 
the teacher selection process. 

All elementary teachers in Henry County were asked to partici- 
pate in this study. A total sample of 107 teachers were administered 
four personality tests: the Gordon Personal Profile, the Gordon Per- 
sonal Inventory, the Survey of Personal Values, and the Survey of 
Interpersonal Values. The results of these tests were correlated with 
each other and with other variables such as the age of the teacher and 
length of service in Henry County. The relationship between length 
of service and certain personality characteristics was used in the de- 
velopment of an interview guide for use by principals in the selection 
of prospective teachers for the school system. 



88 



Rahman, Kalim Ur (MA, Psychology, June, 1976) 

HUMAN MOTIVATION: A CRITIQUE OF AMINALCENRISM 

In my study of human notivation in contemporary psychology, I 
constantly felt concerned about human beings being treated at the 
level of either animals or automatons. In this paper I have tried to 
argue against this approach. My thesis is that human motivation is 
essentially different from animal motivation and that while animal 
behavior is instinctive and stereotyped, human behavior is infinitely 
varied and complex. Also I have tried to bring out what is uniquely 
human — the aspect of meaning, significance and intentionality. The 
higher needs of human beings as opposed to the merely physiological 
and instinctive needs of the lower animals are discussed in detail here 
to form a more holistic and humanistic approach to human motiva- 
tion. 

Rat ledge, Patricia M. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, August, 1976) 

A DIAGOSTIC STUDY OF EMPLOY ABILITY SKILLS OF 
EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS 

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of employa- 
bility skills of the Educable Mentally Retarded pupil in three se- 
lected Gwinnett County Schools. The Wechsler Intellegence Scale for 
Children and the Social and Pre-vocational Information Battery were 
administered to measure the employability levels of those participat- 
ing in the study. 

Pre-test data collected from the participating students indicated 
a certain lack of information in the areas of Job Search Skills and Job 
Related Behavior. After reviewing the pre-test data with participat- 
ing EMR class instructors, individualized career development pro- 
grams, the post-test data revealed an increase in the deficient areas 
pevously identified by the SPIB pre-test scores. 

Results from this study, even though a limited sample, clearly 
suggest that certain standardized tests can be useful in assisting 
EMR class teachers in planning more meaningful career development 
programs for their pupils. 



89 



Rawlston, Barbara H. (Specialist in Education, Early Childhood 
Education, August, 1976) 

THE STUDY OF STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF THE EARLY 
CHILDHOOD EDUCATION GRADUATE PROGRAM AT WEST 
GEORGIA COLLEGE FROM JANUARY, 1973 THROUGH JUNE, 

1976 

The purpose of this study was to formally tabulate and assess 
student evaluations of the early childhood education graduate pro- 
gram at West Georgia College from January, 1973 through June, 
1976. 

One hundred questionnaire results were tabulated. The results 
showed that the students had positive attitudes toward the early 
childhood education graduate program at West Georgia College. 

Remillard, Donald J. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, August, 1976) 

STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 

SATISFACTION WITH SCHOOL AND 

ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS 

AT LITHIA SPRINGS COMPREHENSIVE HIGH SCHOOL 

Satisfaction with school was assessed from the 256 students en- 
rolled in eleventh grade English classes at Lithia Springs Comprehen- 
sive High School in Lithia Springs, Georgia by means of a 60-item 
questionnaire. Those students who scored in the top and bottom 
twenty-five per cent, selected separately by sex, were designated as 
satisfied (36 boys, 28 girls) and dissatisfied (36 boys, 28 girls), respec- 
tively. Satisfaction with school for the extreme groups was then re- 
lated to measures of intellectual ability, academic success and ratings 
given by both English and vocational or fine arts teachers. There was 
no significant relationship between satisfaction with school and 
achievement test scores for boys, but a significant relationship did 
exist between school satisfaction and composition and verbal 
achievement for girls. There was no significant relationship between 
girls' attitudes toward school and mathematics achievement. The 
findings also showed that there was a significant relationship between 
students' attitudes toward school and the report card grades they 
received from their English teacher. When comparing satisfaction 
toward school with teacher ratings the findings showed that there was 
a statistically significant relationship between students' attitudes 
toward school and the ratings given them by their English teacher, 

90 



but that no significant relationship existed between school satisfac- 
tion and the ratings given students by their vocational or fine arts 
teachers. 



Richardson, Janice W. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Educa- 
tion, August, 1976) 

A STUDY TO COMPARE VIEWS 

OF STUDENTS, PARENTS, AND SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

WITH RESPECT TO THE GOALS OF SECONDARY SOCIAL 

STUDIES 

The purpose of this study was to compare views of students, par- 
ents, teachers, and school administrators of Clayton County concern- 
ing the objectives for the secondary social studies program. Students 
and parents for this study were randomly selected from the students 
and parents of students at North Clayton Senior High School. All 
social studies teachers in the senior high schools in the county were 
asked to participate in the survey. All administrators in the senior 
and junior high schools, and those administrators in the Clayton 
County Board of Education office to deal with the social studies 
curriculum were given surveys. The four groups rated the importance 
of twelve objectives of the secondary social studies program which 
had been extracted from the writing of leading social studies educa- 
tors. Chi square was computed to determine whether or not actual 
differences existed in the ratings by the four groups. The results 
revealed that differences existed in the rating of nine of the objectives 
to the degree that further study was warranted. Another chi square 
was computed for each of the six pairs of groups: student-parents, 
student- teacher, student-administrators, teachers-administrators, 
parents-administrators and parents-teachers. It was concluded that 
significant differences did exist among the four groups compared con- 
cerning the objectives of the secondary social studies program. The 
greatest amount of difference was found between students and teach- 
ers. Teachers and administrators were similar in their viewing of the 
objectives. The comparisons found that the teachers tended to be the 
most affective-oriented group and students the more cognitive group. 



91 



Robertson, Alice A. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educatior 
August, 1976) 

THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED PUPIL VARIABLES ON THE 

READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST, THIRD, 

AND SEVENTH GRADE PUPILS 

This study was designed to analyze what effects and interactions 
the variables age, sex, and family placement have on reading achieve-l 
ment of students in grades one, three, and seven. The students in tht 
study were all from one school, had birthdays in months older thanl 
June, July and August, and had never been retained during their| 
school enrollment. 

A 2 X 2 X 3 Factorial Analysis of Variance was the statistical! 
technique employed. Program AVAR23 was used which yielded 
weighted means. This was necessary because of the unequal number 
of subjects per cell. The results showed that in grades three and seven 
age, sex, family placement and the interactions of these were not 
significant at the .05 level of significance. However, in grade one, the 
age of the child and the sex of the child ere significant. All other 
variables and interactons in grade one were not significant at the .05 
level. 

The program was determined to be a very successful one in this 
rural setting just as it had previously been found to be in the inner- 
city situation of Atlanta, Georgia. It is therefore suggested that the 
program be continued in this school as well as other schools in the 
county and that records continue to be kept for a continuous compari- 
son from year to year. 

Rouse, C. Paul (Specialist in Education, Administration and Super- 
vision, August, 1976) 

A BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION MODEL TO ENCOURAGE POSI- 
TIVE BEHAVIOR IN A SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST ACADEMY 
RESIDENCE HALL 

The purpose of this project was to design a residence hall manage- 
ment program which would reduce situations that tend to create 
negative feelings within the student. These negative feelings too often 
develop into many adverse reactions such as negative attitudes, low 
morale, and sometimes destrictiveness. 

A comprehensive historical research of the literature revealed 
numerous principles and techinques successfully used in the class- 
room, but none were found in which a residence hall was the base for 
study. However, the methods of behavior modification used in these 

92 



studies reviewed were conducive to stimulating positive behavior at 
different times and in varied situations. Therefore, if care was used 
in application of these methods to a residence hall program, then that 
program should succeed. 

The methods that were determined to be applicable to a resi- 
dence hall program were the principles of positive reinforcement and 
aversive control. Positive reinforcement techniques used were based 
on a point system, or token reinforcement, and contingency contract- 
ing, both individual and group. The aversive control te techniques 
were response cost, time-out, and punishment. 

It was concluded that this program would result in the student 
gaining in the following ways: (1) increased self-esteem; (2) increased 
self-perception; (3) greater self-confidence; (4) more positive atti- 
tude; (5) more positive relationship; (6) increased academic achieve- 
ment; (7) more favorable habits. 

With these conclusions, it was recommended that the program 
be given a nine-week trial period to be then evaluated as to its effec- 
tiveness. 

It is pointed out that this program does not infer to be the pana- 
cea for eliminating negative feelings, nor does it represent the final 
word. What it does is to offer a different approach to residence hall 
management with the intent of making the dormitory a place where 
the residents experience a positive and harmonious development of 
their physical, mental, and spiritual powers. 

Sampson, Larry E. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1976) 

A TEACHER'S RESOURCE GUIDE FOR THE PREPARATION 
OF A HISTORY OF MURRAY COUNTY, GEORGIA 

The purpose of this study is to provide a resource guide for high 
school teachrs of Murray County High School, Chatsworth, Georgia, 
to use in helping students prepare a history of the county. There 
exists no modern, up-to-date written history of Murray County at 
present. This guide is intended to present information and techniques 
in the collection and writing of local history. The intention is for it 
to be used with a class of selected high school students over a period 
of time. 

Special emphasis is given to the discipline of oral history and 
how this technique may be used in gathering local history. 

The section specifically dealing with Murray County is a collec- 
tion of resource people, location of records, etc., to be used as leads 
into the deeper probing of the county's history. 

93 



Sentell, Susan D. (MA, History, August, 1976) 

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR SOLDIER AND 
HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD WAR, 1775-1783 

The colonial soldier during the American Revolution was not a 
professional warrior. He had to quickly acquire milirary skills and 
strategy that would enable him to survive and eventually to win a 
protracted war. In addition to the dangers of conflict, the soldier was 
compelled to adjust to the boredom and lonliness that accompanies 
every war. Many soldiers deserted, some in order to return to their 
family and business responsibilities, others because of their hatred of 
the discipline inherent in army life. Recruiting was a persistent prob- 
lem throughout the conflict. Ultimately, however, an adequate legion 
was raised and galvanized into an eff'ective fighting force. 

The task of directing amateur soldiers fell to amateur officiers. 
General Washington was plagued by inexperienced subalterns and by 
the petty machinations of Congress. Nevertheless, some American 
commanders — and several foreign volunteers — acted in a distin- 
guished manner. The officers faced many of the same problems which 
confronted the enlisted men. In addition to inadequate food and 
shelter, the officer frequently went without pay. Like the conscripts, 
not a few officers deserted the Continental Army. 

On the home front, civilian leaders faced the task of arousing and 
maintaining enthusiasm for the war. Newspapermen, pamphleteers 
like Thomas Paine and Samuel Adams, and numerous clergymen 
proved to be adroit propagandists. 

At war's end the military ideas embraced by this generation were 
codified in the United States Constitution. The debates at the Con- 
stitutional Convention principally reflected the American's concern 
over standing armies and civilian control of the military. Throughout 
these debates and the ensuing ratifying conventions, the Founding 
Fathers constructed a document which reflected the colonial and 
Revoluntionary experience with warfare. 

Shoemaker, Garland (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Coun- 
seling, June, 1976) 

THE COMPARISON OF AUDIO-VISUAL DEMONSTRATION 
METHOD OF INSTRUCTION AND THE TRADITIONAL- 
LECTURE METHOD OF INSTRUCTION IN THE AREA OF JOB 
INTERVIEW SKILLS IN THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATIONAL 
AWARENESS PROGRAM OF NEWMAN HIGH SCHOOL 

The problem of this thesis was to determine if there was a signifi- 

94 



cant difference in the achievement of high school students who had 
been taught Job Interview skills by the audio-visual demonstration 
method and those taught by the traditional lecture method of in- 
struction. Students were to be tested by a pencil and paper test and 
by a simulated job interview. 

The teacher taught two groups of ten students each for ten 55 
minute periods. The control group was taught job interview skills by 
the traditional-lecture method of instruction where the teacher lec- 
tured and students listened. Questions were permitted; however, they 
were not encouraged. Questions from the end of the textbook were 
assigned to the student to answer. 

The experimental group was taught job interview skills by the 
audio-visual demonstration method of instruction. One tape series 
and one tape-slide series was used. Student questions and discussion 
was encouraged. Also, each student participated in two role-playing 
job interviews. 

The conclusions from this study were threefold: 

1. That simulated experiences in the classroom do make a dif- 
ference in student achievement when student evaluation is also based 
on simulated situations. 

2. That there may be little difference in the effectiveness of 
audio-visual demonstration instruction and the traditional-lecture 
method of instruction when the evaluation to be given is just a pencil 
and paper test. 

3. That the kind of evaluation given to a group of students may 
be as important as the instruction given those students. 

Standridge, Robert D. (MA, English, March, 1976) 

ALIENS IN BABYLON: THREE ORIGINAL SHORT STORIES 

DEMONSTRATING THE THEME OF ALIENATION IN 

LITERATURE WITH AN INTRODUCTION 

The fiction of Joyce, Mann and Proust reveals man's estangement 
from society, nature and God. In Ulysses, Joyce created two contrast- 
ing examples of the alienated character. Bloom is an example of the 
estranged organization man, while Dedalus is the exiled artist. Lever- 
kuhn, in Mann's Dr. Faustus, isolates himself to create art, while 
Castorp, in The Magic Mountain, alienates himself from life by his 
fascination with death. In Swann's Way, Proust suggests that Marcel 
is isolated from life by his tendency to cling to disease. Swann belongs 
neither to the bourgeois society nor the fashionable society, but oscil- 
lates between them. 

The theme of alienation of these three writers is also the theme 

95 



of Mr. Stnad Standridge's short stories, "An Alien In Babylon", 
"Cantey", and "Doctor Spalt." 

At the beginning of "An Alien In Babylon," Yucel is dressing for 
work. He walks to the university and enters the student center. He 
is told to wax the floor. Yucel waxes the floor and goes to a lecture. 
He sees the woman who has repelled his advances and speaks to her, 
but she rejects him. Disappointed, he walks to the sea and helps two 
men with a sailboat. Yucel is insulted by the fat man and starts a 
fight and is beaten. 

At the beginning of "Cantey," Cantey and the narrator have 
returned from a lecture. They sit and talk on the campus lawn. It 
begins to rain, so they seek refuge in a chapel. Cantey acts strangely 
and talks about his father's suicide. They go to the hotel and decide 
to attend a concert. At the concert, Cantey is very stimulated by the 
music. At intermission, the narrator leaves to call his uncle and when 
he returns, Cantey has shot himself. 

"Doctor Spalt" begins with Spalt pacing his room and brooding 
on his inability to create. He contemplates suicide. Dr. Mephitis 
enters the room and entices Dr. Spalt to the hotel nightclub. The 
psychiatrist-professor tells Dr. Spalt that Spalt is an insincere person 
and says that Spalt's inability to create anything but superficial art, 
is due to his lack of passion for the flesh. Miss Chambers and Miss 
Long enter the nightclub. Dr. Spalt and Miss Chambers dance and 
he excuses himself to go to the bathroom, instead he leaves the night- 
club and goes for a walk by the sea. 

Summeruille, Sandra P. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Edu- 
cation, August, 1976) 

TEACHING THE DOLCH SIGHT WORD LIST AS A MEANS 

OF IMPROVING READING ACHIEVEMENT 

AT THE SECOND GRADE LEVEL 

This experimental research design was undertaken to determine 
if the teaching of the Dolch Sight Word List would result in an in- 
creased level of skill in reading achievement. 

For the purposes of this study all second grade students at East- 
side School were tested and subjects were chosen for inclusion in the 
study on the basis of test scores on the Metropolitan Achievement 
Test. Primary II, Form G. Only those students whose scores on total 
reading were no greater than L3 grade equivalent were considered for 
inclusion as subjects. Only students who had completed first grade 
at Eastside School were considered for inclusion as subjects. Subjects 
selected were 22 experimental group and 24 control group second 
grade students matched on the bases of age, sex, IQ, race, reading 

96 



achievement test scores, and socio-economic level. These subjects 
represented the medium range for second grade with both extremes 
of high and low scores being eliminated from the study. 

Groups received instruction that was parallel in all respects ex- 
cept that the experimental group received intensive instruction in the 
Dolch Sight Word List. 

A significance level of .05 was established as indicating a statisti- 
cally significant event which could not be attributed to the probabil- 
ity of chance. Results for the total group showed no significant differ- 
ence at the the t value of 1.37 between the two groups in the area of 
word knowledge. There was a significance diflFerence at the t value of 
2.84 in favor of the experimental group in the area of word analysis. 
This was statistically different at the .01 level of reading. This was 
statistically different at the .001 level of significance. There was a 
significant difference at a t value of 3.16 in favor of the experimental 
group in the area of total reading. This was statistically different at 
the .01 level of significance. There was a significant difference at a t 
value of 4.22 in favor of the experimental group in the area of reading. 
This was statistically different at the .001 level of significance. There 
was a significance difference at a t value of 3.16 in favor of the experi- 
mental group in the area of total reading. This was statistically differ- 
ent at the .01 level of significance. 

It was concluded that while there was no signficant difference in 
the area of word knowledge, the Dolch Sight Word List is still a 
valuable tool in the teaching of reading in view of the significance 
found in the areas of word analysis, reading, and total reading. 

In the course of an ancillary analyses of data generated by this 
study, it was found that boys responded to a greater degree than girls 
to this method of instruction. It was also found that the Caucasian 
population responded to a greater degree to this method of instruc- 
tion than the black population. These findings pose implications for 
further study. 

Walton, Ronnie B. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1976) 

A COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR TEACHING 

RECOGNITION VOCABULARY TO 

HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS 

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students 
learn meanings of new words most effectively when taught by the 
context method, when taught by the dictionary method, or when no 
specific vocabulary instruction. 

97 



The seventy-five subjects for the study were selected from three 
tenth grade English classes at Carrollton High School. Two classes 
served as experimental groups while the third served as the control 
group. 

A pretest was administered to each group immediately prior to 
the beginning of the teaching unit which was comprised of reading 
and discussion in class Dosen's play, An Enemy of the People. An 
identical posttest was given a week after the completion of the unit. 

The null hypothesis tested was stated as follows: There is no 
significant difl^erence in improvement of reading vocabulary among 
a group of high school students taught by the dictionary method, one 
taught by the teacher-directed context method, and a control group 
receiving no special emphasis on word study. 

An F-test was used to interpret the data. The variable of teach- 
ing method was not found to be significant at the .05 level. 

Implications derived from the study include the following: 

(l)Students' word recognition skills are not necessarily improved 
by implementing direct teaching methods such as the context and 
dictionary study methods. 

(2)Perhaps the incidental method of word study — broad reading 
without specific attention devoted to individual words — is as eff"ective 
in improving word recognition skills as are more direct methods. 

Weiss, Steven M. (MA, Psychology, March, 1976) 

A STUDY OF SPIRITUAL PEAK 
EXPERIENCE AND RELIGIOUS ECSTACY 

This thesis has been produced as an audiovisual tape rather than 
a written manuscript. 

Although accompanied by this abstract and another, more com- 
prehensive documentation of sources, methodology and explanations 
of purpose, it must be emphasized that the tape rather than the 
written material constitutes the substance of the theses. 

The tape is about a group of people and the nature of their 
religious experiences. They believe in a strict literal interpretation 
of the Bible (both Old and New Testaments) and because of this, 
they see the passages in St. Mark, Chapter 16, Verses 16-18, as a 
direct injunction to handle venomous snakes, drink deadly sub- 
stances (most often strychnine), cast out devils, speak in unknown 
tongues and perform healing by "the laying on of hands." 

The videotape is a one-hour edited version of approximately 
twelve hours of footage. It was taped at the Holiness Church of God 
In Jesus Name in Kingston, Georgia during three separate worship 
services. 

98 



It is an attempt to capture the essence of the spiritual experience 
of the worshipers as well as to show the types of rituals and activities 
which are a part of the worship services. 

Amick, Hervey W. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, March, 1977) 

THE MANAGEMENT ROLE OF THE HIGH SCHOOL 

PRINCIPAL 

AND RELATED TASKS OF DEPARTMENT HEADS 

Principals of large, suburban high schools are confronted daily 
with a variety of administrative and educational problems which 
demand positive solutions. Basic approaches to the job could include, 
first, a clear and realistic role definition for principals and, second, 
clarification of those duties which can be delegated to others. The 
problem of this study was to describe the managerial role of the 
principal from a classical management viewpoint, as presented by 
Koontz and O'Donnell, and to specify those tasks delegated to de- 
partment heads. The viewpoints of a number of authorities in the 
field of educational research were analyzed. 

Current literature on the principal's role as a manager and on 
duties assumed by department heads was reviewed. Educational lit- 
erature was devoid of research concerning department heads' duties; 
for that reason Holland's paper, "The Role of the Secondary School 
Department Head in Georgia," was used as a major source for this 
paper. The managerial role of the principal was analyzed and mana- 
gerial tasks of department heads were defined. Shared responsibili- 
ties were noted, and a control system was suggested. 

It was found that a highly useful method of dividing up the total 
task of management was in terms of planning, organizing, staffing, 
directing, and controlling. Within these areas, the managerial roles 
of principals and department heads were discussed citing those spe- 
cific duties which could be performed by principals and department 
heads. The effective performance of each of these tasks contributed 
to the overall management of the school. 

The following points emerged as findings from the study: 

1. The pilot group of students illustrated improvement in three 
areas: 

a. Students placed on contract illustrated a decreased rate of 
absenteeism in comparison to a comparable time prior to the con- 
tract. 

b. Students placed on contract illustrated positive gains of 
approximately one-half of a letter grade in academic average. 

99 



c. Students placed on contract illustrated a decrease in the 
number of times they were referred to the office for discipline stem- 
ming from misbehavior. 

2. The pilot students were offered a chance to change in order 
to gain from the contract approach more than from the method of 
suspension and retention by the juvenile authorities. 

a. Satisfactory compliance with regulations of the contract 
could lead to a shortenting of the probationary period. 

b. In -school suspension avoided interrupting the continuity of 
his education. 

3. The contract approach provided advantages to the adminis- 
trative staff: 

a. There was no loss of finances due to absenteeism. 

b. There was less likelihood of subjection to court action under 
the Forteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution. 

4. Student behavior was modified into more acceptable stan- 
dards as illustrated by the sharp decrease in the number of office 
referrals for the major recommendations for the contract model are 
for: 

1. Reorganizing the program to provide a full time behavior 
disorder trained teacher and visiting teacher to administer the pro- 
gram. 

2. Enlarging the program to incorporate other students outside 
those on probation. 

3. Continued experimentation with the contract approach to 
determine if the effects were due exclusively to the contract or other 
factors. 

4. Alerting principals and system heads to the contract ap- 
proach as a possible development in treating the serious problem of 
drug abuse. 

Beggs, Rosemary P. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
June, 1977) 

THE WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN 

IN DIAGNOSING SPELLING DEFICIENCIES 

OF LEARNING DISABILITY STUDENTS 

Teachers each year are confronted with students of average or 
above average ability who are extremely poor spellers. The students 
may be admonished by the teacher to study the spelling list. Or the 
teacher may be trial and error experimentation find a new method 
of teaching which fosters spelling success. From general observations 
over several years, there seems to be very few individualized spelling 

100 



programs although small group and individualized reading and arith- 
metic programs are widely accepted throughout the country. 

There are many questions concerning an effective method of in- 
struction. The purpose of this research will be directed toward learn- 
ing strategies to improve spelling. 

Many of the students scheduled for extra help in Learning Disa- 
bility Resource room in Cobb County have been given the Wechsler 
Intelligence Scale for Children. They have also been given the Wide 
Range Achievement Test to measure academic achievement in read- 
ing, spelling and arithmetic. Using these two diagnostic tests, an an- 
aylsis will be made for indications of common deficits in children with 
spelling problems. 

Blake, Kenneth R. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, March, 1977) 

A SYSTEM MODEL OF CONTRACT 

TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION 

OF JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS 

CONVICTED OF DRUG ABUSE 

AND RELATED CRIMES 

The tremendous increase in drug abuse in the public school sys- 
tem has brought about great pressure, emphasis, and demand on 
administrators to establish policies dealing with the drug problem. 
The purpose of this paper is the presentation of an effective model 
to be used in public schools in dealing with drgu drug abuse and 
related crimes. The proposed model is a contract approach. An at- 
tempt was made to show that this approach was more effective than 
the traditional method of suspension of the students and/or his reten- 
tion by the juvenile authorities. 

The pilot group for the study consisted of 10 junior high school 
students who, at the time they were placed on contract, were on 
probation with the Clayton County Juvenile Court for drug abuse and 
related crimes. The actual time involved in the study of these stu- 
dents was the one quarter they were on contract together. 

The contract approach literally involved the signing of a contract 
with specific performance standards. The contract stipulated regula- 
tions concerning a student's behavior and indicated the reward given 
if regulations were maintained and the punishment of an infraction 
was committed. The contract approach operated on the basis of a 
point system, and the contract stipulated the number of points which 
were to be earned weekly. 



101 



Bonds, Neil C. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A STUDY COMPARING THE EFFECT 

OF TEACHING PUNCTUATION 

WITH AND WITHOUT RULES 

The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance 
in punctuation when taught by two different methods; by noting 
intonation cues and sentence patterns and when taught by using 
traditional rules. 

The sixty-six subjects for the study were two tenth-grade English 
merit (advanced) classes at Marietta High School, Marietta, Georgia. 
One group served as an experimental group while the second group 
served as the control group. 

A pretest was administered to both groups immediately prior to 
the beginning of the teaching unit on the comma and the semi-colon. 
An identical posttest was given immediately upon the completion of 
the six-week unit. 

The null hypothesis tested was stated as follows: There is no 
significant difference between the students' proficiency in punctua- 
tion when taught by traditional rules and their proficiency when 
taught by the use of intonation cues. 

The t-test was used to interpret the data. The variable of teach- 
ing method was not found to be significant at the .05 level. 

The following implications were derived from this study: 

1. Students' punctuation skills do improve whether taught by 
intonation cues and sentence patterns or by study of traditional rules. 

2. The results of the study did support the use of the intonation 
method as an equally effective alternative to the method of using 
traditional grammar rules. 

Cantey, Patricia L. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A COMPARISON OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 

OF CHILDREN IN RESOURCE AND SELF-CONTAINED 

LEARNING DISABILITIES CLASSES 

This study was designed to compare the academic achievement 
of children in resource and self-contained learning disabilities classes. 
The pretest and posttest of the Gray-Votaw-Rogers Achievement 
Test were used to determine if there were a significant difference 
between the two class placements. The four subtests used were read- 

102 



ing vocabulary, reading comprehension, spelling, and arithmetic 
computation. 

There were 295 children involved in this study, and they were 
assigned to one of nine self-contained or eighteen resource classes for 
the entire year, 1974-1975. The testing for each group was done by the 
special education teacher for that group. 

The t-test for independent means was used to test the hypotheses 
comparing differences between the two groups and between the boys 
and girls. The t-test for dependent means was used to test hypotheses 
comparing pretest-posttest gain measures on the same individuals. 

Significant gains were made by both groups, and both sexes. A 
significant difference was found in favor of the self-contained group 
in one subtest, arithmetic computation. 

Choate, Donovan H. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A READABILITY SURVEY OF TWENTY-FIVE 
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL 
SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS 

The readability levels often geography, ten United States history, 
and revised versions of the Fry Readability Graph and the SMOG 
Grading Formula. 

The revised Fry Readability Graph showed the textbooks as- 
sessed to be approximately one grade level higher than the original 
Fry formula, which did not include the counting of proper nouns as 
an indicator of reading difficulty. 

A comparison of the revised Fry Readability Graph to the SMOG 
Grading Formula resulted in the SMOG formula placing most of the 
textbooks at from two to three grade levels above the revised Fry 
formula. Both formulas indicated that most junior high level social 
studies textbooks are too difficult for many students for whom they 
are intended. This indication is based on a comparison of the reada- 
bility levels obtained from the two formulas to the scores of seventh 
and eighth grade students in Floyd County on the Short Form Test 
of Academic Aptitude administered in October, 1975. 

Both the revised Fry Readability Graph and the SMOG Grading 
Formula showed the United States history texts to be written at a less 
difficult level than the civics or geography texts. The geography texts 
were shown to be approximately one grade level of difficulty higher 
than the civics texts according to the SMOG formula, but the Fry 
formula showed geography texts to be one grade level lower than the 
civics textbooks. 

103 



The revised Fry Readability Graph was applied to each textbook 
to assess variations in readability. The results of this application 
revealed that the textbooks surveyed possessed a range of at least one 
grade level of reading difficulty, and most textbooks had internal 
variations of three or more grade levels. 

Cook, Jack P. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
June, 1977) 

COUNSELING ADULT WOMEN FOR CAREER 
DEVELOPMENT: A GROUP APPROACH 

The traditional roles of women are being challenged and counsel- 
ors need to find new and more effective ways of assisting female 
student with vocational decisions and life style options. The review 
of literature for this project revealed that there has been a tendency 
to neglect exploration of career options for women in career develop- 
ment theories. This project attempted to address the needs of women 
for career development counseling and extract and implement ele- 
ments of vocational theories applicable to women. 

The project describes a group vocational counseling encounter 
with adult women and the resulting attitude changes. The basic 
objective of this action research project was to provide an atmosphere 
in which women could have an exposure to the forces and circumstan- 
ces that shaped their personalities and lives in addition to an explora- 
tion into self-concept, components of interest, individual talents, de- 
cision making, strengths and weaknesses. The desired behavioral out- 
come was accopmplished in that, with greater self-awareness and 
increased self-esteem, the women participants were able to report 
expanded decision making abilities in the area of career choice. 

The research methodology involved administration of a re- 
searcher designed pre-course/post-course attitude evaluation to each 
of the 35 adult women participants. The 10 items on the evaluation 
corresponded to one or more of the topics covered in six group ses- 
sions. The evaluation was a Likert type rating scale designed to assess 
attitude changes over the span of the six week (two hours each week) 
group counseling experience. Each of the 10 items were paired 
(pre/post) and treated statistically using a t-test for correlated sam- 
ples. Using a one-tailed test, all 10 items were significant at the .01 
level. 

The results indicated that significant changes occurred in the 
women's attitudes about themselves and their abilities. The conclu- 
sions indicate a definite need among women for exploration of their 
human potential as it relates to self-concept and career development. 

104 



Costopoulos, Photios (MA, English, March, 1977) 

BYRON'S PHILHELLENISM 

It is true that in the first thirty years of the last century many 
writers and poets expressed their philhellenic feelings and ideas in 
their works. But Byron was the only poet whose life and poetry was 
much related to the current of Philhellenism. When I speak of the 
philhellenism of his life, I mean his two journeys to Greece, which 
played an important role not only in his life but also in his poetry. 
This is the reason that my thesis is divided into the following three 
chapters: "Byron's First Journey to Greece", "Byron's Last Journey 
to Greece." and "Byron's Philhellenism in his Poetry." 

In the first chapter I give an account of the journey in which 
Byron and his friend John Cam Hobhouse had the opportunity not 
only to visit many beautiful parts of Greece but also to become well 
acquainted with the Greek people. During this time in Greece Byron 
wrote the two cantos of Childe Harold, which made him a famous 
poet. He also had the opportunity to attain considerable mastery of 
the modern Greek language. Moreover, some of the most important 
parts of this chapter are the special information that I can bring to 
this thesis, either as a citizen of Greece or a reader of literature. Of 
course some special information can also be found in the following 
chapters, but in this one the special information is my main purpose. 

In the second chapter, I give an account of Byron's last journey 
to Greece according to his most important biographers. In the conclu- 
sion of this chapter I find the opportunity to express my own opinion 
about Byron's philhellenism and the Greeks. According to this opin- 
ion Byron was sincere in his love for Greece and went to Missolonghi 
for the purpose of liberating an enslaved people. The Greeks, there- 
fore, have never forgotten Byron. They have loved him as a national 
hero. 

In the third chapter, I try to point out the importance of Childe 
Harold in the current of philhellenism in English literature. Moreo- 
ver, I refer to the ways in which Byron expressed his philhellenism 
in his poetry. Byron's philhellenism is quite different from that of the 
other Romantic poets. 

In the conclusion of this chapter I relate Byron's philhellenism 
to the eff^orts of the Third World in our century and the ideas of our 
contemporary writers. 



105 



Dale, Karen L. (MA, Psychology, June, 1977) 

ACCEPTANCE: A DIFFERENT WAY OF KNOWING 

Acceptance and consciousness are two ways of knowing which 
provide us with two different descriptions of the world. Conscious- 
ness, through explicit knowing, is that function which differentiates, 
separates, divides and labels the world. Acceptance, through tacit 
knowing, is that function which perceives the whole through its parts, 
and relates the parts to their context in the whole. In this paper I have 
described the implications of acceptance as a way of knowing in the 
context of man's relationship to himself, to significant others, and to 
the Divine or Transcendent. The postscript deals with acceptance 
and its implications for our postindustrial society. 

Donges, Carolyn S. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, March, 1977) 

THE ORGANIZATION, IMPLEMENTATION 
AND EVALUATION OF THE TEEN INVOLVEMENT PRO- 
GRAM AT NORTH CLAYTON SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 

This study sought to compile a handbook or guide for a peer 
counseling program, called Teen Involvement, at North Clayton Sen- 
ior High School in College Park, Georgia. The organization, imple- 
mentation and evaluation of such a program was outlined in detail 
in this study. 

Procedures for organizing the program through the administra- 
tion, faculty and student body support was discussed and examples 
were cited of the various procedures. 

Implementation of the program was described in detail through 
a day-by-day description of the training sessions set up for the peer 
counselors. Clayton County Mental Health assisted in the training 
sessions as resource personnel. 

The AS I SEE MYSELF SCALE was administered to the peer 
counselors and to a sample of students not participating in the pro- 
gram. Questionnaires for evaluation were administered to the Peer 
Counselors and to the Student Counselees in the sixth and eighth 
grades who participated in the program. 

Comparisons of mean scores of Peer Counselors and students not 
participating in the program on the AS I SEE MYSELF SCALE were 
catagorized. 

The results of this study reported that, overall, students partici- 
pating in the Teen Involvement Program, either as Peer Counselors 
or Student Counselees, had a positive view of self and others, were 

106 



more aware of their own feelings and feelings of others, and felt that 
their participation in the program had changed attitudes toward the 
regular school program. 

Edwards, Annie B. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A GUIDE FOR THE STAFF OF THE TITLE I PROGRAM 
OF DOUGLAS COUNTY 

This study was designed to prepare a useful guide for the entire 
staff of the Title I Program of Douglas County, Douglasville, Georgia. 
Since the Title I Program deals with remedial reading, the review of 
literature was in this area. 

Many staff members came into the program not realizing exactly 
what the Title I Program really is. A brief history of the program was 
written to provide them with a better understanding of the program 
in which they were involved. 

A major part of the guide interprets the various aspects of the 
program. Pertinent information related to the objectives of the pro- 
gram, to the materials used in the program, and to the guidelines set 
forth by the government is included. $ 

The Title I teachers had the opportunity to evaluate the guide. 
According to their evaluation, the study was a very profitable en- 
deavor. 



Edwards, Katherine C. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, March, 1977) 

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ACADEMIC 

ACHIEVEMENT OF TWO GROUPS OF HIGH SCHOOL 

EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS 

The study was undertaken to compare the academic achievement 
of two groups of high school Educable Mentally Retarded students. 
All of the students involved in the study came from a school system 
located in the northern part of Georgia. For the purpose of this study, 
this system is referred to as System X. One of the two groups, referred 
to as Group I or the EMR Group, had been enrolled in self-contained 
EMR classes for more than two years. The mean time, in EMR 
classes for this group, was almost four years. The other group, re- 
ferred to as Group II or the Regular Classroom Group, had been 
enrolled in self-contained EMR classes for less than two years. Most 
of these students had been identified as EMR and had entered EMR 

107 



classes during the 1975-1976 school year. These two groups (Groups I 
and II) were regrouped to form Group III and Group IV. All of the 
students involved in the study had been administered the Wechsler 
Intelligence Scale for Children and the Wide Range Achievement 
Test at least once. Group IV consisted of students who had a pretest 
and posttest for both the WISC and the WRAT. Group III had been 
tested only once. This group was used only for classification. No 
statistical analyses were conducted on this group. 

There was no significant difference in IQ's of the two groups. 
Based on the percentage of students receiving free lunches, both 
groups were similar socio-economically. When computed the mean 
CA of the Regular Class Group was six months more than the EMR 
Group. The results of the statistical analyses indicate that EMR 
students who had remained in regular classes had made significant 
gains in reading, spelling and arithmetic. In each of the three aca- 
demic areas (reading, spelling and math) they had achieved signifi- 
cantly more than their expected gain based on the Melcher Formula. 
In none of the academic areas did the EMR Group reach their ex- 
pected gain. In almost four years of enrollment in self-contained 
EMR classes, the EMR Group made less than a three month gain in 
reading, less than a three month gain in spelling, and less than a two 
month gain in arithmetic. The statistical findings of the study were 
highly indicative that the self-contained EMR classes in System X 
were not conductive to the academic achievement of the System's 
Educable Mentally Retarded Students. 

Faires, Gayle S. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

THE STUDY OF STUDENT EVALUATIONS OF THE 

ELEMENTARY-READING MASTER OF EDUCATION 

PROGRAMS IN THE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 

AT WEST GEORGIA COLLEGE FROM FALL, 

1975, THROUGH SUMMER, 1976 

Since the inception of graduate work at West Georgia College 
during the summer quarter of 1967 many changes have taken place. 
Along with two general organizational changes in administrative 
structure, there have been numerous departmental and program 
modifications. The creation of an early childhood education depart- 
ment, separating it from elementary education, and the creation of a 
graduate program in reading within the department of elementary 
education have resulted from previous evaluative endeavors. 

This study is a formal attempt at updating the student assess- 

108 



ments of the master of education programs in both elementary educa- 
tion and reading. 

The data presented are a tabulation of 141 responses anony- 
mously given by all of those graduating with master of education 
degrees in elementary education and reading for the fall quarter 1975, 
through summer quarter 1976. 

The results showed that the students had positive reactions to- 
ward the graduate programs in elementary education and reading at 
West Georgia College. 

Franklin, Gail E. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF A FUNCTIONAL READING 

STRATEGY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NINTH GRADE 

SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS 

The purpose of this study was to determine if a functional reading 
strategy improved students' ability to read social studies materials as 
well as their general reading ability. 

The subjects for this study were forty-two ninth grade students 
at Lithia Springs Comprehensive High School in Douglas County, 
Georgia. The students, enrolled in the lowest track of social studies 
classes, made up two classes which were the experimental group and 
the control group. 

The experimental group was taught for a two-month period using 
a functional reading strategy, while the control group was taught 
content only. 

The evaluative instrument was Form 3A and Form 3B of the 
Sequential Test of Educational Progress in Reading and the Sequen- 
tial Test of Educational Progress in Social Studies. These were ad- 
ministered as pretests and posttests. 

The study found that there was no significant difference in either 
the ability read social studies materials or in the general reading 
ability between those students exposed to a functional reading strat- 
egy and those which were taught content only. 

Good, John C. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Supervi- 
sion, June, 1977) 

TEACHER SELECTION PROCEDURES AND CRITERIA 

FOR THE SMALL, RURAL GEORGIA 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 

This study was done as an applied research project to develop a 

109 



teacher selection for the principal of a small, rural Georgia elemen- 
tary school. An oversupply of teachers assuring larger-than-ever num- 
bers of applicants from which to choose and new regulations govern- 
ing teacher dismissal have made the development of an effective 
teacher selection process an immediate need. 

A review of the related literature was conducted and a survey 
instrument which contained the selection criteria recognized as im- 
portant in the literature was developed. The questionnaire used by 
May and Doerge (1972) as a model. The principal of 81 elementary 
schools in Georgia with 20 or fewer teachers were surveyed. The rank- 
order of the criteria was determined and the results were used to 
develop the teacher selection process for the principal of the small, 
rural Georgia elementary school. 

The survey indicated nine criteria considered essential to the 
teacher selection process by the principals surveyed. They are: (1) 
classroom control, (2) health, (3) attitude toward authority, (4) or- 
ganization of instructional material, (5) personality, (6) moral char- 
acter, (7) opinion of the previous principal, (8) appearance, and (9) 
verbal faculty. 

The teacher selection process developed as a result of this study 
contains nine steps through which the principal can collect and eval- 
uate information about the candidate pertaining to the essential cri- 
teria. These steps are: (1) submission of written application, (2) re- 
view of application, (3) interview by principal, (4) rating of candidate 
by the principal, (5) reference check, (6) interview by appropriate 
staff members, (7) rating of candidate by appropriate staff members, 
(8) comparison of ratings, and (9) decision by principal to hire or not 
to hire. 



Hale, Elaine M. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

THE EFFECTS OF SEX-BIASED CONTENT OF THE 

PROBLEM SOLVING PERFORMANCE OF 

SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS 

A study was conducted to determine the possible effects of sex- 
biased content on the problem solving performance of 419 seventh 
and eighth grade students. A problem solving test was administered 
and four types of scores were compared by sex and grade level — male- 
biased problems, female-biased problems, neutral problems, and 
total problems. IQ tests were also administered and scores were de- 
rived for the data. A one-way analysis of covariance was used in the 
data analysis. When the effects of IQ were statistically eliminated, it 

110 



was found that sex-biased content had no significant effects on the 
problem solving performance of the subjects. Therefore, the null hy- 
potheses were rejected at the .05 level of significance. 

Herrick, Elaine S. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

THE EFFECTS OF A SIMULATION GAME 

ON THE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT IN SOCIAL STUDIES OF 

THIRD GRADE STUDENTS 

This study was designed to determine the potential effects of a 
simulation game on the learning achievement in social studies of 
third grade students. All students involved in this study were from a 
rural school within Carroll County, Georgia. Students from one of the 
third grade classes became the experimental group and participated 
in a simulation game in social studies. Students from another third 
grade class became the control group and received the same social 
studies instruction by a "read the textbook-discussion" approach. 

A social studies test was administered as the pretest and posttest 
for both groups. A statistical comparison of the mean gain scores of 
the experimental and control groups were made. A significant differ- 
ence at the .01 level of confidence favoring the experimental group 
resulted. Findings indicate that the simulation game method in social 
studies can be beneficial in the third grade as a means of increasing 
learning achievement. 

Hill, Richard G. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
March, 1977) 

THE COLLEGE DROPOUT: A STUDY OF ATTRITION IN 
HIGHER EDUCATION AT DALTON JUNIOR COLLEGE 

There is a significant number of students who drop out of colleges 
and universities before the completion of a planned program of study 
or fulfillment of requirements for a degree; therefore, the central 
problem of this study was to examine the effects of possible contribut- 
ing factors, more specifically those of academics, to this withdrawal 
dilemma. The purpose of this investigation, consequently, was to 
compare the academic performance and potential ability of those 
students who fail to complete a program of study or to satisfy degree 
requirements with the performance and ability of those pupils who 
successfully accomplish such an endeavor. 

Subjects selected for this study were freshmen and sophomore 

111 



students entering Dalton Junior College for the first time during the 
1972-73 academic year. Dalton Junior College is a coeducational, 
nonresidential, liberal arts instituion located in Dalton, Georgia, with 
a student population of approximately 1,800. The majority of the 
subjects came from a five-county area immediately surrounding the 
institution, although a small percentage were from other localities. 

Random selection procedures or sampling techniques were not 
employed since all newly enrolled students were considered in the 
investigation. Each pupil was assessed during summer quarter, 1976, 
and classified according to the following three major divisions: (1) 
dropout; (2) transfer; or (3) graduate. Those whom the above three 
categories did not suit could be assumed still enrolled in the institu- 
tion and were not considered in this study as also were those classified 
as transfer students not included. An initial population of 779 sub- 
jects yielded a total of 224 cases satisfying criteria for inclusion in the 
study. From data stored in the office of records and admissions at 
Dalton Junior College, the sex, high school average, cumulative col- 
lege grade point average at time of departure (either withdrawal or 
graduation), and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores (both math and 
verbal) were collected on those remaining students classified as dro- 
pouts or graduate. 

With respect to the sex of each subject, the means, standard 
deviations, and differences in the means for both the dropout and 
graduate groups were computed in order to test each of the hy- 
potheses of this study. To determine the statistical significance of the 
difference between the means of the variables under consideration, 
the t-test was employed. In this study, graduate means were greater 
with regard to all variables and t-ratios indicated that the differences 
between the means of the dropout and graduate groups were signifi- 
cant at the .05 level or higher. 

Findings derived from this investigation revealed that the aca- 
demic performance and potential ability of those students who fail 
to complete a program of study or to satisfy degree requirements 
differ significantly from the performance and ability of those pupils 
who successfully complete such an endeavor. More specifically, those 
in the graduate category statistically proved superior both in the area 
of potential ability and academic performance to those who con- 
cluded their formal education before such a time as they received a 
certificate or diploma for studies successfully completed. Therefore, 
as these results indicate, those scholastically inclined students, in 
terms of both achievement and aptitude, appear less likely to with- 
draw permanently from the institution than do those pupils not so 
intellectually oriented. 

It is recommended that (1) this study be replicated on a larger 
scale using a broader sample of subjects from many different institu- 

112 



tions; (2) less emphasis be placed on recruitment of students and 
nstead greater attention be given to increasing the number of stu- 
ients who remain in school after once enrolling; (3) the predicted 
jrade point average be computed for all students upon their initial 
sntrance to the institution as a means of identifying those who per- 
laps are potential dropouts; (4) an indicator of the future academic 
success (a ratio of the cumulative college grade point average to the 
predicted college grade point average) be computed for all pupils 
immediately following their first quarter in attendance at the institu- 
tion; and (5) a complete profile, similar in design to this study of 
attrition, be developed for all students at the earliest possible time 
after their admission to and entrance in the institution since aca- 
demic variables have proven to be for this study good predictors of 
student retention. 

Horton, Reta N.H. (MA, Psychology, June, 1977) 

THE INDIVIDUAL'S RESPONSIBILITY TO HIMSELF: 

A PHILOSOPHICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY 

INTO THE BASES OF HUMAN AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS 

A level of spiritual and ethical commitment is a prerequisite for 
a healthy society. The apparent increase in social problems in mod- 
ern industrial societies can be traced, at least, in part to a decrease 
in such commitment. Commitment begins at the individual level; 
hence it is at the individual level that a lasting answer to society's 
problems must be sought. The present study attemptedd to delineate 
the nature of this commitment, the manner of its decline, and ways 
of restoring it. 

The term "responsibility" was examined in terms of the two 
components: freedom and obligation. Freedom represents a basic 
condition of human existence, whether innate or acquired through 
struggle. In order to be responsible, it is first necessary to be free; but 
freedom does not guarantee the fulfillment of obligation. Otherwise 
stated, freedom from does not guarantee freedom to. Obligation may 
be interpreted either as a moral dictum or as a desirable state whose 
acquisition is dictated by necessity. Moral obligation has been ques- 
tioned, but the same state may be sought because it is desirable. 
Subjective motivation is cardinal: doing something because it is de- 
sirable can be enriching to the person and his relationships. 

The failure to live responsibly was shown to have a number of 
precursors — historical, cultural, and personal. The forces making for 
failure surround the person and reside with him. The cultivation of 
originality — the embodiment of responsibility to oneself — is admit- 

113 



tedly a difficult task. Yet the task must be carried out, even if one 
fails at it. 

A program for the development of self was outlined. It included 
the following elements: self-observation; deconditioning of old ideas 
and habits; overcoming social pressure, fear of rejection, and loneli- 
ness; commitment to oneself; development of a philosophy; and 
transfer to the social sphere. It was shown how each phase lays the 
ground-work for the one succeeding it; collectively, these elements 
contribute to the benefit of society. 

A number of arguments were presented in support of the asser- 
tion that the pursuit of self-interest benefits society. These include 
the following: that self-observation enhances sensitivity for the other; 
that casting off destructive cultural introjects can be of demonstrable 
benefit to the individual; that self-actualizing individuals, while not 
necessarily conforming, are often modelss of social interest; and that 
a sane philosophy of life would promote the interests of both self and 
society. It was concluded that responsibility to oneself is a prerequis- 
ite to social responsibility. 

Jones, Sandra P. (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1977) 

A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF 

CHRISTENSEN'S CUMULATIVE SENTENCE IN THE 

EXPOSITORY WRITINGS OF SELECTED PROFESSIONAL 

WRITERS 

The purpose of this study was to measure to what extent skilled 
professional writers use the sentence pattern described by Francis 
Christensen as cumulative. Christensen observed that professional 
writers used the cumulative sentence more frequently than they used 
sentences with modifiers before and within the main clause. He also 
noted that professional writers had a high frequency of free modifiers 
in all positions in the sentence. This theory formed the basis for The 
Christensen Rhetoric Program. 

For this study, samples of writings of skilled professionals were 
the twenty-five essays constituting "A Standard Corpus of Contem- 
porary American Expository Essays" (SCCAEE). The essays were a 
randomly selected group of completely expository essays from five 
magazines identified by college professors as consistently containing 
the best modern prose. The essays were published between January 
1964 and March 1965 inclusive in The Atlantic, Harper's, The New 
Yorker, The Reporter, and Saturday Review. 

The researcher counted the first fifty T-units after the introduc- 
tory paragraph in each essay. The count was made in order to deter- 

114 



mine (1) the percentage of words in base clauses and in free modifiers, 
(2) the average number of words in free modifiers and in base clauses 
compared to the average T-unit lengths, (3) the number of words in 
free modifiers in initial, medial, and final positions in the sentence. 
The frequency of free modifiers in the final position was measured by 
comparing the number of free modifiers in the final position with the 
number in all positions. 

The results of the study showed that the writers in SCCAEE did 
not use free modifiers to the extent that Christensen described. When 
they did use free modifiers, they did use them in the final position 
more often than in the initial and medial positions. The writers did 
not use the appositive and the verbid clause as frequently as Chris- 
tensen had suggested. No significant correlation was found between 
the average T-unit length in each essay and the writer's use of free 
modifiers. This finding indicated that the use of free modifiers may 
not be a valid index of syntactic maturity. 

The researcher concluded that the use of the cumulative sent- 
ence by skilled professional writers was not extensive enough to jus- 
tify its being the basis for an entire program of composition. The 
program might be used as a method of teaching students to use free 
modifiers to vary their style and to expand their ideas in sentences 
and paragraphs. It fails as a total composition program because it 
attempts to short-cut the natural language growth of the student. 

Reserch is needed to compare the overall quality of students' 
writing when taught by The Christensen Rhetoric Program and when 
taught by other methods. Research is also needed to study the effect 
on overall composition quality of the Christensen method when it is 
used in conjunction with one or more other methods. 

Knott, Charles E. (MA, Psychology, June, 1977) 

ADVENTURES IN HUMANE TEACHING 
TOWARD PERSONAL AND INTERPERSONAL GROWTH 

This paper describes an attempt on the part of a college instructor 
to integrate his knowledge of humanistic psychology into his teach- 
ing. There also is an extensive description of the author's own views 
on education in America; these views are developed against a back- 
ground presentation of his own educational experiences. Primarily, 
the paper discusses group process, experiential games, role play, and 
individual therapy in terms of their effect on student and teacher in 
an experimental classroom. Student reactions to classroom events are 
documented. Further, teaching is shown to be an individuating expe- 
rience when the instructor makes conscious efforts to form in-depth 

115 



relationships with students. Such relationships, aimed at challenging 
the total personality of teacher and student, are seen as bringing a 
new meaning and a new affective level to the classroom. 

Lynch, Jan Hope (MA, Guidance and Counseling, March, 1977) 

A STUDY OF ADOLESCENTS' PERCEPTIONS OF DIVORCE 

This descriptive study was conducted during November, 1976, at 
M. D. Collins High School in College Park, Georgia. The intent of the 
study was to gain a greater insight regarding the number of students 
with divorced parents and the resultant effects of the divorce as per- 
ceived by the students. A better understanding of the magnitude and 
the nature of the divorced-family problem was desired by the guid- 
ance and counseling staff in order to provide more effective and ap- 
propriate services to students from divorced homes. 

A questionnaire using the survey technique was administered to 
all of the students. The results of the questionnaires of the students 
from intact homes were compared according to the student's age and 
sex. The results of the questionnaires of student from divorced fami- 
lies were compared according to the student's age at the time of the 
parental divorce and the student's sex. 

The results of the study indicated that of the eighty-three per- 
cent of the student body who responded to the questionnaire, thirty- 
one percent were from divorced homes. After comparing the total 
percentage responses of the sex and age groupings, the notable varia- 
tions and implications were given for each question. Based on the 
implications of the study, the guidance and counseling staff con- 
cluded that there is a pronounce need to implement and extend pro- 
grams designed to facilitate the coping and growth development of 
students with family problems, particularly those from homes with 
divorced parents. The need for a group counseling program for 
divorced-home students was especially emphasized by the response 
of thirty-eight percent of the students with divorced parents that they 
would like to participate in group counseling to discuss their feelings 
with other students from divorced homes. 

May, Morton J., II (MA, Psychology, March, 1977) 

APPROVAL CERTIFICATE SELF AND ENERGY 

The bioenergetic tradition and the mystical tradition both make 
inquiries into the nature of self and into the nauture of life energy. 
These inquiries are very different, yet they have much in common. 

116 



Close analysis of what the two traditions say about each subject leads 
to the conclusion that they can be synthesized into a single tradition. 
The result is a continuum of growth stretching from dis-integration 
(psychosis) to the mystical experience. Each tradition is seen as ap- 
propriate to that area of the continuum from which they principally 
draw their clientele. A definition of self is proposed which combines 
bioenergetic and mystic conceptions. 

Northcutt, J. Carta (Specialist in Education, Secondary Education, 
March, 1977) 

THE STATE OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM 
COBB COUNTY, GEORGIA 1976 

In an effort to determine if statistically significant differences 
exist in the ranking of selected English goals among the groups of 
persons involved in the educational process in Cobb County, Georgia, 
a random sampling procedure selected one hundred freshmen and 
their parents and one hundred seniors and their parents from Wheeler 
High School, Marietta, Georgia, to respond to a questionnaire. High 
School administrators and High School English teachers from nine 
other Cobb County schools were asked to respond to the same ques- 
tionnaire. A total of 415 persons responded to the questionnaire which 
asked each person to rank, on a Likert Scale of one to five, thirty- 
eight goals of an English curriculum. 

The results of each questionnaire were prepared for computer 
analysis. The chi-square (x ) test, which compared each group's re- 
sponse with each other group on each item, resulted in 570 separate 
chi-square values, of which 45 were significant at the .05 level, and 
106 were significant at the .01 level. 

Of the four areas of the English included in the questionnaire 
(writing, reading, speaking, and literature), there was more signifi- 
cant disagreement in the area of writing. Thirteen rankings were 
significant at the 105 level and thirty-nine were significant at the .01 
level. Of the six groups who responded, English teachers and fresh- 
men students disagreed most with each other. Out of thirty-eight 
goals, they disagreed significantly on twenty-eight, six at the .05 level 
and twenty-two significant at the .01 level. The least disagreement 
occurred between senior parents and freshmen parents, who disa- 
greed significantly only two times on the thirty-eight goals. Out of 190 
possible interactions with the five other groups, the English teachers 
disagreed significantly ninety-two times or 48 percent of the time. 

Only five of the thirty-eight selected goals received a five rank 
(the highest rank) from the majority (51 percent) of each of the six 
groups. None of the selected goals in literature received a high rank- 

117 



ing from the majority of any group except the English teachers. An 
EngHsh curriculum designed as a result of the five rankings of the 
majority of the six groups would contain only the following goals: 
writing correct English sentences, using appropriate grammar, com- 
prehending what is read, expressing ideas, clearly, and listening to 
and respecting the other person's point of view. 

Since much statistically significant disagreement occurs among 
the groups who responded to the questionnaire, this researcher rec- 
ommends that subsequent revision of the English curriculum and its 
goals include input from teachers, students, parents, and administra- 
tors. For such revision, local school committees could be established 
to make recommendations for updating and improving the English 
curriculum. 



Nowlin, Phyllis R. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 1977) 

GINN READING 360 AS A CRITERION-REFERENCED 
MEASURE IN PREDICTING READING ACHIEVEMENT ON 
THE NORM -REFERENCED IOWA TESTS OF BASIC SKILLS 

This was an attempt to gather data which would cause those 
concerned to discover whether the basal reading series used at H. A. 
Jones Elementary School in Bremen, Georgia, is a predictor of the 
results on the ITBS which is given at the beginning of the fourth 
grade each year. 

The data collected showed a significant difference between both 
the vocabulary and the reading means on the ITBS as compared with 
the reading level placement in Ginn Reading 360. The data failed to 
show significant diflferences between the mean reading level place- 
ment in Ginn Reading 360 as compared with both the spelling and 
total language means on the ITBS. In all four areas tested (vocabu- 
lary, reading, spelling, and total language), the results of the Pearson 
Product Moment Correlation showed positive correlations at the .001 
level of significance. 

The data partially supports the idea that the level of perform- 
ance in the Ginn Reading 360 program is a predictor of the outcome 
of the ITBS for beginning fourth graders at H. A. Jones Elementary 
School in Bremen, Georgia. Due to limitations in the study, the out- 
comes are inconclusive. 

In light of the related research, it is recommended that faculty 
and administration study the ramifications connected with the Ginn 
Reading 360 program with the idea of improvement in mind. It is 
further recommended that special attention be given to the related 
research in order to determine what kinds of tests seem to be most 

118 



needed and beneficial to H. A. Jones Elementary School. Advantages 
and disadvantages of the criterion-referenced and norm -referenced 
tests should be studied in depth. 

Pedro, Nicholas J. (Specialist in Education, Administration and 
Supervision, June, 1977) 

ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

CONCERNING THE ESTABLISHMENT 

AND CONTINUING ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESSES 

OF A COMMUNITY SCHOOLS PROGRAM 

The purpose of this study was to analyze and make recommenda- 
tions concerning the establishment and continuing administrative 
process of a community schools program. A primary concern was to 
determine the most efficient method of publicizing programs within 
the Lindley Community School Cluster. 

A questionnaire was constructed through the joint efforts of the 
nine community school directors and the community schools coordi- 
nator of Cobb County, Georgia. This questionnaire asked parents to 
indicate those kinds of activities they and their families would like 
to participate in. The items were listed in three broad areas of inter- 
est: Adult Enrichment, Hobbies and Recreation, and Family Inter- 
est. The questionnaire also asked for other information on the charac- 
teristics of the participant. 

The initial course offerings were established through an evalua- 
tion of the total checks in areas of interest. Brochures listing course 
off'erings were distributed throughout the Cobb County, Georgia area. 

A second questionnaire was compiled through the joint efforts of 
the nine community school directors and the community schools co- 
ordinator to be distributed during the quarter to aid in determining 
the relative effectiveness of the various publicity programs. This 
questionnaire asked for information about the characteristics of the 
participants, their reasons for enrolling in the community school pro- 
grams, and questions concerning how they received information 
about the community school program. 

It was determined that the various elements of the publicity 
program were about equal in total effectiveness. It was also deter- 
mined that the continuing administrative processes of a community 
school program must be continually analyzed in order to produce the 
most effective means of administering a community schooll program. 



119 



Peek, Samuel D. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Su- 
pervision, March, 1977) 

EFFECTS OF RETENTION ON ACHIEVEMENT AND ATTI- 
TUDE 

This study was concerned with the effects of retention on achieve- 
ment rate and attitude toward school of tenth, eleventh, and twelfth 
grade students enrolled at Calhoun High School during the 1976-77 
school year. These students had attended elementary schools in Gor- 
don County and Calhoun City School Systems. The percentage at- 
tending each system was seventy-three and twenty-seven percent re- 
spectively. Forty of these students had been retained once during the 
primary grades and forty students had never been retained. 

To accomplish this purpose, related literature was reviewed to 
provide a background of understanding. Standardized test scores 
were compared to determine the achievement rate of students before 
and after retention. A student survey was also conducted to deter- 
mine the attitudes of both groups of students toward school. 

Many educational researchers, having studied student retention, 
pointed out that school achievement rate for promoted low achieving 
students was better than the school achievement rate of low achieving 
students that had been retained. They also indicated that promotion 
provided students with a basis for positive attitudes toward school 
while retention provided students with a basis for negative attitudes 
toward school. 

It was discovered in this study that a grade equivalent of one and 
two-tenths percent annual increase in achievement rate was made by 
students that had been retained once in the primary grades. It was 
uncertian what teachers expected in achievement rate increase for 
students. However, a grade equivalent of one and two-tenths percent 
achievement rate increase seemed to be a very small gain for an extra 
year spent in a primary grade. 

The student attitude survey revealed that retained students had 
seven and four-tenths percent more negative attitudes toward school 
than promoted students. Only in one area of the entire survey did 
promoted students demonstrate more negative attitudes than re- 
tained students. When teachers practiced unprofessional behavior, 
promoted students gave a slightly greater negative response to their 
conduct than retained students. 



120 



Purdy, Phyllis B. W. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Educa- 
tion, March, 1977) 

A COMPARISON OF THIRD GRADE CHILDREN WHO HAVE 

TRAVELED WITH THOSE WHO HAVE LIVED IN GORDON 

COUNTY AND NOT TRAVELED AS REGARDS TO THE 

ACQUIRED UNDERSTANDING OF GEOGRAPHY 

This experimental research design was undertaken to determine 
if travel has a significant bearing on the geographic understanding of 
the third grade student. 

For the purpose of this study, all third grade students at Eastside 
School, Calhoun, Georgia, were tested and subjects chosen for inclu- 
sion in the study on the basis of travel and non-travel. 

Subjects selected were: 

L Thirteen third grade students who had always lived in Gor- 
don County, and not traveled outside of the state of Georgia in the 
past two years. 

2. Sixty-nine third grade students who had made limited trips 
to Alabama, Florida, and/or Tennessee in the past two years. 

3. Twenty-seven third grade students who had not always lived 
in Gordon County and who had traveled beyond the states of Ala- 
bama, Florida, and Tennessee in the past two years. 

The hypotheses were constructed to test the total groups and the 
groups by sex. 

The Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Test 
were used. A significance level of .05 was established. Results for the 
total group showed a significant difference with an F ratio of 4.238 in 
favor of the travel group. There was a significant diflference with an 
F ratio of 3.362 in favor of the girls who had traveled. There was no 
significant difference among the boys in the areas of geographic 
knowledge. 

Rushing, Jimmy E. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel- 
ing, June, 1977) 

DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING AN AUDIO 

VISUAL ORIENTATION TO GUIDANCE SERVICES 

PROGRAM FOR ENTERING EIGHTH GRADE 

STUDENTS AT LAFAYETTE HIGH SCHOOL 

An audio visual program designed to orient entering eighth grad- 
ers to the guidance services was developed for use at LaFayette High 
School. Since there was no orientation program in use, the program 

121 



was informational in nature. All students in the eighth grade partici 
pated, with twenty-six being randomly chosen to serve as the sample 
An information test was developed and administered before and after 
the program. The mean gain for the sample was 4.27. The post-test 
versus pre-test results were significant at the .01 level. It was con 
eluded that the audio visual orientation program was eflfective and 
should become a part of orientation for all entering eighth grade 
students. 

Seckinger, Paul H. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counsel 
ing, March, 1977) 

IMPLEMENTATION OF CAREER EDUCATION AS AN 
INNOVATION IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 

This study sought to determine the effects of infusing occupa- 
tional information into a Law Education class at Morrow Senior High 
School, Morrow, Georgia. Two Law Education classes and one social 
studies class containing students who were not presently nor ever had 
been enrolled in Law Education were used in the study. The instru- 
ments used were the Attitude Scale and the Knowing About Jobs 
subsection of the Career Maturity Profile and an objective teacher- 
made test. 

Data were analyzed by a standard statistical procedure using the 
t-test. The first hypothesis, there will be no significant diff'erence in 
attitude change in the experimental group, was rejected with a t- 
value of 2.07 which is significant at the .05 level. Students' attitudes 
were improved when occupational information was included in the 
curriculum. The second hypothesis, there will be no significant diff'er- 
ence in attitudes in the control group, was accepted with a t-value of 
1.08. The third hypothesis, there will be no significant difference in 
attitude change in the second control groupp, was accepted with a t- 
value of .30. 

Smith, Billy G. (Specialist in Education, Administration and Super- 
vision, March, 1977) 

DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE 
EFFECTIVENESS OF TITLE I READING PROGRAMS 

This study was concerned with the development of a model to be 
utilized in evaluating the Title I Compensatory Education Program 
in Gordon County Schools. To accomplish this end, recent relative 
literature was reviewed to provide a rationale for developing the 

122 



model. The developed model consists of five phases: (a) assessment 
of the environment, (b) resource evaluation, (c) process evaluation, 
(d) product evaluation, and (e) dissemination of information. 

Smith, Phillip B. (Specialist in Education, Elementary Education, 
March, 19777) 

A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF TEACHING 
FIFTH GRADE SCIENCE 

A study of gains in achievement of two groups of fifth grade stu- 
dents was conducted in order to compare two methods of instruction, 
children in group A received traditional method of instruction. Chil- 
dren in group B received an individualized method of instruction. 
There were twenty-eight students in the study. 

The null hypothesis was tested to determine if there existed any 
significant difference between the two groups. The t-test was used to 
test the hypothesis. There was found to be no significant difference; 
therefore, the null hypothesis was not rejected. 

Recommendations for further study were included since a larger 
group over a longer period of time may have produced diff'erent re- 
sults. 

Stiles, Pat T. (Specialist in Education, Guidance and Counseling, 
June, 1977) 

PRE-SCHOOL ASSESSMENT USING A CONDENSED 

VERSION OF THE GESELL DEVELOPMENTAL 

EXAMINATION TESTS 

In May, 1976, twenty children from a public kindergarten were 
tested using the Gesell Developmental Examination Tests, to see if 
at least one of the subtests correlated significantly at the .05 level 
with the overall GDET. This would enable school counselors or teach- 
ers to administer a shorter version of the GDET, yet obtain the same 
needed information about each child tested. 

The total score of each subtest was compared with the overall 
total of the test. Pearson Product-Moment and Corrected Correlation 
were used to compute the correlation coefficients. 

Three subtests were found to be significant at the desired level. 
It was suggested, however, that the largest correlated subtest be used 
because of ease of administering and scoring. 



123 



Walker, Wallace G. (Specialist in Education, Administration anc 
Supervision, March, 1977) 

REASONS PARENTS PAY TUITION TO SEND CHILDREN 

TO CITY SCHOOL SYSTEMS RATHER THAN COUNTY 

SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN THREE SMALL 

GEORGIA COUNTIES 

The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons parents 
pay tuition to send their children to city schools rather than county 
schools in three small Georgia counties. The second aspect of the 
study was to embed the findings in a Bayesian Enrollment Projection 
model. 

A parent questionnaire was constructed from information ob- 
tained in interviews with the superintendents of the Bremen, Carroll- 
ton, Cartersville and Dalton School Systems and randomly selected 
county parents who send their children to the Carrollton City School 
System. This questionnaire asked parents to rank the items accord- 
ing to their importance in the parents' decision to pay tuition to send 
their child to a city school system. The items to be ranked included 
academic program, career development program, faculty and admin- 
istration, extra-curricular activities, facilities, social climate, conven- 
ience, previous attendance, lunch program and public relations pro- 
gram. The questionnaire also asked for other information to draw 
information on the characteristics of the tuition-paying parents. 

The academic program received top ranking by all the systems' 
parents. Academics was followed by an overall second ranking of staff 
and administration. Bremen parents ranked previous attendance and 
convenience second and third. Bremen differed significantly in other 
areas of the questionnaire such as having a higher percentage of par- 
ents with a lower than high school education and having fewer par- 
ents living further than four and one-half miles from the city school. 
The findings of this study showed Bremen to be unique. This unique- 
ness was probably a result of this being the first year for tuition at 
Bremen; whereas, Cartersville and Dalton have practiced this for 
several years. 

The variable identified as being most useful for embedding in the 
Bayesian Enrollment Projection was distance from home to city 
school. This was the most identifiable information in Bremen. It was 
determined that the 325 non-resident students residing within four 
and one-half miles of the city school comprised 1L48 per cent of the 
population of this area. This percentage figure was the basis for the 
first variable in the projection